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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

FY 2009 Program and Budget Guide: Near East


Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
May 13, 2008

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Egypt

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Request

---

1,984

3,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Modernized approaches to policing will be instituted and police-public relations will be improved through institutional reforms, strategic planning, personnel and other management reforms, and updated curricula and training methods implemented at training academies.

Reduction in incidents of excessive use of force by police, particularly with respect to peaceful demonstrations or other events relating to the exercise of democratic freedoms by civil society or expressions of judicial independence. Indications of improved police-public trust and cooperation, such as increased police responsiveness to public requests for assistance and decreased public complaints of abuses of authority.

Transformational Diplomacy

By assisting the Government of Egypt (GOE) in modernizing the management of its national police force, the USG would support two major goals of the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy strategy. Improved technical skills to investigate criminal and terrorist threats will advance the Peace and Security goal. Promoting an institutional shift in Egypt’s police force towards public service will advance Good Governance and Democracy. Measures to combat these threats will assist Egypt in enhancing peace and security. In parallel, assisting Egyptian police entities to establish a more positive relationship with Egyptian society – through professionalism, improved responsiveness and organizational transparency – is critical to promote democracy, rule of law and protection of civil and human rights.

Program Justification

Egypt is a democratizing and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. Egypt has long coastal and land borders, including an extensive border in the desert of the Sinai Peninsula that is easily exploited by terrorists, drug traffickers, alien smugglers, and other transnational criminals. Egypt has substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug trafficking, and smuggling of weapons and other contraband. Law enforcement personnel lack many of the sophisticated tools and training required to combat these threats. In addition, the profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities lead to corruption of public officials, and could weaken Egyptian institutions, undermining the rule of law in Egypt.

Democracy and good governance are top USG priorities in Egypt, and we have supported a broad range of programs to strengthen civil society and to promote judicial independence. Policing reform efforts will likewise focus on the key roles that law enforcement plays in support of the rule of law, notably ensuring public safety and bringing criminals to justice. Egypt’s traditional military-style approach to policing has provided a high level of security – important given both domestic and external terrorist threats, but it has impeded its ability to build a strong, positive relationship with the Egyptian public or to respond appropriately to situations that reflect growing public demands for a more open society.

With FY 2006 Economic Support Funds (ESF), the Department initiated a pilot project to assist the Egyptian National Police and Ministry of Interior to develop curricula to improve administrative and management capabilities of top law enforcement personnel in order to support development of the values, knowledge and skills necessary for police to confront contemporary challenges. The initiative also included training and technical assistance in human rights, the rule of law, strategic planning and fostering police support of democratic governance.

Program Accomplishments

Through a new pilot program, INL initiated in 2007 a series of technical exchanges with senior Egyptian law enforcement officials on strategic planning, modern approaches to law enforcement training, and issues relating to improving cooperation between police forces and the public.

The project implemented a series of senior leadership workshops to select leaders of the Egyptian National Police (ENP). The first of these workshops discussed and presented a number of contemporary leadership and supervisory issues in an open, transparent and non-judgmental manner. The most recent of these workshops, Strategic Planning was completed January 2008. The USG-ENP Project will follow the Strategic Planning workshop with a Community Policing Workshop (CPWS) scheduled for March 2008.

FY 2009 Program

FY 2009 funds assist Egypt’s law enforcement agencies to improve the management and administrative skills of its officers, to expand capacity for strategic planning, and to promote organizational transparency. Funds will continue the workshop series focusing on police best practices that support the migration of the Egyptian National Police (ENP) to more democratic organization. Workshops would include: Strategic Planning (Year II) tools, instruments and practical application, police selection, evaluation and motivation, symposium on the latest crime trends, analysis and available technology, and train the trainer adult learning techniques for Police Academy senior staff. Also, workshops will build on the Community Policing concepts and initiatives discussed and presented in the Workshop in March 2008. We will conduct an International Study Tour of 6-8 select ENP senior leaders to visit, observe and inter-act with select pro-active community policing agencies in the United States. The educational approach of this study tour would be a peer teaching and learning experience for ENP senior leaders and U.S. host country participants. The Study Tour would provide an up close and personal view of how an effective and successful community policing program actually works in practice.

