The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is charged with promoting security from international criminal threats and illicit narcotics for Americans and key U.S. allies alike. To advance this mission, INL leads the Department in designing, managing, and evaluating counter-narcotics and rule of law programs; coordinates with international bodies to establish international anti-crime standards; and trains police and judicial personnel worldwide to build local law enforcement capacity and transparent governance in key countries.
INL plays a key role in carrying out the President’s foreign policy agenda by coordinating U.S. international drug policies with the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and leading in the development and coordination of U.S. international drug and crime assistance. For countries in transition from conflict, INL’s policies and programs promote stable environments, good governance and stronger public institutions. INL also uses technical expertise and capacity-building in developing and transforming nations in order to create reliable partners within a network of international legal cooperation. With sustaining partners, such as the United Nations, the European Union, the Group of Eight, and the Organization of American States, INL works to strengthen the international legal framework of laws and conventions against the narcotics trade, international organized and gang-related crime, and corruption.
To deal with the increasing linkage and overlap among drug trafficking, criminal, and terrorist groups, INL has spearheaded integrated law enforcement reform efforts through a range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives to cultivate the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments. This includes extending the U.S. first line of defense against illicit threats by strengthening border controls of other countries, enhancing the ability of foreign governments to work together cooperatively, closing off international safe havens for drug, criminal and terrorist groups, helping to fight official corruption that inhibits the effective functioning of foreign criminal justice sectors, and responding to emerging transnational crime challenges.
INL efforts directly support two overarching Department foreign assistance objectives: Achieving Peace and Security; and Governing Justly and Democratically. To achieve these objectives, INL works closely with a broad range of partners across the USG, including ONDCP, the Department of Justice, the Defense Department, the Department of Homeland Security, USAID, the Internal Revenue Service, CIA, and the Departments of Treasury and Commerce.
-- Achieving Peace and Security: The United States promotes peace, liberty, and prosperity for all people; security is a necessary precursor to these worthy goals. The Department and USAID leverage a broad range of skills and resources to advance peace and security: traditional and transformational diplomacy, both bilateral and multilateral; vigilant and informed consular operations; reformed and effective foreign assistance; creative and energetic public diplomacy; and where appropriate, new technologies and operating constructs. Department of State programs strive to confront threats to national and international security posed by terrorism, transnational crime and narcotics, weapons proliferation, failed or failing states, and political violence. Department programs strengthen the capabilities of the USG and of international partners to prevent or mitigate conflict, stabilize countries in crisis, promote regional stability, protect civilians, and promote just application of government and law.
INL counternarcotics assistance programs directly advance peace and security by discouraging drug crop cultivation through law enforcement, eradication, and alternative development programs in key source countries, and improving the capacity of host nation police and military forces to dismantle narcotics production and trafficking centers. INL assistance also strengthens the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations, arrest and incarcerate their leaders, and block and seize their assets.
-- Governing Justly and Democratically: The United States supports just and democratic governance to preserve U.S. national security and the security of our allies; and to broadly support global development. Failed and authoritarian states that do not respond to the needs of their people or respect international human rights and democratic norms pose a long-term threat to the security of the United States and other democracies. U.S. support for anticorruption, good governance and democratization reinforces our commitment to working with partners to help them build their own sustainable institutions of democratic governance.
INL programs promote institution building within partner countries’ law enforcement and criminal justice sectors. Key components of INL programs worldwide include training and technical assistance for judges, prosecutors, and police, and initiatives that modernize the management of justice sector institutions to make them more transparent, publicly accountable, and more responsive to human rights.
In FY 2010, International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement (INCLE) funds will continue to directly support the U.S. foreign policy objectives of Achieving Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically. Within the Foreign Assistance Strategic Framework, the primary program areas and program elements targeted by INL program funds are:
Functional Objective: Peace and Security
Program Area 1.3: Stabilization Operations and Security Sector Reform
Program Element 1.3.1: Operations Support
Program Element 1.3.6: Defense, Military, and Border Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Program Element 1.3.7: Law Enforcement Restructuring, Reform and Operations
Program Area 1.4: Counter-Narcotics
Program Element 1.4.1: Eradication
Program Element 1.4.2: Alternative Development and Alternative Livelihoods
Program Element 1.4.3: Interdiction
Program Element 1.4.4: Drug Demand Reduction
Program Area 1.5: Transnational Crime
Program Element 1.5.1: Financial Crimes and Money Laundering
Program Element 1.5.2: Intellectual Property Theft, Corporate Espionage, and Cyber Security
Program Element 1.5.3: Trafficking-in-Persons and Migrant Smuggling
Program Element 1.5.4: Organized and Gang-related Crime
Functional Objective: Governing Justly and Democratically
Program Area 2.1: Rule of Law and Human Rights
Program Element 2.1.3: Justice System
Program Element 2.1.4: Human Rights
Program Area 2.2: Good Governance
Program Element 2.2.4: Anti-Corruption Reforms
Program Element 2.2.5: Governance of the Security Sector
In FY 2010, the Bureau will continue to develop and implement programs that advance policy objectives in three priority areas: Counternarcotics; Transnational Crime; and Criminal Justice Systems:
-- Counternarcotics: Disrupt the overseas production and trafficking of illicit drugs by means of targeted counternarcotics and anti-crime assistance and coordination with foreign nations and international organizations
-- Transnational Crime: Minimize the adverse effects that transnational criminal networks and activities (e.g. corruption, cyber crime) have on the U.S. and its citizens and allies through enhanced international cooperation and foreign assistance
-- Criminal Justice Systems: Develop and expand criminal justice systems to strengthen partner country law enforcement and judicial effectiveness, foster cooperation in legal affairs, and advance the rule of law and respect for human rights
On a global scale, INL programs work with key partner countries to:
-- Establish governmental control and rule of law in conflict and post-conflict areas, safeguard human rights and increase freedom of movement
-- Strengthen law enforcement and judicial systems to deter, investigate, and prosecute crimes within identified nation-states
-- Reduce the cultivation and production of drugs
-- Restrict and eliminate the capabilities of drug traffickers and other criminal networks to transport narcotics and other illicit substances
-- Combat the collateral effects of the drug trade through international drug control and demand reduction projects
-- Build institutional capacity for international cooperation in combating transnational crimes while strengthening international and regional multilateral institutions, international financial markets and transnational law enforcement regimes.
Across the countries in which the Bureau operates, INL programs directly result in:
-- Fewer illegal and dangerous drugs on America's streets
-- Greater host nation law enforcement capabilities, which enable stronger, sustainable cooperation with U.S. agencies on counterdrug, anti-crime and counterterrorism operations
-- Improved security and political stability in post-conflict situations
-- Enhanced host nation capabilities to stem money laundering and interdict sources of terrorist financing, fight corruption, protect intellectual property rights, deter cybercrime, secure borders, and counter alien smuggling
-- Improved adherence to international human rights standards by police and corrections systems
INL counternarcotics and law enforcement programs provide critical bilateral assistance to countries of strategic importance to the United States. INL’s country programs are executed using country-specific strategies developed by Country Teams, Law Enforcement Working Groups at U.S. Missions abroad, and host nation officials. INL programs are formalized through bilateral Letters of Agreement that stipulate key objectives, program priorities, performance targets, and funding levels. Each INL program is supported in Washington by INL subject matter and country experts who develop policy guidance, and overseen by Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) officers at Posts worldwide. Country programs are implemented by a wide variety of U.S. law enforcement and regulatory agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and international assistance agencies. Throughout the development and implementation process, INL country programs serve to:
-- Strengthen relationships with various host country ministries and law enforcement authorities
-- Support operational law enforcement cooperation between host governments and the FBI, DEA, and other USG agencies by providing valuable training, equipment, and technical assistance platforms
INL's centrally-managed programs complement country programs in the following key areas:
-- Interregional Aviation Support (IAS) provides aviation assets to specific INL country programs to facilitate aerial eradication, mobility, interdiction, reconnaissance and logistical support
-- Anticorruption programs strengthen host government political will to reduce corruption and implement international standards for transparency and good governance
-- Regional law enforcement training, via the International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs), brings together professionals from neighboring countries for specialized training and facilitates networking for future cooperation
-- Demand reduction programs reach out to grass-roots constituencies in partner countries with education and support, improving bilateral relations with the host government in the process
-- Anti-money laundering/terrorist financing programs identify vulnerabilities in key countries and provide speedy assistance to create sound financial institutions
-- Anti-alien smuggling and border security programs help extend our first line of defense against all forms of transnational crime
-- Cybercrime, cyber security and intellectual property crime programs address the growing impact of criminal misuse of information technology.