A technical advisor will work with the ENP to assist in arranging leadership seminars, workshops, international visits, training in strategic planning, and to provide advice on curriculum development and the adoption of modern teaching techniques and methodologies, including approaches to combating complex or emerging threats such as trafficking in persons.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Egypt

INL BUDGET
($000)



FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2009
Law Enforcement Support Police



Professionalization
-
-
1,800
2,815
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
50
50

ICASS Costs
-
-
50
50

Program Support
-
-
84
85

Sub-Total
-
-
184
185
Total

-
-
1,984
3,000


Iraq

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007
Actual
FY 2007
Supp
FY 2008
Actual
FY 2008
Supp Request
FY 2009 Request
20,048
150,000
---
159,000
75,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The objective of the Iraq Criminal Justice Program is to continue to develop the capacities of all elements of the Iraqi criminal justice system (police, justice, corrections) to support fair, efficient, and legitimate Iraqi Government institutions to promote peace and security, resolve disputes, and promote respect for the rule of law.

National Security Presidential Directive (NSPD) 36 assigned the mission of training, equipping, and developing all of Iraq’s security forces (military and civilian) to U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). CENTCOM in turn tasked its subordinate unit the Multi National Security Transition Command – Iraq (MNSTC-I) and its Directorate of Interior Affairs (DoIA) with the development of Iraq’s civilian security forces. INL, with DOD funding, supports this mission by embedding a Foreign Service Officer in DoIA’s senior staff and providing hundreds of police advisors to DoIA who help train, assess, and mentor Iraqi police and border police in training academies, in the field, and at the Ministry of Interior. The FY 2009 Program assumes continued funding for the police development program from Iraq Security Forces Funds (ISFF) via DOD. These funds will support the continued deployment of U.S. civilian law enforcement advisors who are providing training and mentoring to Iraqi civil security forces throughout Iraq, under the direction of MNSTC-I.

During the period 2003 - 2006, INL received Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Funds (IRRF) directly transferred from the Iraq Reconstruction Management Office (IRMO) to support justice and corrections programs in Iraq. Beginning with $91.4 million in the FY 2006 Supplemental, INL has assumed funding for these programs from the INCLE budget.

With already appropriated funds, INL is funding up to 26 Department of Justice and INL Rule of Law/Justice Advisors who mentor and assist the judiciary in criminal cases and help conceive and monitor INL-funded programs in Baghdad and the provinces. In addition, we are supporting court and judicial security efforts (including security upgrades at courts, operation of witness security camps, training provided by the U.S. Marshals Service). We are helping to modernize the skills and capacities of the Iraqi courts and judiciary, which is coping with a massive influx of cases, in part as a result of the surge and expanded capacities of Iraq’s security forces. We are promoting cooperation and coordination of police-justice-corrections institutions through both procedural and technological means. INL also supports up to 16 ICITAP trainers to advise and train Iraq’s Commission on Public Integrity (CPI). In addition, we are funding 80 ICITAP corrections advisors who are helping to further professionalize the Iraqi Corrections Service and facilitate a large expansion of the service to cope with the large influx of pre-trial detainees and prisoners. Through our contractor, INL also is providing necessary logistical, security, and life support for police, corrections, and judicial advisors.

The FY 2009 Programs to be implemented with INCLE funds will address:

Rule of Law Advisors: Continue to provide expert technical assistance and mentoring to Iraqi courts by:

Funding INL Justice Advisors to continue and expand the scope of criminal justice system development, advise and mentor the Government of Iraq (GOI) on coordination among justice sector actors, and help conceive, design, implement, manage, and provide oversight for USG-funded rule of law programs in Baghdad and the provinces.

Funding Department of Justice Resident Legal Advisors (RLAs) in Baghdad and at the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) to mentor, advise, and train judges, prosecutors, and court officials in criminal cases and to work with the GOI to expand the jurisdiction of the Central Criminal Court of Iraq to Iraq’s provinces.

Courts: Continue support begun in prior years to judicial and court institutions, so that the judiciary and courts function as strong, independent institutions that process cases transparently and effectively and gain the confidence of Iraqi citizens in their courts, thereby decreasing the potential that citizens will turn to violent militias or other “alternative” means of justice, by:

Bolstering court and judicial security through expert technical assistance to GOI judicial and court security entities; continued training of the Iraqi Judicial Protection Service; and funding witness security camps to serve as safe temporary locations for witnesses, judges, and court officials involved in trials of insurgents and other major criminals;

Helping to build the capacity of the Iraqi judiciary by providing training, technical assistance, and mentoring to judges, court investigators, and prosecutors in criminal investigations, substantive and procedural law, trial advocacy skills, relationships between police and judiciary, and human rights;

Educating judges, prosecutors, and court administrative personnel on the necessity for close cooperation with civilian police, investigative judges, court administrators trial judges, and corrections officials;

Assisting court personnel with court administration practices, rules, and processes, administrative best practices, case flow and case management techniques, information technology, personnel management, and file storage and security, so as to accelerate and streamline the processing of criminal cases through the court system.

Major Crimes Task Force: Continue to build Iraqi capacity to investigate complex and serious crimes and to bring transgressors to justice, thereby helping to stabilize the GOI and secure the population by:

Continuing to support a cadre of advisors from U.S. law enforcement agencies who train, mentor, and advise the Major Crimes Task Force, comprised of specially vetted Iraqi law enforcement personnel and investigators, on how to conduct investigations of high-profile crimes (such as assassinations of government officials and their families or kidnappings) that threaten Iraq’s stability and undermine reconstruction efforts.

Corrections: Continue to work with the Ministry of Justice and Iraqi Corrections Service (ICS) to help ensure that criminal suspects are detained and, if convicted, incarcerated in a safe and secure manner that meets basic human rights standards by:

Continuing to supply and support (security and life support) advisors to the ICS to: facilitate the continued development of the service to meet the challenges associated with the ongoing transfer of Ministry of Interior jails to the ICS and the expected increases in convicted terrorists, who pose special security problems; enhance the basic skills and effectiveness of ICS personnel; improve middle and senior management capacities to manage a complex corrections system; support organizational development, especially in best practices related to start up operations for new facilities, which will be coming on line throughout the year; and help the ICS and MOJ to identify and ameliorate corruption and sectarianism that has the potential to adversely impact the effectiveness and integrity of the Iraqi corrections system.

FY 2009 funds directed at Program Development and Support (PD&S) will enable INL to develop, implement and oversee effectively these myriad programs and their associated budgets, interagency agreements, and contractual arrangements.

Transformational Diplomacy

The Iraq Criminal Justice Program advances the Transformational Diplomacy objectives for peace and security and for governing justly and democratically. This program specifically works with the Iraqis to build Iraqi criminal justice institutions that are sufficiently fair and efficient that the Iraqi people will turn to them, instead of militias or other forms of alternative justice, to keep them safe and resolve their disputes. The requested funds will expand current efforts to enhance the security and capacities of judges, courts, and those involved in the justice system, thereby limiting the extent to which they can be intimidated by individuals who seek to thwart the criminal justice process. These funds will support efforts to get all elements of the criminal justice system to work more cooperatively, effectively, and efficiently – e.g., to gather better evidence so that criminals can be legitimately charged with crimes and prosecuted, to accelerate judicial review of cases, to keep records of individuals who are detained as they move through the criminal justice system to better ensure that guilty persons remain incarcerated and the innocent are released, and to reinforce respect for human rights throughout the system. By enhancing Iraqi capacities to identify, investigate, and prosecute corruption, these funds will promote greater public confidence in the GOI and build greater government accountability to the public.

Program Justification

The development of a fair and effective criminal justice system in Iraq (including civilian police, judicial, prosecutorial, and corrections functions) is essential to establishment of a stable society in which Iraqi citizens trust in and turn to their courts to resolve disputes, rather than to violent militias and other forms of “alternative” justice. We seek to support twin goals through our rule of law and corrections programs: to help the Iraqis develop the institutional and societal frameworks on which the rule of law rests while simultaneously addressing more immediate problems that impede the effective functioning of the justice system and thus undermine the confidence of the Iraqi people in their government and their future.

Program Accomplishments

In the past two years, justice integration advisors helped launch an Iraqi Commission on Integrated Justice, which has since been transformed into an expanded all-encompassing Ministerial Committee on the Rule of Law and Detention (MCROLD) (this committee is chaired by the Chief Prosecutor and has the full support of the prime minister); completed a comprehensive assessment of the Iraqi justice sector; created a pilot database capable of tracking an accused individual from time of arrest or detention through adjudication to acquittal, conviction, incarceration and/or release; proved the database viable (INL is now assessing the results to determine the extent, location and duration of a rollout of this system); trained Iraqi personnel from the police, courts, corrections, and juvenile justice sectors in integration/coordination policies and procedures and use of the automated database; generated a comprehensive policy and procedure guide identifying integration points and corresponding procedures for every step of the criminal justice system; and presented options for deploying the approach to additional jurisdictions in Baghdad and/or the provinces.

The Department of Justice Resident Legal Advisors have continued to provide support to the Central Criminal Court of Iraq (CCCI), which has conducted trials resulting in a significant number of convictions; mentored dozens of Iraqi judges in Baghdad and the provinces; was instrumental in the development of Major Crimes Courts (MCCs) in Kirkuk, Tikrit, and Mosul and now working to develop the MCC in Anbar; and helped bring the fifth panel of Baghdad trial judges to Mosul to preside over terrorism prosecutions.