Global recognition of the dangers of drugs and crime -- and the need for stronger international cooperation to fight those threats -- has steadily increased. The one-time divide between illicit drugs producer and consumer nations has vanished, and has been replaced by a growing recognition that all nations are vulnerable to the negative effects of narcotics cultivation and trafficking, as well as the role that corruption and money laundering tied to the drug trade plays in undermining governments and national economies. U.S. leadership has galvanized support for new multilateral instruments that target organized crime and corruption, including those developed and endorsed by the United Nations.
The FY 2010 INL counternarcotics budget represents only a modest portion of the total federal drug control budget; however, INL bilateral and multilateral programs and diplomatic initiatives are fundamental components of U.S. counternarcotics and law enforcement foreign assistance efforts in more than 150 countries. INL’s counternarcotics efforts faced challenges in 2008 due to sustained poppy and cocoa production, as well as overstretching of partner countries’ resources in many ungoverned areas. The Bureau’s counternarcotics assistance efforts have also faced challenges where the previously robust political will of partner countries to combat drugs and other criminal activities has been diverted to resolve other crucial security and governance crises. Nonetheless, INL’s counternarcotics expertise and justice sector program management, as well as new bilateral and multilateral partnerships, have proven essential in slowing the spread of transnational crime and in protecting our national security interests around the world, from Afghanistan, the world’s primary producer of opium poppy, to parts of the Andes in South America. INL remains committed to combating the threats to security posed by criminal gangs and drug trafficking organizations in Central America and Mexico by bringing fresh resources and know-how to bear, and in working in tandem with the countries principally affected by them. INL is also giving increased attention to threats stemming from the drug trade from the Western Hemisphere into the United States, particularly via Mexico, where INL is taking a leading role in the implementation of the Merida Initiative.
Afghanistan: In 2008, total poppy cultivation fell by 19 percent from 2007 levels, reflecting the influence of strong, governor-led counternarcotics campaigns, the sway of economic forces, and the physical impact of drought. Also in 2008, the number of poppy-free provinces increased to 18—up from 13 in 2007—with gains concentrated in the relatively stable and secure North and East. To combat ongoing challenges posed by non-permissive security in parts of Afghanistan’s south and linkages between the narcotics trade and the insurgency, USG-supported poppy elimination efforts now focus on prevention through pre-planting public information outreach, the provision of quick-impact development incentives, and the continuation of law enforcement efforts, including eradication.
This year the focus has shifted to an intensive province-based dissuasion effort focusing on key poppy growing areas with the aim of proactively discouraging poppy cultivation through pre-planting campaigns and assistance. Governor-led poppy elimination efforts supported by Afghan-staffed Counternarcotics Advisory Teams (CNAT) have also assumed a pivotal role in promoting engagement on counternarcotics issues with all sectors of Afghan society, including federal, provincial, local, tribal, and religious leaders, as well as farmers and the general public. Governor Sherzai of Nangarhar and Governor Mangal of Helmand have both proven that this approach can be effective, given an operational level of security and political will. Both governors have demonstrated, through their respective initiatives in eastern and southern Afghanistan, the efficacy of integrating counternarcotics efforts into broader assistance and security programming, where eradication is the last - not the first - resort.
Nowhere has this strategy’s potential for success been more dramatically realized than in Nangarhar, which in 2007 ranked as the second-highest poppy cultivating province in Afghanistan, but is now poppy free. We credit this positive development to a counternarcotics strategy that is integrated into security operations, a balance of incentives and disincentives, and strong provincial leadership from the governor. Helmand’s leadership has also taken bold steps to curb the growth of poppy by mainstreaming counternarcotics into a comprehensive security and governance plan that includes public information messaging, alternative development assistance, and law enforcement. INL assisted in the public information and law enforcement stages of this plan as well as in overall planning and coordination efforts.
In 2008, the Technical Investigation Unit (TIU), stood up with U.S. interagency and U.K. assistance to the Counternarcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) in 2007, began its first wire intercept case in Afghanistan and is expected to become fully functional on all cellular providers in 2009. In 2008, the CNPA reported 37,530 KG of opium, 4,936 KG of heroin, and 3,232 KG of morphine base in seizures, 703 offenders arrested for narcotics-related crimes, and 94 drug labs destroyed. In October 2008, Taliban-linked Afghan heroin trafficker Haji Juma Khan was removed to the U.S., where he is under indictment for narco-terrorism (Title 21 USC 960a), representing the second Afghan charged with this offense within 2 years.
The police training and mentoring program in Afghanistan has also made significant strides, having trained over 104,000 police officers on basic police skills. Expansion of the field training program to all major provinces is currently underway, and nearly 600 mentors and trainers have been deployed countrywide. Between 100 and 200 mentors are deployed on Police Mentor Teams (PMT) at the district level and are engaging with local Afghan police officials. Ministry of Interior (MOI) Reform is also proceeding well. The national Pay and Rank Reform is nearing completion; a U.S.-funded program to promote corrections salary reform process is expected to begin in Mid-2009. The U.S. also played a key role in encouraging the expansion of provincial justice, by launching the Provincial Justice Coordination Mechanism (PJCM) in conjunction with UNAMA. The PJCM will deploy rule of law coordinators across Afghanistan to ensure that bilateral programs are complimentary and integrated.
Pakistan: INL manages the Ministry of Interior’s Air Wing (50th Squadron) based in Quetta, Balochistan. It currently has nine Huey II helicopters and three fixed-wing surveillance aircraft, two of which are equipped with Forward Looking Infra Red (FLIR) enhancement systems. In 2008, INL completed poppy surveys and border surveillance, and provided support for law enforcement agencies along the Afghan border, including resupply, interdiction, casualty evacuations (casevacs), medevac, and command and control for Frontier Corps (FC) and Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF) operations with these assets.
To date, more than 2,500 vehicles and substantial quantities of communications equipment have been delivered to the Frontier Corps Balochistan, the Frontier Corps NWFP, the Pakistan Coast Guards, the Anti-Narcotics Force, and other border security agencies. Under the Border Security Program, the USG has funded construction or refurbishment of 80 Frontier Corps outposts in Balochistan and NWFP, 62 Levy outposts in FATA, as well as 23 outposts for the Frontier Constabulary. The outposts give these personnel shelter in and access to remote areas, and improve coordination and communication among outposts.
Additionally, to date, nearly 1,000 kilometers of counternarcotics roads have been completed in FATA (Bajaur, Mohmand, and Khyber agencies) and the Kala Dhaka and Kohistan districts of the NWFP. In addition, construction has been completed on 336 kilometers of border security roads in FATA. Approximately 955 accompanying agricultural schemes and alternative crops projects have also been completed.
INL programs, in partnership with the Department of Justice, have trained 2,800 law enforcement personnel in 2008, and over 8,000 law enforcement officers since 2002. Training focuses on crime scene investigation, leadership, management issues, and curriculum development. In 2008, an INL-funded effort trained over 50 police trainers from all five police training colleges in handling cases of civil disturbance.
Colombia: Colombia continued its series of consecutive record-breaking years for eradication of illicit crops in 2008, aerially and manually eradicating approximately 230,000 hectares of coca. The Colombian Government also surpassed its 2007 year total for the interdiction of cocaine and coca base by seizing over 223 metric tons in 2008. Cooperation between the United States and Colombia on extraditions remains productive. Colombia extradited 208 defendants in 2008, including 15 former senior leaders of the demobilized AUC. Significant progress was also made in expanding Colombia’s transition to a new accusatory judicial system, and the United States continues to support local efforts to improve the investigation and prosecution of human rights cases. The United States will continue to work closely with Colombia in these and other areas to solidify the progress made under Plan Colombia, including the transfer of additional financial and operational responsibilities to local Colombian control for certain counternarcotics programs.
Peru: Peruvian authorities eradicated 10,143 hectares of coca, and interdiction programs directed at maritime drug shipments contributed to the seizure of over 28 metric tons of cocaine and almost 470 metric tons of precursor chemicals in 2008. Asset seizures of almost $3 million and arrests of 49 violators-traffickers were credited to these efforts in 2008. In 2008 an additional 935 police officers graduated from USG-supported police academies, augmenting the 727 police that graduated the previous year. By the spring of 2009, 1,800 well-trained police officers were operating in the source zones east of the Andes. This increased capacity has allowed the Peruvian National Police to conduct sustained interdiction in the Apurimac and Ene River Valleys (VRAE) and to provide security in support of eradication activities in parts of the Huallaga valley where eradication programs have faced violent resistance.
Bolivia: Estimated coca cultivation rose in 2008 to 32,000 hectares and the Government of Bolivia (GOB) eradicated 5,484 hectares. The GOB continued to push policies that effectively expanded coca cultivation, in direct violation of its laws and international conventions. The GOB seized 28.8 metric tons of cocaine and destroyed 4,988 cocaine base labs, compared to seizures of 13.8 metric tons of cocaine in 2007 and destruction of 3,087 cocaine base labs. In 2008, increased seizures are attributable to increased drug production in Bolivia and drug transshipment from Peru.
Other Andean Region Successes: In Ecuador, strong enforcement efforts produced record land-based seizures in 2008, totaling 14.51 metric tons. Maritime seizures in 2008 totaled more than 15 metric tons. Traffickers continued to diversify shipment methods such as, the use of go-fast and small fishing boats capable of carrying smaller loads and hugging the coastline, or self-propelled semi-submersibles (SPSS) capable of maintaining a low profile to avoid interdiction. Drug traffickers also appeared to be using containerized shipping to a greater extent than in the past.
In 2008, Brazil seized 18 metric tons of cocaine HCl, 514 kg of cocaine base, 430 kg of crack cocaine, 182 metric tons of marijuana, 12 kg of heroin, 125,706 dosage units of Ecstasy, and 95,653 dosage units of LSD. Juan Carlos Ramírez-Abadia, a notorious Columbian drug cartel leader, was extradited to the U.S. in 2008 following his capture in 2007 as a result of strong U.S.-Brazil cooperation. U.S. and Brazilian authorities have subsequently seized more than $700 million in cash and other assets from Ramírez-Abadia’s organization. The Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) also completed their investigation of a major Brazilian trafficker, Luis Fernando da Costa, in 2008. As a result, the DPF was able to arrest and indict 10 other individuals on charges of money laundering and narcotics and weapons trafficking.
In 2008, Panama continued its excellent interdiction track record, seizing 51 metric tons of cocaine and two metric tons of marijuana in collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Panamanian National Police (PNP) also seized over $3 million linked to drug trafficking, confiscated $1.5 million from 42 bank accounts, and arrested 126 people for international drug-related offenses.
Although the U.S. seeks better cooperation with Venezuela on stopping the flow of drugs through its territory, the impact of Venezuela’s lack of cooperation goes well beyond its borders. Mexico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic are among those who have seen the largest increase in Venezuelan-sourced drug shipments. Seizures in Europe and Africa of cocaine which leaves South America via Venezuela are also on the rise. The President determined in 2007, as in 2006 and 2005 that Venezuela failed demonstrably to adhere to its obligations under international counternarcotics agreements. The Government of Venezuela has not signed a letter of agreement with the United States since 2004, which prevents the U.S. from making new funding available for projects.
Mexico: Protecting our Border and Partnering Against International Threats: In 2008, the second year of the Calderon administration, Mexico made unprecedented efforts in attacking the corrosive effects of drug trafficking and consumption, including launching aggressive operations across Mexico to reassert control over areas that had fallen under the dominion of drug cartels. Mexican authorities extradited a record 95 fugitives to the United States in 2008, including key members of all of the principal drug cartels. Among the many important successes registered by law enforcement authorities were the seizures of over 18 metric tons of cocaine and 921 metric tons of marijuana. The GOM implemented new regulations that eliminated methamphetamine precursor imports in 2008. Mexican law enforcement seized 39, 437 illegal firearms and arrested 21,958 persons on drug-related charges, including 21,640 Mexicans and 318 foreigners. According to the Mexican Attorney General’s Office (PGR), 19 drug processing laboratories were dismantled in Mexico during 2008; DEA reports that five of these were classified as methamphetamine "super labs" (i.e., having a production capacity of 10 pounds or more per processing cycle). A Letter of Agreement was signed with the GOM in December 2008 concerning the Mérida Initiative, a historic plan to achieve deeper and stronger law enforcement cooperation.
Central America: Several U.S. partners in Central America also cooperated with USG law enforcement during 2008, successfully collaborating in seizures in international waters through the exercise of ship-rider agreements, rapid granting of permission to board flagged vessels, and turning over evidence to U.S. authorities. In 2008 the countries of Central America, in some cases in conjunction with U.S. forces, seized over 100 metric tons of cocaine and 110 kg of heroin. In 2008 traffickers ramped up their attempts to introduce or divert pseudoephedrine and other precursors to methamphetamine manufacture. Authorities also seized nearly $21 million in smuggled cash or suspect funds.
In addition to the large seizures by Panama, Nicaragua seized over 19.5 metric tons of cocaine, 52.8 kg of heroin, and over $4.7 million in smuggled U.S. currency. Nicaraguan authorities also seized 18,000 dosage units of pseudoephedrine as it was being smuggled out of the country. Costa Rica’s cocaine seizures totaled 21.7 metric tons. They also seized over 157,234 doses of crack cocaine, 21.26 kg of heroin, 4.8 tons of processed marijuana, and eradicated over 1.4 million marijuana plants. Additionally, Costa Rican authorities confiscated more than $4.4 million in U.S. and local currency. Guatemala eradicated a record 536 hectares of opium poppy and 33 hectares of marijuana; and seized 3.3 metric tons of cocaine and over $6 million in cash seizures plus seven shipments of pseudoephedrine. Honduras seized 6.5 metric tons of cocaine, 19.6 kg of heroin, over 3 metric tons of processed marijuana and 3.5 million pseudoephedrine pills, plus over five tons of precursors (sodium sulphate and soda ash). An additional 13 metric tons of pseudoephedrine were seized in the United States en route to Honduras to be diverted to Mexican drug cartels. In 2008, Honduran authorities also seized $4,324,446 in cash. El Salvador seized 1.35 metric tons of cocaine, 430 kilograms (kg) of marijuana, and 8.4 kg of heroin. The government also seized $716,905 in suspicious bank accounts and cash transactions, as well as $859,621 in undeclared bulk cash taken from narcotics-linked smugglers.
Caribbean: The Caribbean nations in 2008 saw continued strong cooperation between USG and Caribbean law enforcement agencies. Following 2007’s “Operation Rum Punch”, in 2008 “Operation Broken Bridge” was launched to broaden cooperation between USG and Dominican law enforcement to meet the challenges of the increase in suspect drug flights over and through Hispaniola, particularly the Dominican Republic. The objective of “Broken Bridge” was also to disrupt suspect aircraft flown from Venezuela and Colombia to the Dominican Republic, and to dismantle drug trafficking organizations using air drops over water and land and, on occasion, conducting landings in the Dominican Republic. The Bahamas participated actively as a partner in Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT), a multi-agency international drug interdiction cooperative effort established in 1982.
West Bank/Gaza: The program has progressed quickly since becoming operational in August 2007. To date, three full NSF Special Battalions (1,630 personnel) and one PG battalion (420 personnel) have been trained in Jordan. Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers for a fourth NSF Special Battalion will begin one month of leaders’ training in Jordan in July 2009, followed by 19 weeks of basic training for the full 500-man battalion in August. Specialized training is occurring in Jordan and the West Bank. Instructor development courses to eventually give the Palestinian Authority (PA) their own training capacity are also occurring in the West Bank. The first three iterations of an eight-week Senior Leaders Course, composed of mid- to senior-leaders from across the PA Security Forces, have been completed in the West Bank; a fourth course is scheduled for July 2009. Overall, approximately 3,500 members of the PA security forces have been identified and vetted for USG-provided training. The trained NSF and PG battalions are being fully equipped, and equipment is being purchased and delivered for the NSF battalions undergoing training. A newly built state-of-the-art PG training college in Jericho opened in March 2009, and the first NSF battalion to graduate from JIPTC has moved into its newly constructed base camp in Jericho. Ground has been broken for an NSF training complex in Jericho, and construction is scheduled to begin soon for another NSF base camp in Jenin. The PA has immediately deployed its newly trained battalions on tactical operations. They have been instrumental in providing law and order in four different security campaigns in 2008 and 2009. The Jenin, Hebron, Bethlehem, and Qalqilyah security campaigns have been widely praised by the local population, the Palestinian Authority, and Israeli officials. The across-the-board performance of the PASF throughout the West Bank during the December 2008/January 2009 Gaza war is particularly noteworthy: they maintained peace and public order at a time of great tension and potential instability.