The Iraqi Commission on Public Integrity (CPI) has undertaken over 3,500 investigations and referred over 1,800 of them to Investigative Judges, leading to the issuance of over 1,000 arrest warrants. CPI investigations have led to the arrest of 10 employees of the Ministry of Oil and the conviction and sentence of four officials from the Ministry of Planning.

The Iraqi Corrections Service has assumed responsibility for training its corrections officers and with the help of the U.S. advisors has begun to develop the capabilities and capacities needed to open new prisons, including creating budgets, staffing patterns, procuring and installing furniture, fixtures, and equipment, and to design and construct its own facilities using modern project management techniques. With assistance from U.S. advisors, the ICS continues to take on responsibility for pre-trial detention facilities previously operated by the Ministry of Interior.

The U.S. Marshals Service has renovated four witness security sites and a judicial housing compound in the International Zone for judges and witnesses involved in serious insurgent and major crime cases; trained and equipped guard forces for those sites; provided security upgrades to four courthouses in Baghdad and the provinces and completed security assessments with plans to upgrade security at up to 17 additional courthouses; and trained at least 3,000 Facilities Protective Service and Personal Security Detail personnel to protect courts and judges.

INL-funded programs have also provided for the training of 100 Judicial Investigators (court officials similar to magistrates in the U.S., who direct the police in criminal investigations) in criminal investigations procedures, including interrogations, crime scenes, evidence collection, forensics, bomb blasts, and legal issues. This initial effort has been followed by the development of a refined, more comprehensive curriculum being administered to 50 additional Judicial Investigators and will be expanded to all provinces in Iraq.

Legislative advisors generated 15 detailed legislative drafting guides for the Iraqi Council of Representatives (CoR), mentored and advised CoR and Higher Juridical Council (HJC) officials on constitutional requirements and legislative drafting, and created a nationwide advisory network of Iraqi attorneys to serve as informal advisors on Iraqi law.

The Major Crimes Task Force initiated an investigation regarding the theft, illegal possession and sale of ancient Iraqi artifacts, initiated an investigation regarding the production of counterfeit U.S. and Iraqi currency, adopted a Minister of Interior-initiated investigation regarding high-level militia members in the Ministry of Interior and undertook investigations of other high-profile cases.

FY 2009 Program

The FY 2009 programs will sustain the number of U.S. advisors to the Iraqi Corrections Service. It will support the continued effort to assist the ICS with managing increasingly complex prisons and systems that will contribute to the peace and security of Iraq. The FY 2009 Criminal Justice Program will continue and expand on the work being done to provide judicial security, bolster judicial capacity, and further the successful investigation and prosecution of the most serious crimes.

Iraq
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007 Supp
FY 2008
FY 2008 Supp
FY 2009
Corrections Services
8,992
20,400
-
80,000
41,000
Criminal Justice Development

Human Rights

-
-
-
2,000
-
Justice Integration

1,741
25,000
-
9,000
-
Public Integrity

2,447
21,000
-
16,300
-
Rule of Law Outreach

506
5,600
-
-
8,000
Courts

1,174
58,000
-
44,700
13,500
Legal Framework

520
2,000
-
1,000
-
Major Crimes Task Force
1,168
11,000
-
6,000
2,500

Subtotal
7,556
122,600
-
79,000
24,000
Program Development and Support
3,500
7,000
-
-
10,000
Total

20,048
150,000
-
159,000
75,000
Note 1: Beginning in FY07 Supp. we have folded judicial security, and public prosecutors into the "Courts" Project
Note 2: There may be some changes to the distribution of funds for projects within the FY07 Supp. criminal justice development program.


Jordan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

1,488

1,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

U.S. advisors provide bilateral training, technical assistance and equipment to Jordanian law enforcement services to help them develop their capacity to combat terrorist and other transnational threats.

U.S. advisors conduct courses on specialized topics and supervise Jordanian security services personnel as they attend and complete courses. Basic equipment for training purposes is procured and donated to the Jordanian security services.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2009 INL program in Jordan will advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding security service professionalization projects designed to enhance the security of the Jordanian people and the region. The need for enhanced law enforcement capabilities is evidenced by the various terror attacks and terrorist threats that have occurred in Jordan over the last several years, including the November 9, 2005 triple hotel bombings in Amman. Jordan plays an important role in U.S. counterterrorism efforts and works closely with the U.S. on regional reform and stabilization efforts.