Lebanon: Beginning in 2008, INL launched comprehensive police development program in Lebanon to assist the Lebanese Internal Security Forces (ISF) by building their capacity to combat terrorist and other criminal threats in Lebanon through intensive training, essential equipment donations and law enforcement infrastructure development. To date this program has trained over 2,000 ISF officers, provided 360 police vehicles, and refurbished ISF training facilities in Beirut. Moreover, the program is instilling a professional culture within the organization and is supporting the ISF’s growing role as Lebanon’s primary security sector institution responsible for addressing internal security threats throughout Lebanon, a role that has heretofore been carried out by the Lebanese army.
Liberia: The INL Civilian Police (CIVPOL), Justice Sector Support Liberia (JSSL), and Emergency Response Unit (ERU) programs have demonstrated tangible successes in FY 2009. The Senior Advisor Team (SAT) has helped the Liberia National Police leadership develop the capacity to lead and manage a professional police force. ERU advisors, as part of a United Nations program, have helped the ERU become operational in late 2008. Additionally, the ERU headquarters is nearing completion. The JSSL team continues to train and mentor counterparts in the formal justice sector. Among other concrete successes, the JSSL team supported the creation of the Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) Unit in the Ministry of Justice in early 2009.
Fighting Corruption and Setting International Standards Against Crime: The fight against global corruption remains a top national security priority for the United States. In support of this objective, INL championed and helped deliver the first global and most comprehensive instrument against corruption – the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC). In 2006, the United States became a party to UNCAC, and the Department played a key role in promoting international acceptance and implementation of UNCAC. Efforts included working with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other countries to promote ratification and acceptance of UNCAC and promoting UNCAC as a pillar in regional anticorruption groups in the Middle East, Asia and other parts of the world. As a result, UNCAC is increasingly incorporated in those policy arenas and used as a framework for technical assistance. The U.S.-led efforts to launch a pilot program to review convention implementation in which 16 countries participated; over the next year efforts will be made to expand the pilot. The U.S. is also championing and supporting the development of a formal monitoring process for the Convention, and secured a decision to that effect at the UNCAC 2nd Conference of States Parties. The U.S. also worked in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, the Organization of American States (OAS), and other fora to promote acceptance of the "denial of safe haven" policy related to corrupt officials and their assets. The United States continues to advance a strong anticorruption agenda in Asia Pacific, Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas. The U.S. also used INCLE funding to support two multilateral monitoring mechanisms – the Council of Europe’s Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), and the OAS Follow-up Mechanism – that promote implementation of anticorruption commitments in dozens of countries. INL is planning efforts to build capacity in developing countries in Africa and within Eurasia to address corruption and to combat high-level corruption by investigating and prosecuting corruption crimes as a precursor for recovering assets.
International Law Enforcement Academies: ILEAs administered by INL strengthen qualitative capabilities and regional cooperation by training law enforcement officials from over 70 countries in diverse law enforcement disciplines such as counter-terrorism, corruption, criminal investigations, drug trafficking, and organized crime. To date, the five International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) in Hungary, Thailand, Botswana, New Mexico and El Salvador (includes the Regional Training Center in Lima, Peru) train an annual average of 3,500 officials. ILEA curricula will continue to be modified to respond to emerging transnational criminal trends in terrorism, terrorist financing, organized crime, financial crimes and human trafficking.
Financial Crimes and Money Laundering: Terrorist and insurgency groups, drug traffickers, and traditional transnational crime organizations share many traits, but none so compelling as the need to launder, hide, or secretly move their profits and operating funds. Over the past several years, INL has implemented an aggressive program to combat international financial crime, with an increasing emphasis on terrorist financing. To promote and work toward comprehensive global policy and cooperation on anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist financing (AML/CFT) standards development and initiatives, INL participates in, and provides support to the multilateral Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which, with its 49 Recommendations, is the international standard-setting body, enveloping both anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing, INL also provides support to FATF-style regional bodies to further their capacity to uphold and promote the FATF standards among member jurisdictions. INL also supports many of the FATF-style regional bodies (FSRBS) including the APG, CFATF, ESAAMLG, GIABA, GAFISUD and MONEYVAL, for assessor training as well as conducting mutual evaluations and typologies exercises. INL has teamed with multilateral organizations such as the UN Global Program against Money Laundering, the Organization of American States, and the World Bank to provide mentors in vulnerable regions, as well to provide specific bilateral and regional training. In 2008, INL continued its support of mentors in South and Southeast Asia and southern Africa, and began a new mentorship program in West Africa. INL funding has provided multi-agency training, both bilaterally, with partner countries, and through multilateral organizations, to more than 100 countries in their efforts to develop the capacity to thwart all-source money laundering and terrorist financing. An example of an innovative approach to thwart money laundering and the funding of terrorism, INL, in conjunction with the Department of Homeland Security, has funded the development of Trade Transparency Units (TTUs) in South America. Developed as a bilateral mechanism to detect trade-based money laundering and customs fraud, TTUs have been established in Colombia, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. INL has also provided assistance to nearly half of the more than 25 states identified by the USG as most vulnerable to terrorist financing operations. INL’s regional Pacific Anti-Money Laundering Program, designed to assist the development of viable anti-money laundering/counter-terrorist regimes to the fourteen non-FATF member states of the Pacific Islands Forum, began its fourth and final year of operation in 2008.
Cyber Crime and Intellectual Property Rights: In intellectual property (IP) rights enforcement, 2008 saw INL advance intellectual property training and technical assistance programs for key developing nations. In Mexico, ongoing efforts of the USG to provide IPR training and technical assistance to the Government of Mexico – both in the capital and in regional cities throughout the country - stressed close cooperation between the private sector and Mexican authorities and encouraged the pursuit of the criminal organizations. In South Africa, DOJ and DHS carried out considerable INL-funded police and customs training with resultant increase in South African enforcement efforts. In Indonesia, the INL-funded Department of Justice (DOJ) programs started in October 2006 become established with many government authorities, private companies, and rights holders, and are credited by the U.S. Mission with maintaining momentum for efforts to strengthen optical disc piracy enforcement. CAFTA-DR programs, notably in El Salvador, resulted in elevated IP enforcement activity in those countries, including new levels of coordination between the key institutions that fight IPR related crimes. In cybercrime enforcement, INL reinforced ongoing DOJ initiatives within the Organization of American States (OAS), a region that contains a mix of developed and developing nations that are in the midst of adapting to the spread of information technology, particularly broadband Internet use, and where it is crucial to prevent the creation of “safe havens” where weak rule of law allows cyber crooks to operate at will. Interagency USG law enforcement teams trained 40 senior prosecutors and investigators from Caribbean nations on basic computer forensics, international legal cooperation and how to establish a 24/7 high tech crime contact network, presented workshops to OAS senior prosecutors and justice ministry officials on creating special cybercrime prosecution units, and delivered regional seminars to audiences of policymakers, prosecutors, investigators and analysts from OAS member states to educate them on the latest developments in cybercrime law.
Demand Reduction: Independent, science-based evaluations on the long-range impact of INL-funded training for drug treatment programs revealed that overall hard-core drug use in the target population in Colombia was reduced from 64% to 36% in the target treatment population, while overall drug use in Vietnam was reduced from 100% to 27% in the target population. In Vietnam, heroin use was reduced by 86% pre- and post-treatment in 20 demonstration treatment centers, while intravenous heroin use (a major vector for HIV/AIDS) was reduced by 85 percent. Among female clients in targeted Thai treatment programs, overall drug use and methamphetamine use was reduced from 92% to 10% and 90% to 10%, respectively. Among female clients in targeted Colombian treatment programs, overall drug use and cocaine use was reduced from 56% to 37% and 28% to 150%, respectively. Finally, criminal activity and arrest rates pre- and post-treatment were reduced by over 85% in targeted Colombian and Thai treatment programs.