Program Justification

Jordan is a key U.S. ally, committed to progressive democratic reform and in lockstep with the United States in the war on terrorism. However, Jordan's progress implementing reform is constrained by external threats and domestic economic and political challenges. Jordan faces security challenges involving counter-terrorism, border security, counter-proliferation, instability in Iraq, and regional instabilities like the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian and broader Arab-Israeli conflicts. Jordan suffered two serious terrorist attacks in 2005, and disrupted numerous other plots. Jordan is buffeted by conflicts and instability on most of its borders, and faces a critical terrorism threat. Our programs will enhance the capabilities of the Jordanian security sector institutions to combat transnational criminal threats and contribute to national counter-terrorism efforts, thereby strengthening an important U.S. ally in the Middle East.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2008 funds represent the first year of bilateral INL programming to Jordan and is scheduled to begin in summer 2008. This program will seek to modernize and strengthen Jordanian law enforcement institutions through technical assistance, equipment procurements, and specialized training.

FY 2009 Program

Law Enforcement Support

FY 2009 program funds will be used to continue USG initiatives to strengthen the capacity of Jordanian law enforcement institutions. The program will focus on training and equipping Jordanian law enforcement and may include training for general policing skills, border security skills, and specialized training courses. The program may also include technical assistance and equipment procurement.

Trafficking in Persons (TIP)

The FY 2009 program will be designed to assist the Government of Jordan to strengthen law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt national and transnational TIP crime networks. Funding will be used to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Jordan
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Law Enforcement Support
-
-
1,388
900
Trafficking in Persons
-
-
-
500
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
40
40

ICASS Costs
-
-
10
10

Program Support
-
-
50
50

Sub-Total
-
-
100
100
Total

-
-
1,488
1,500


Lebanon

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2007 Supp

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2009 Request

---

60,000

496

6,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

U.S. police advisors provide bilateral training and technical assistance to the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) to help continue their development as a competent, professional police force capable of protecting the Lebanese people and territory.

U.S. police advisors conduct courses on specialized topics and supervise ISF personnel as they attend and complete courses. Basic equipment for training purposes is procured and donated to the ISF.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2009 police program in Lebanon will advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding police professionalization projects designed to enhance the security of the Lebanese people and assist the democratically elected Government of Lebanon (GOL) in implementing UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1701. U.S. assistance remains vital to counter or blunt the remaining Syrian interference in Lebanon and to help build the capacity of the ISF to protect Lebanon’s sovereignty, dignity and security.

Program Justification

In the wake of the July-August, 2006 Hizballah-Israel war, much of Lebanon lies in ruins, especially in the south. Lebanon had just recovered from decades of war and outside occupation and had seemed headed for unprecedented economic growth and democratic development following the April 2005 withdrawal of Syrian military forces and the election of the first “made in Lebanon” government in nearly 30 years. Lebanon’s democracy remains fragile due to sectarian tensions and continuing Syrian interference using local proxies, Hizballah, and heavily armed Palestinian rejectionist (terrorist) groups. Despite the war, Hizballah retains its arms and its dangerous state-within-a-state status. Lebanon’s massive reconstruction program and the UN-supported deployment of Lebanese security forces into previously-Hizballah-controlled southern Lebanon provide the opportunity not only to restore Lebanon’s economy but to rebalance its political system and help restore Lebanon’s full sovereignty.

Supporting the democratic government of Lebanon, and the people of Lebanon, is an urgent priority of the United States. We are working to see the rapid and full implementation of UNSCR 1701 to establishe the full sovereignty of a Lebanese Government representing all its people, and Lebanese security forces capable of protecting Lebanon’s borders, sovereignty and dignity. U.S. support for the ISF will help them meet this challenge.

As a result of the movement of 15,000 Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) to the south of Lebanon as part of the cease fire agreement with Israel, the LAF has had to abandon its policing functions in many parts of rural Lebanon. This situation has resulted in the ISF backfilling very quickly, and as a result, the ISF needs equipment and training to build their capacity. Through a comprehensive train and equip program launched in 2007, the ISF has begun to build its capacity to combat terrorist and other criminal threats in Lebanon. The GOL continues to advance its political and economic agenda as it moves towards full sovereignty. U.S. support for Lebanon is consistent with our National Security Strategy, strikes at the root causes of terrorism, and improves America’s credibility in Lebanon as well as the region.

Program Accomplishments

To address Lebanon’s immediate needs following a spate of terrorist assassinations, the FY 2006 INL program facilitated the Lebanon Evidence Response Team Training Initiative. This proved to be a successful training program for the Lebanese judges and police officers who attended. In addition, INL funded the purchase of 60 unarmored SUVs with police packages to enhance the ISF’s mobility and patrol capabilities as well as the procurement and distribution of 2,000 sets of civil disorder management equipment to the ISF to assist them in responding to civil disturbances.