Establishing Rule of Law in Post Conflict Societies: To meet urgent needs in countries transitioning out of conflict, INL programs identify, train and equip, deploy, and support civilian police, law enforcement and criminal justice advisors to participate in multilateral peacekeeping and complex security operations. Using INCLE, Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF), Afghanistan Security Forces Funds (ASFF), Peace Keeping Operations (PKO), Freedom Support Act (FSA) and Support for East European Democracy (SEED) money, INL currently deploys more than 1,000 police and corrections advisors and justice experts in eight countries, including over 300 uniformed U.S. police to support law enforcement operations and reform in UN peacekeeping missions in Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan. INL continues to implement programs that have helped establish, train, and equip 8,600 members of the new Kosovo Police Service as well as provide training for more than 3,000 Haitian National Police (HNP) cadets. Programs in Liberia provide mentoring, training and technical assistance for the 3,500-member Liberian police service and struggling court system. INL also deployed civilian police advisors to the UN-AU Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and provided direct assistance to the Government of Southern Sudan through the provision of law enforcement and correctional experts to provide training and assistance to enhancing the capabilities in its criminal justice sector. In Iraq, INL provided approximately 700 international police liaison officers to support the reconstruction of the Iraqi police and the Iraqi Government's efforts to provide effective internal security. In Afghanistan, INL is managing police and justice programs designed to stand up and train 82,000 police in eight training centers in Kabul and the provinces, as well as assist with reform of the criminal justice system including the Attorney General’s Office the Ministry of Justice and the Central Prisons Department.
The FY 2010 INL budget request of approximately $1.947 billion is designed to support State Department initiatives for combating narcotics, organized crime, and terrorism. The INCLE request will now support counterdrug programs in the seven Andean countries, although the main focus will be on the three source countries for cocaine (Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia). Support will reduce the flow of drugs to the United States, addressing instability in the Andean region and strengthening the ability of both source and transit countries to investigate and prosecute major drug trafficking organizations and their leaders and to block and seize their assets.
The FY 2010 request also supports country and global programs critical to combat transnational crime and illicit threats, including efforts against terrorist networks in the illegal drug trade and illicit enterprises. Programs supported with INCLE funds seek to close the gap between law enforcement jurisdictions and strengthen law enforcement institutions that are weak and corrupt. Many INCLE funds are focused where security situations are most dire and where U.S. resources are used in tandem with host country government strategies in order to maximize impact. Resources are also focused on countries that have specific challenges to overcome to establish a secure, stable environment, such as Mexico, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Haiti.
Country and Account Programs
International Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement – $1,947.45 million
Africa – $48.125 million
Cape Verde ($2 million): FY 2010 INCLE funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Cape Verde to combat narco-trafficking. INL will lead an interagency assessment team to develop a comprehensive USG-wide approach to counternarcotics assistance in Cape Verde. This assessment will inform FY 2010 plans. Generally, the FY 2010 INCLE funds will be used to support investigations and prosecutions of mid and senior level narco-traffickers. The assessment findings will inform specific program design and ensure proper coordination both within the USG and with other donors.
Democratic Republic of Congo ($1.7 million): An emerging priority, as cooperation increases among the countries in the region, is assistance to the Congolese National Police and customs authorities on border controls. Funds will continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of Democratic Republic of Congo law enforcement institutions. The program will focus on training and may include training on general policing skills and border control, as well as police academy development, and specialized training.
Guinea-Bissau ($3 million): Funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Guinea-Bissau to combat narco-trafficking through strengthening institutions in the judicial and law enforcement sectors and civil society. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, notably by the EU and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities in Guinea-Bissau to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. To support investigating and prosecuting drug traffickers, the FY 2010 program will seek to build a more robust counternarcotics legal framework. Accountability within the judiciary and Public Ministry will be strengthened by working with the both the respective inspection offices and civil society. Technical assistance to the judicial system will also include enhancing prosecutors’ abilities to oversee investigations and present effective prosecutions in court. Funds will complement other USG agencies in their efforts to build counternarcotics capacity in Guinea-Bissau’s law enforcement community.
Liberia ($8 million): After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia's ability to enforce its own laws and maintain the peace remains tenuous. Strengthening the ability of the new Liberian government to address these and other rule of law and security sector problems is a key program priority. USG assistance supports the development of the Liberia National Police force and it’s Emergency Response Unit into a credible and competent police service that respects human rights and the rule of law. Assistance will also support the LNP’s Police Support Unit. U.S. legal experts work as advisors and mentors to legal professionals in the Liberian formal justice system. Funds will be used to maintain an INL office at post.
Nigeria ($2 million): Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade, transporting drugs to the United States, Europe, and Asia. Nigeria-based criminal organizations are engaged in advance-fee fraud, and other forms of financial crime, including identity theft, that defraud American citizens and businesses. Corruption is endemic in Nigeria and permeates all aspects of private lives and government. FY 2010 funding will be used for counternarcotics and interdiction training for Nigerian law enforcement and customs institutions.
Sudan ($24 million): INL programs in Sudan support two primary U.S. foreign policy goals including consolidating the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and stabilizing Darfur. INL supports the CPA through bilateral programs with the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS), which assist in developing institutional capacity of the criminal justice system in Southern Sudan and through multilateral programs, which support the efforts of the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) and the UN/African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID). As in previous years, the INL FY 2010 program will include both bilateral and multilateral components. The bilateral program will continue to focus on reform of criminal justice sector institutions in all three components of a functioning Criminal Justice system – law enforcement, justice, and corrections. Advisors will continue to assist the GOSS with training, which is expected to expand to further sites and include a greater number of graduates. The program will also involve equipment procurement and infrastructure development, including the establishment of a central training academy. The U.S. bilateral efforts will complement INL’s multilateral efforts with UNMIS which supports the implementation of the CPA and development of security in Sudan. Through support to UNMIS and UNAMID, INL will continue to engage in the multilateral international police effort to maintain peace and stability in Sudan.
Africa Regional: ($4.5 million): The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region's security forces, and promoting democratic governance. Developing general policing capabilities in TSCTP member states advances USG objectives through supporting and building law enforcement and border control services with the capacity to investigate and dismantle criminal and terrorist groups, interdict trafficking and smuggling, manage crime scenes, and cooperate with regional and USG law enforcement agencies in investigations of complex transnational crimes.
West Africa ($0.86 million): Narco-trafficking through West Africa has increased dramatically and is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength. INL funding will build capacity in the law enforcement and judicial sectors to investigate and prosecute narco-trafficking.
Other Africa ($2.065 million): Weak law enforcement institutions throughout Africa corrupt and weaken governments, undermine progress toward democracy and provide an attractive environment for terrorism and transnational organized crime. The Africa program supports states in the region with a demonstrated commitment to good governance and democratic policing, and the political will to achieve these goals. FY 2010 funds will be used for programs designed to upgrade basic policing and prosecutorial skills. Programs will improve the capacity of governments to combat trafficking in narcotics and other contraband, illegal migration, public corruption, and financial fraud.
East Asia and the Pacific – $20.645 million
Indonesia ($11.57 million): Since the start of INL assistance in 2000, when the Indonesian National Police (INP) formally separated from the Indonesian Armed Forces, the Government of Indonesia has embraced institutional reform of its law enforcement organizations and its criminal justice system. Indonesia has made remarkable progress in the past decade, but the vast archipelago that stretches across 17,000 islands still faces significant transnational criminal activity, including maritime security, terrorism, corruption, and illegal smuggling of goods, wildlife, narcotics, and people, as it seeks to build institutions that support the rule of law. FY 2010 funds will support ongoing law enforcement development, criminal justice system, and counternarcotics programs. Under the law enforcement development program, INL assistance will focus on capacity building of the INP and other agencies responsible for maritime, port, and border security, strengthening institutional and investigative capabilities through training and expansion of forensic labs, and the development of inter-agency maritime security cooperation. FY2010 funds will also support two Resident Legal Advisors to assist and advise the Attorney General’s Office on prosecutorial and judicial reform to move the criminal justice system to a more adversarial, transparent and evidence-based system with respect to rule of law and individual rights. In response to the growing threat of drug flows and manufacturing in the region, INL assistance will also provide counternarcotics and forensics training and technical assistance.
Laos ($1.5 million): Although U.S.-funded opium crop control projects have been highly successful, Laos remains the second largest producer of opium in Southeast Asia. Stubbornly stable domestic demand and increasing regional demand, favorable growing conditions, and lack of alternative livelihoods are driving opium prices upward and serving as powerful incentives for farmers to renew opium production. Sufficient alternative development assistance is required for the next three to five years to counter the economic incentives to replant opium poppy, and sustain Laos’ progress to date. Laos also remains a transit route of choice for Burmese drugs going to China and other Southeast Asian states, as well as an emerging route for international shipments of cocaine from the Americas destined for elsewhere in Asia. Asian and West African drug gangs operate in Laos, relatively unimpeded by under-trained and ill-equipped counternarcotics police units or other law enforcement agencies. The FY 2010 INL program will focus on bolstering alternative livelihood assistance programs, supporting demand reduction programs, and providing assistance and training to specific police units, prosecutors and customs officials to more effectively deter and deal with drug traffickers.
Philippines ($1.365 million): The Philippines is a strategic ally and a key partner in the East Asia Pacific region. Enhancing the capabilities of Philippine law enforcement and criminal justice sector institutions is central to strengthening our mutual security. Philippine law enforcement suffers from a lack of resources and professionalism, low capacity and ineffectiveness, corruption, and widespread behavior inconsistent with the rule of law. Despite these challenges, the Philippines National Police (PNP) are committed to reform, and INL assistance has been instrumental in supporting the PNP’s ten-year plan for enhancing the professionalism of the police force. FY 2010 funds will be used to continue to develop long-term and sustainable civilian law enforcement capacity, enhance maritime capability, improve police-prosecutorial cooperation, and support the Government of the Republic of the Philippines’ efforts to strengthen respect for the rule of law.
Thailand ($1.74 million): Thailand is a long-time U.S. ally in the fight against drugs and hosts one of our regional International Law Enforcement Academies. Thailand also plays a leading regional role in the fight against narcotics and transnational crime. Thailand has achieved significant success in its comprehensive, long-term strategies against illegal drug abuse, trafficking, and production; however, its criminal laws, criminal justice institutions, and regulatory and investigative capabilities require improvement in order to respond more effectively to transnational and organized crime in the 21st century. INL’s FY 2010 program will consist of two major components: Security Sector reform and Justice Sector reform. INL funding will continue to support U.S. experts and advisors to provide the Royal Thai Government and Law Enforcement Agencies with technical assistance and guidance in order to build capacity.
East Asia Pacific (EAP) Regional ($1.3 million): Throughout the East Asia Pacific region, porous borders, expansive maritime routes, abundant natural resources, and under-funded law enforcement institutions create conditions under which domestic, regional and international criminals can flourish. In order to effectively counter these cross-border threats, police and other security forces in the region must work together, sharing information and supporting operational efforts. As part of the Shared Security Partnership Initiative, the FY 2010 INL funding will be used to enhance the capacity and capability of law enforcement officials in the EAP region to fight transnational crime. INL assistance will also focus on strengthening law enforcement cooperation between neighboring countries and throughout the region.
Other East Asia and the Pacific ($3.17 million): Funds in other Asian countries will be used primarily for law enforcement reform and development, criminal justice institution development, narcotics interdiction, and border security projects. The FY 2010 INL program in Vietnam will include three components: building law enforcement capacity to handle trafficking in persons cases, developing counternarcotics and border patrol capabilities, and reforming the justice system. Funds in Timor-Leste will support a Resident Legal Advisor to continue to collaborate with the Government of Timor-Leste to improve prosecutorial training and skills development, case management, investigations, and implementation of legislative reform and to increase the capacity and effectiveness of law enforcement institutions in Timor-Leste. In Cambodia, FY2010 funding will provide training and technical assistance, as well as basic police training, to develop law enforcement capacity. FY2010 funding in China will continue to promote criminal law reform, to provide information about the U.S. criminal justice system, and to promote U.S.-PRC law enforcement cooperation.
Europe – $0.5 million
Turkey ($0.5 million): Funds will support a counternarcotics program to promote more effective bilateral and regional cooperation, build on joint Turkish-Afghan counterdrug training initiated in 2007, and expand the outreach to other key partners as appropriate, e.g., investigative agencies from Southeastern Europe. Training and technical assistance, provided by DEA and/or other training experts will be directed at Turkish counter-drug, customs, and other law enforcement entities on border control and detection techniques at land and sea ports of entry. Funding would also be made available for training and programs related to drug abuse prevention and treatment of drug addiction, a growing problem in Turkey.
Near East – $180.5 million
Iraq ($52 million): INL will continue key criminal justice programs vital to promoting security, stability and respect for the rule of law in Iraq. INL has supported DOD/CENTCOM’s work to develop Iraq’s civilian security forces since the beginning of the mission. FY 2010 INCLE funds will build on FY 2009 Supplemental funds to establish a foundation for the inevitable transition of this work from DOD to State, pursuant to NSPD-36. The INCLE budget also will fund the further development of the other two essential components of the Iraqi criminal justice system – courts/judiciary and corrections. Specifically, INL will provide training and technical assistance to the Government of Iraq (GOI), particularly the Higher Judicial Council, to modernize its court administration systems, expand its capacity to protect judicial personnel and courthouses, and implement a continuing legal education system for judges and court personnel. INL-funded rule of law advisors on the Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) will continue to identify impediments to the effective functioning of the criminal justice system and opportunities for the GOI/provinces to rectify those impediments and advance respect for the rule of law. INL will continue to fund the deployment of U.S. federal law enforcement advisors working with Iraqi counterparts on the Major Crimes Task Force to enable them to investigate high profile crimes. INCLE funds also will support ongoing anti-corruption assistance to Iraq’s Commission on Integrity in the areas of investigations, training, and management. A cadre of corrections advisors will continue advising and mentoring the Iraqi Corrections Service (ICS), ensuring that the ICS assumes full and effective responsibility for safely and humanely operating prisons the U.S. has built with prior year funds. INL also will provide advisory assistance to facilitate the GOI’s development of comprehensive counternarcotics strategy. Finally, INL will use FY 2010 funds to develop, manage, and oversee its programs in Iraq as well as to monitor contracts that maintain a capacity in country to provide logistics, transportation, life support, and security for advisors and trainers deployed to Iraq.
Egypt ($1 million): Democracy and good governance are top USG priorities in Egypt, and we have supported a broad range of programs to strengthen civil society and to promote judicial independence. Policing reform efforts will likewise focus on the key roles that law enforcement plays in support of the rule of law, notably ensuring public safety and bringing criminals to justice. Egypt’s traditional military-style approach to policing has provided a high level of security – important given both domestic and external terrorist threats, but has impeded its ability to build a strong, positive relationship with the Egyptian public or to respond appropriately to situations that reflect growing public demands for a more open society.
Jordan ($1.5 million): The U.S. is working with the Government of Jordan on initiatives to build capacity of law enforcement institutions. Programs are particularly targeted at Anti-Money Laundering / Financial Intelligence Unit development, Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) enforcement, and gender-based violence reduction. FY 2010 program funds will be used to continue USG initiatives to build capacity of the Jordanian criminal justice sector. Programs will focus on specialized training courses, equipment procurement, infrastructure development and technical assistance for the police and justice sectors.
Lebanon ($20 million): Supporting the democratic government of Lebanon, and the people of Lebanon, are urgent priorities of the United States. We are working toward the rapid and full implementation of UNSCR 1701 by helping establish the full sovereignty of a Lebanese Government representing its entire people, as well as an ISF capable of protecting Lebanon’s borders, sovereignty and dignity. U.S. support for the ISF will help them meet this challenge.
The reform and enhancement of an effective ISF is critical for Lebanon to maintain a society based on the rule of law and respect for human rights. In order to achieve positive results in Lebanon, USG support to enhance ISF capabilities is currently being undertaken through a comprehensive train and equip program that is being implemented with $60 million in FY2007 Supplemental funds. This program is being followed up by a smaller $500,000 budget in FY2008 to fund specialized projects that will assist the ISF as they gain credibility, and the increased FY 2009 appropriation of $6 million will continue to build on the initial successes of the FY 2007 Supplemental program. In FY 2010, INL enhanced programs to modernize and professionalize the ISF through basic and advanced training and operational upgrades will enable the ISF to re-assume its traditional policing functions and allow the Lebanese Armed Forces to focus on the threats posed by Hizballah and Palestinian rejectionist groups in the south of the country and in bases along the Syrian border. The pivotal issue for Lebanon in the region is government sovereignty over all Lebanese territory; however Hizballah and Palestinian rejectionist groups continue to act outside government authority. Hizballah’s incursion into Israel in the summer of 2006 provoked an Israeli military response that devastated Lebanon's infrastructure and raised tensions across the Middle East. INL’s current security assistance to the ISF will greatly enhance the government's ability to better address and deter the planned activities of terrorist and other criminal groups. Additional police training will bring the ISF up to international standards in crime investigation and crowd control, thus promoting internal stability and deterring destabilizing forces in Lebanon.