In FY 2007, INL launched the Lebanon Police Program which is designed to build the capacity of the ISF to protect Lebanon’s people and territory through extensive training, equipment and vehicle donations, and refurbishment of academy and command and control facilities. Though in its early stages, ISF cadets and officers have responded to training positively, with two classes of ISF instructors graduating and the first class of cadets set to begin training at the ISF police academy in early 2008.

FY 2009 Program

Law Enforcement Support

The FY 2009 program will build on the successes of the ongoing train and equip program to further enhance the capabilities of the ISF. A more professionalized ISF will be prepared to absorb more specialized training and equipment in FY 2009, and INL will develop appropriate initiatives to build on the successes of the continued USG support through training, technical assistance and equipment that will assist the ISF in combating security threats posed by terrorist and other criminal groups who operate in Lebanon and cross its borders. The FY 2009 program will take into account especially the security challenges of working in Lebanon.

Program Development and Support (PD&S)

Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Lebanon
INL BUDGET
($000)



FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Law Enforcement Support

Training
-
23,000
396
4,500

Equipment
-
16,000
-
1,000

Facilities
-
8,000
-
-

Sub-Total
-
47,000
396
5,500
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
12,000
44
300

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
40
-
40

ICASS Costs
-
50
17
50

Program Support
-
910
39
110

Sub-Total
-
13,000
100
500
Total

-
60,000
496
6,000


Morocco

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Request

1,000

496

1,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2009 Morocco program will seek to provide training and technical assistance to Moroccan security sector institutions such as border protection agencies and correction facilities to enhance their abilities to combat transnational criminal threats; address corruption in Morocco, focusing on Moroccan anti-corruption laws, the development of a training program on anti-corruption issues; and build the capacity of legal and judicial sector professionals.

Reduction in illegal migrants and contraband leaving Morocco; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Transformational Diplomacy

Improving the border control at land and sea ports of entry advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding training, technical assistance and equipment designed to strengthen border security. The criminal activities that arise out of porous borders serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, and weaken the Moroccan institutions that assist the U.S. in the war on terrorism. The continuation of the exchange of information and the provision of the requisite training and equipment needed for Morocco to secure its borders will lead to a more secure Morocco. The illicit trade of drugs and weapons, and the smuggling of humans are destabilizing factors which can be exploited by terrorists and other criminals. Measures to combat these threats will assist Morocco in enhancing peace and security.

Program Justification

Morocco is a liberalizing, democratizing, and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in the global war on terrorism. Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by terrorists and other transnational criminals. Due to its long and poorly controlled borders, extensive coastline, and proximity to Europe, Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling. The profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken Moroccan institutions.

The 2003 terrorist bombings – carried out by an indigenous group – and the arrests and prosecutions of a number of al-Qa’ida terrorists and their Moroccan accomplices are indicative of underlying social tensions throughout the region. In 2006, Moroccan authorities disrupted groups seeking to attack U.S. or Western-affiliated targets, making numerous arrests of individuals associated with international terrorist groups.

The Government of Morocco (GOM) continues to advance its political and economic reform agenda as it moves towards becoming a market-oriented democracy. In 2003, Morocco held free and fair local government council elections and concluded a Free Trade Agreement with the U.S., which was implemented in 2006. Morocco also distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism. U.S. support for Morocco’s political and economic transition and its continued development as a moderate, Muslim state is consistent with our National Security Strategy, strikes at the root causes of terrorism, and improves America’s credibility, critical at a time when King Mohammed VI is providing significant support for the President’s reform agenda.

Program Accomplishments

INL has provided training in fraudulent documents to Moroccan customs officials focusing on procedures for conducting enforcement operations and passenger assessment, detection of fraudulent travel documents (passports, visas, etc), facial recognition, and roles and procedures of the U.S. National Targeting Center. Moroccan customs officials participated in a narcotics identification course to enhance their ability to identify and interdict illicit goods crossing the borders. The Moroccans also received a train-the-trainer course to provided participants with a relevant adult-learning education model and opportunities to practice lesson development and presentation skills in a supportive small-group environment.

FY 2009 Program

Security Sector

FY 2009 assistance will provide training and technical assistance to Moroccan security sector institutions such as border protection agencies and corrections facilities to enhance their ability to combat transnational criminal threats and support Morocco’s development of an effective, multi-unit law enforcement plan to execute nonproliferation and anti-smuggling missions. The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is actively engaged with the Royal Moroccan Navy and the Royal Gendarmerie to deliver training and technical assistance. FY 2009 Assistance will establish a layered maritime security approach with a focus on enhancing Moroccan interagency cooperation.