Morocco ($2.03 million): Morocco is a liberalizing, democratizing, and moderate Muslim state that is not only a victim of terrorism, but also a committed partner in fighting terrorism. Morocco has relatively weak border control systems that could be exploited by terrorists and other transnational criminals. Due to its long and poorly controlled borders, extensive coastline, and proximity to Europe, Morocco has substantial problems with illegal migration, human smuggling, the movement of transnational terrorists through its territory, drug production and trafficking, and commercial smuggling. The profits from these illicit enterprises could provide revenue sources to terrorists. These criminal activities serve to undermine the rule of law in Morocco, lead to corruption of public officials, and weaken Moroccan institutions. Funds will provide training and technical assistance to Moroccan security sector institutions such as the border protection agencies and corrections facilities to enhance their ability to combat transnational criminal threats, including narcotics trafficking, and enhance coordination. Funds will also be used to develop the capacity of legal professionals to serve as trainers and to implement anti-corruption and economic crimes training programs throughout the country.
NEA Regional (TSCTP) ($2 million): The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region's security forces, and promoting democratic governance. Developing general policing capabilities in TSCTP member states advances USG objective through supporting and building law enforcement and border control services with the capacity to investigate and dismantle criminal and terrorist groups, interdict trafficking and smuggling, manage crime scenes, and cooperate with regional and USG law enforcement agencies in investigations of complex transnational crimes. INL is working in conjunction with the Department of States’ Bureau of Diplomatic Security and the Bureau of Counterterrorism and the regional bureaus on this endeavor.
West Bank/Gaza ($100 million): The FY 2010 request reflects new security assistance requirements and opportunities owing to the progress the program has made since August 2007 and new challenges that are arising. Funding will continue to focus on training, equipping, and garrisoning the National Security Forces (NSF) and Presidential Guard (PG) and will begin to provide limited justice sector, civilian police, and civil defense assistance. Funds will train and equip two more NSF battalions, and to build two more NSF operations camps. It includes funds to sustain capacity-building efforts in the MOI’s Strategic Planning Department and to expand specialized, advanced, and refresher training for the security forces in the West Bank. This will include a continuation of the Senior Leaders Course for representatives of all of the security forces, as well as further development of Instructor Development training for the NSF and PG.
Yemen ($1 million): Given threats to peace and security in Yemen, particularly from terrorist and other transnational groups, INL assistance will be used to help enhance security by building the capacity of Yemeni law enforcement to combat these threats. Funds will assist Yemeni law enforcement to use democratic policing standards, protect its population and critical infrastructure from terrorist acts, conduct investigations and dismantle criminal and terrorist organizations that operate within its borders.
Algeria ($1 million): The merger of Algeria’s domestic terrorist group with Al-Qaeda at the end of 2006 and the subsequent adaptation of suicide bombings and similar tactics in Algeria gave additional impetus to the U.S. Government to continue to expand its partnership with Algeria in fighting global terrorism. Programming will focus on those areas where Algeria’s capabilities are less fully developed; for example, in developing the capabilities to investigate international crimes, corruption controls, and stopping the flow of terrorism financing.
South Asia - $609.75 million
Afghanistan ($450 million): The U.S. will continue to work in cooperation with the international community to combat insecurity and narcotics proliferation in Afghanistan. Given these current challenges to the establishment of a fully functional democracy, INL will continue its efforts to improve national law enforcement capabilities, build the Afghan government’s capacity to manage drug control programs, strengthen the rule of law, and enhance public security in FY 2010. INL will support programs for crop control through public information campaigns; alternative development assistance; province-based dissuasion against planting; eradication of planted poppy; and drug control institution building that includes support for interdiction, public outreach, alternative development, and demand reduction programs. INL will also continue to work with the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and the international community in combined efforts towards strengthening the rule of law throughout Afghanistan. In particular, these efforts will focus on a National Justice Program, which provides a detailed plan to meet goals set forth in the Afghanistan National Development Strategy.
The USG will expand the Afghan Police training and mentoring program under the direction of and funding from the Department of Defense. In addition to continued support for current training programs at the Central Training Center and seven Regional Training Centers, INL will continue to provide oversight of Italian-led training of the Afghan National Civil Order Police, continue to work closely with the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A) and international partners on expanding the reach of Focused District Development, and maintain focus on moving further forward with the Ministry of Interior reform program.
INL will continue to support the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA). This effort will include expansion and training of the CNPA’s operational and investigative units, the National Interdiction Unit (NIU), the Sensitive Investigative Unit (SIU), and the Technical Investigative Unit (TIU). Funds will also be allocated to the operational support and maintenance of existing and new central and provincial facilities for the Afghan Ministry of Interior’s drug enforcement and interdiction forces.
The Afghan drug demand reduction program will address growing drug abuse rates, especially among women and children, and an emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic fueled by injecting drug use. Funds will be used to strengthen the operation of mosque-based prevention and aftercare programs as well as providing training in outreach and treatment skills, support faith-based organizations by providing youth with preventive drug education programs, promoting awareness among religious leaders and district council members of drug abuse issues, and establishing treatment facilities for drug dependents.
Bangladesh ($0.85 million): As Bangladesh returns to democracy after two years of an Army-supported caretaker government, INL assistance will support judicial reform and effective civilian law enforcement. Through the provision of appropriate legal experts, INL funds will be used to develop training programs, symposia and conferences on the role of legislative reform in supporting judicial reform. Efforts may also assist the Parliament to develop the research and drafting capacity required to generate laws that will bring Bangladesh into compliance with UN anti-crime conventions and facilitate the prosecution of transnational
Nepal ($3.7 million): Nepal has undergone tremendous changes in the past couple of years since the ten-year insurgency, and the challenges facing Nepal’s security forces are significant. Against an already difficult political backdrop, Nepal’s security sector lacks the resources for basic training and organizational development. The FY 2010 INL program will address those urgent needs through a law enforcement program working with the Nepal Police and the Armed Police Force (APF) to develop basic technical and investigative skills and improve the police department’s organizational framework. Along with the law enforcement program, INL will also work with prosecutors and judges in order to improve and enhance Nepal’s justice sector.
Pakistan ($155.2 million): The Border Security Program provides commodities and training to law enforcement agencies under the Ministry of Interior (MOI), including the Frontier Corps, Frontier Constabulary, the Tribal Levies, and the Pakistan Coast Guards. Border security roads open remote areas to law enforcement agencies, while along with counternarcotics roads, improve law enforcement mobility and border coverage, and allow forces to eradicate poppy and facilitate farmer-to-market access for legal crops.
The Law Enforcement Assistance and Criminal Justice Program provides training, funding, and support to projects designed to enhance the GOP’s law enforcement, counternarcotics, counterterrorism, and interdiction capabilities. Training, equipment, and mentoring assistance will enhance the modernization and capacity of Pakistani police nationwide, particularly through strengthened programs in the Northwest Frontier Province, Federally-Administered Tribal Areas, and Balochistan.
The Counternarcotics Program provides funding for projects designed to prevent and reduce drug abuse. To this end, the United States will continue to promote demand reduction programs, establish drug treatment and outreach centers, support crop control, eradication, alternative crop efforts, in addition to the farmer to market road projects mentioned above.
Western Hemisphere – $888.958 million
Bolivia ($26 million): In FY 2010, counternarcotics assistance to the Government of Bolivia (GOB) will continue to strengthen law enforcement cooperation and capability for interdiction operations, build local support for increased coca control, regulation, and eradication, and highlighting the damage to Bolivian society and Bolivia’s neighbors caused by increased coca cultivation and cocaine production. Funding in FY 2010 is directed primarily towards interdiction, but with sufficient eradication support for operations the GOB is willing to undertake, such as in the national parks. Assistance will directly support the police units that conduct interdiction operations and provide security for eradication operations, as well as the military counternarcotics units that provide ground, aviation and riverine support for the counternarcotics police. FY 2010 funding will continue logistics and maintenance support for vehicles, boats and aircraft deployed in interdiction and eradication operations. FY 2010 funds will also support drug prevention and treatment activities to enable civil society, through training and other interventions, to provide basic services the public sector remains incapable of delivering. Support for the Law Enforcement Training and Development Program will continue training for the Bolivian National Police Force in basic and advanced criminal investigation, advanced law enforcement techniques, and human rights.