Justice Sector

Following the development of the course module and implementation of the trainings in the previous year, programs will develop the capacity of some of the previously trained legal professionals as trainers to implement this anti-corruption and economic crimes training program throughout the country. Following these train-the-trainers programs, the trainers would implement the training program for deputy prosecutors of Courts of First Instance and Courts of Appeals, and other appropriate law enforcement officials. Assistance will help launch a public awareness campaign on anti-corruption efforts undertaken by the Moroccan government and the judiciary. One of the issues discussed will be the ethical standards of judges and court personnel. Other anti-corruption initiatives will be featured, providing citizens with resources on how to tackle corruption when faced with it.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used to pay for the salaries, benefits, and allowances of foreign national direct-hires and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, and evaluation.

Morocco
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Security Sector
550
-
200
545
Judicial Sector
350
200
350

Sub Total
900
-
400
895
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
40
-
40
45

ICASS Costs
10
-
10
10

Program Support
50
-
46
50

Sub-Total
100
-
96
105
Total

1,000
-
496
1,000


West Bank/Gaza

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Estimate

FY 2008 Supp Request

FY 2009 Request

*

---

25,000

25,000

* In FY 2007, a total of $86.362M was transferred to the INCLE account from the FY 2006 Economic Support Fund account for law enforcement programs.

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Enhanced effectiveness of the Palestinian Authority (PA) National Security Forces (NSF):

The NSF instead serve as a "Gendarme-like" organization and a back-up for the Palestinian civilian police if the latter encounter overwhelming forces with heavier weapons than the police possess. The NSF is expected to function in small unit or company-size formations, in a military fashion, to support civilian police to subdue civil disorders and address situations in which police SWAT teams would ordinarily be used in our country. Training and provision of non-lethal equipment for the National Security Forces (NSF) will increase its overall operational capabilities.

Program success will be measured by: trainees meeting academic performance standards, outlined in the Program of Instruction (POI); each NSF battalion having the ability to conduct tactical operations from squad to company sized elements in accordance with the POI; NSF unit leaders provide effective command and control of their respective elements commensurate with their appointed position; and other agreed-upon measures of performance.

Enhanced effectiveness of the Palestinian Authority Presidential Guard.

Training and provision of non-lethal equipment for the Presidential Guard (PG) in order to increase its overall operational capabilities to provide enhanced personal security for PA leaders, key installations, and foreign visitors in the pursuit of improved law and order in the West Bank.

Program success will be measured by increased PG operational capabilities.

Transformational Diplomacy

Activities under this program complement U.S. and international efforts by transforming and strengthening security capabilities of the PA Security Forces , as called for the in Roadmap. Funds will support programs under the auspices of the U.S. Security Coordinator (USSC). Program elements fall under the Peace and Security objective and are critical to supporting the PA President’s ability to implement the U.S.-brokered 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access.

A critical component of bolstering peace and security within West Bank/Gaza is supporting law enforcement reform, including improvement of the capabilities of the Ministry of Interior, Presidential Guard and National Security Force in order to fight international criminal and terrorist organizations, as well as expand law and order. The program advances the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by developing robust security sector institutions.

Program Justification

The USSC mission, under LTG Keith Dayton, has helped the Palestinians develop a plan to improve the capabilities of the Ministry of Interior, National Security Forces and the Presidential Guard to build skilled, competent and professional security forces that can establish rule of law in the West Bank and help the Palestinian Authority serve as a reliable security partner for Israel. Currently, one battalion of the NSF is being trained with US assistance.

Funds in FY 2008 Supplemental will support the training of a second National Security Force battalion for one of the key West Bank cities such as Jenin, Jericho, Hebron or Nablus, and funds requested for FY 2009 would train a third NSF battalion.

Program Accomplishments

Program implementation began in August 2007, with the signing of a “Framework Agreement” between Secretary of State Rice and PA President Abbas. INL obligated $4.6 million to the State Department’s Diplomatic Security Anti-Terror Assistance (DS/ATA) training program, and DS/ATA has conducted several courses aimed at improving VIP protection capabilities. In January 2008, over 600 NSF members (one battalion) began training at the Jordan International Police Training Center (JIPTC), followed in February 2008 by over 400 Presidential Guard members.

Several infrastructure projects, which will upgrade PG and NSF training centers, are in planning stages and contracts are expected to be awarded by early 2008 with completion dates by the end of the calendar year. Specifically, over $20 million has been obligated through a variety of instruments, including a grant agreement with the UN, to renovate a PA training complex in Jericho and other security force infrastructure elements.

Program activities also began in the area of creation and sustainment of a Strategic Planning Directorate within the Ministry of Interior in order to establish a long-term capacity for planning oversight, to effectively manage the security forces and to promote security sector reform. The INL section at post and the team under the USSC has hired local and international staff, and opened an office within the Ministry of Interior in Ramallah.

FY 2009 Program

The funds will support U.S activities which complement broader international efforts, as called for in the Roadmap and endorsed by the Quartet, to transform and strengthen security capabilities of the PA. Our efforts will enhance current and future operational effectiveness with the goals of improving law and order under the National Security Forces in the West Bank, by training further NSF battalions for Jenin, Jericho, Hebron or Nablus.

Training and equipping requirements will be administered by one of INL’s CIVPOL contractors (currently DynCorps International). The four-month course includes basic and tactical training, rapid reaction, crowd control, civil disarmament management, cordons, high-risk arrest, human rights/ethics and medical treatment. A Mobile Training Team of up to 25 senior U.S. and foreign police (and some military) training specialists will mentor, guide and oversee host nation training. Training will take place at the Jordan International Police Training Center, and some funds will be used to pay the Jordanian Government for the use of JIPTC and the services of instructors.

Non-lethal equipment will make each 700-person battalion fully operational, and includes items such as uniforms, field gear (tents, tarps, canteens, etc), vehicles, surveillance equipment (scopes, binoculars, radio scanners), first aid/medical gear, riot control gear, computers and other standard items. The funds also provide for warehousing, inventory and other logistics and procurement support. In addition, funds provide administrative support to the INL office in Jerusalem and contribute to a DS Personal Security Detail contract to cover employees who must travel to the West Bank to conduct project oversight functions.

West Bank-Gaza
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007 *
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009
Training
-
-
-
9,000
9,000
Non-Lethal Equipment
-
-
-
10,000
10,000
Capacity Building
-
-
-
-
-
Infrastructure Development
-
-
-
-
-
Program Development and Support
-
-
-
6,000
6,000
Total

-
-
-
25,000
25,000
* In FY 2007 $86.362M was transferred from the ESF account to the INCLE account.


Yemen

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2007 Actual

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Request

---

496

750

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The program will be designed to enhance the capabilities of the Yemeni security and criminal justice sector institutions to combat transnational criminal threats through training, technical assistance and equipment procurements. Assist the Government of Yemen (GOY) to strengthen law enforcement and the rule of law to interrupt national and transnational trafficking in persons (TIP) crime networks.

U.S. advisors conduct courses on specialized topics and supervise Yemeni security services personnel as they attend and complete courses. Basic equipment for training purposes is procured and donated to the Yemeni security services.

Transformational Diplomacy

The FY 2009 program in Yemen will advance the Secretary’s Transformational Diplomacy Peace and Security objective by funding security service professionalization projects designed to enhance the security of the Yemeni people. The need for enhanced law enforcement capabilities is evidenced by the various terror attacks and terrorist threats that have occurred in Yemen over the past several years.

Program Justification

Given threats to peace and security in Yemen, particularly from terrorist and other transnational groups, INL assistance will be used to help enhance security by building the capacity of Yemeni law enforcement to combat these threats. Yemen has distinguished itself as a solid partner in the fight against global terrorism.

Program Accomplishments

Bilateral INCLE funding for Yemen is being programmed for the first time in FY 2008. The FY 2009 program will build on the accomplishments of that pilot program.

FY 2009 Program

Security Sector

The FY 2009 program will be designed to enhance the capabilities of the Yemeni security services. INL has not had a program in Yemen in the past, but we will use our vast experience initiating programs elsewhere to develop initiatives that address Yemen’s most immediate security needs, while taking into account especially the security challenges of working in Yemen.

Trafficking in Persons

TIP programs will work with Yemeni law enforcement to adopt anti-trafficking laws, improve the legal framework for addressing TIP, and/or strengthen the capacity of civil society to work effectively with justice systems to promote the rescue and protection of victims.

Program Development and Support

Funds will be used for general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

Yemen
INL BUDGET
($000)

FY 2007
FY 2007
Supp

FY 2008
FY 2009
Security Sector
-
-
446
450
Trafficking in Persons
-
-
-
250
Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

Non-U.S. Personnel
-
-
-
-

ICASS Costs
-
-
-
-

Program Support
-
-
50
50

Sub-Total
-
-
50
50
Total

-
-
496
750



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