Brazil ($1 million): Funds will contribute to the Government of Brazil’s efforts to increase its intelligence and investigative reach throughout the country in accordance with its new intelligence-based approach to counternarcotics operations. Funds will be directed to the Brazilian Federal Police (DPF) for the purchase of equipment for the Sensitive Investigative Units (SIUs) to support investigations and interdiction operations against major drug trafficking organizations present in and/or operating within Brazil. Funds will also maintain the Airport Interdiction program with the DPF, which is a strategic and necessary counterpart to the intelligence-based approach of the SIUs.
Colombia ($237.76 million): U.S. assistance has helped the government and people of Colombia make notable progress in combating the drug traffickers and narcotics traffickers/terrorists that only recently threatened the stability of this nation. Roughly 90 percent of the cocaine entering the United States is processed in Colombia and the country remains the primary source of heroin used east of the Mississippi River. Aggressive disruption of the illicit drug trade through a coordinated counternarcotics, alternative/economic development and security approach is a top USG priority and is aimed at supporting the larger Colombian Government consolidation plan. FY 2010 funds will help move Colombia closer to sustainable nationalization in several important counternarcotics programs, while supporting the Colombian Government’s integrated approach to building security and prosperity. While the Government of Colombia (GOC) has already taken ownership of several important programs, U.S. assistance will continue to be needed for activities such as training local aviation personnel, training and equipping Colombian police and supporting vital aviation operations, which are essential to the GOC’s ability to project its presence through the country and conduct interdiction, high-value target, humanitarian and aerial and manual eradication missions. In FY 2010, we seek to further Colombia’s transformational process in the areas of Peace and Security and Governing Justly and Democratically by continuing to support Colombia’s successful counternarcotics, public security, and judicial reform programs.
Ecuador ($7.6 million): Counternarcotics assistance for the Counternarcotics Police Directorate (DNA), which is responsible for nearly all of the land-based drug seizures in Ecuador, will support port and canine operations and acquisition of law enforcement and communications equipment. Funds will support expanding police presence and counternarcotics operations to sensitive outlying locations inadequately protected against narcotics trafficking. USG support will extend and refine training for judges, prosecutors, and judicial police in implementation of the new criminal code. Supporting the military and coastal control units on the border will further strengthen Ecuador’s ability to protect its national territory against narcotics-terrorist incursions and to seize illicit international shipments of drugs and precursor chemicals. It will also give these forces the ability to rapidly deploy to remote areas in response to reports of drug trafficking activity. USG assistance will support the training and operations of the Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU), a key to continued effective implementation of the money laundering law. Also, FY 2010 demand reduction support for the Ecuadorian Ministry of Education and non-governmental organizations will increase awareness of the dangers of drug abuse and disseminate information about abuse prevention.
Haiti ($18.5 million): The FY 2010 program is divided in three general categories: police programs (crime control assistance), corrections program (criminal justice assistance) and counterdrug programs. The U.S. will contribute up to 50 police officers and five corrections advisors to the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) stabilization mission. U.S. officers will continue providing expertise in the areas of academy training, field training, patrols, community policing, investigations, traffic, crime analysis, forensics, police management, supervisory skills, police administration, and other specialized skills. Technical assistance on corrections issues will be provided, as well as support for refurbishing some corrections facilities. Counternarcotics funding will support maritime interdiction, drug intelligence/interdiction and anti-money laundering programs. Specifically, funding will support: the operations of vetted units of Haitian police officers, established by DEA, with special authority to conduct drug investigations. Also, technical assistance and training by financial investigative mentors will be provided to the restructured Central Financial Intelligence Unit in support of anti-money laundering and anti-corruption efforts. Finally, in partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard, funding will continue the ongoing effort aimed at restoring the logistical and maintenance capacity of the HCG. The refurbishment of bases at Killick and Cap Haitien will continue and funding will be directed toward equipping and training the HCG for maritime drug interdiction operations.
Merida Initiative – Central America ($75 million): Funds will continue support to the seven countries of Central America in several areas of security: Counternarcotics; Counterterrorism; Border Security, Public Security and Law Enforcement; Institution Building and Rule of Law; and Transnational Crime. The first area will concentrate on improving regional information sharing and actions against traffickers by providing training, technical assistance, computerized information exchange, and renovations to maritime interdiction equipment, coupled with limited amounts of new maritime and inspection equipment. The second line of action will focus on improving police performance and helping partner countries fight gang crime through improved law enforcement and prevention. The third area of intervention will be to strengthen justice sector institutions, primarily through training. This includes courts, prosecutors, community policing, prison management, and public oversight to fight corruption. The fourth area will focus on developing a strategic plan to implement an effective anti-money laundering regime. It will provide technical assistance to help Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) develop greater efficiency in their fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. This will also include the creation of investigative units within tax authorities and training programs to help build corruption free investigative units, which will in turn support internal policing and effective prosecution of criminal offenses committed by employees and tax payers.
Merida Initiative – Mexico ($450 million): The FY 2010 program represents the third year of the multi-year $1.4 billion Merida Initiative and builds on the FY 2008 Supplemental and FY 2009 bridge funding of $263.5 million, as well as FY 2009 base and supplemental funding of $406 million. The proposed FY 2010 package is for $450 million for Mexico and $75 million for Central America. The overall objectives of the assistance are to break the power and impunity of criminal organizations; strengthen border, air, and maritime controls from the Southwest border of the United States to Panama; improve the capacity of justice systems in the region to conduct investigations and prosecutions; consolidate the rule of law, protect human rights, and reform prison management; curtail criminal gang activity; and reduce the demand for drugs throughout the region.
Mexico (base) ($9.325 million): The FY 2010 funds will strengthen the Government of Mexico’s (GOM) ability to control its borders, ports of entry, and choke points within its national transportation system through the detection and interdiction of illicit narcotics, contraband (including explosives, weapons and precursor chemicals), bulk cash shipments, trafficked/smuggled persons, and individuals seeking to enter the United States to conduct terrorist activities. The funding will enhance the GOM’s capabilities to disrupt the command and control of Mexico’s drug trafficking organizations. In order to maximize coordination of joint operations and investigations, INL will support GOM initiatives to improve its justice system and law enforcement capabilities by providing computers and communications equipment to establish a case-tracking system that will provide law enforcement officials access to a unified computer database, and enhance a project that identifies and facilitates the effective prosecution of violent human smugglers along the U.S./Mexico border. For example, INL will provide special investigative equipment, vehicles, and computers to support the new Federal Police Corps and its Special Investigative Units. FY 2010 funds will be used to provide a wide variety of law enforcement training, including specialized training courses such as ethics in government, criminal investigative techniques, crime scene search and preservation of evidence, and anti-corruption training.
Panama ($1 million): Funds will enhance Panama’s interdiction capability to disrupt the regional flow of illicit drugs, chemicals, weapons, and people by improving its law enforcement infrastructure, advancing law enforcement modernization, and increasing control of its borders and international ports of entry and exit.
Peru ($40 million): FY 2010 plans include continuing the enhancement capabilities of the Peruvian National Police Narcotics Directorate (DIRANDRO) to conduct advanced road interdiction, riot control, greater security for eradication teams, and interdiction in source-zone areas. The Government of Peru’s Coca Reduction Agency (CORAH) eradication operations will enter several difficult areas such as Polvora-Pizana and northern Huanuco. This activity will support creation of a coca free corridor that will extend from Northern San Martin, through the Upper Huallaga Valley and northern Huanuco along the Fernando Belaunde Terry Highway. An increased number of police and eradicators, and expansion of the area of operations will fully engage the Huey IIs, INL-owned fixed-wing aircraft, and available Peruvian MI-17 helicopters. FY 2010 funding will support fuel, maintenance, hangars and warehousing, aircraft rental when needed, and operational support for DIRAVPOL personnel. Additionally, FY 2010 funds will support advanced training for prosecutors who oversee police and military drug enforcement operations and maintain an on-going media campaign to better inform the Peruvian public about the issues surrounding the illegal drug trade.
Central America ($14.615 million): Funding in FY 2010 will concentrate on land and maritime interdiction of drugs and drug-generated cash in El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala, along with eradication of opium poppy, strengthening of prosecutors and technical assistance in legal reform in Guatemala. To complement the Regional Gangs program, FY 2010 funds will support anti-gang programs in Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Nicaragua, including community policing, improved investigation and prevention.
Caribbean ($7.16 million): The Caribbean accounts for an estimated 10 percent of the drug flow to the United States. FY 2010 funding will concentrate on the improvement of Caribbean capabilities in interdiction, law enforcement and administration of justice, with new additional focus on helping the Bahamas, Dominican Republic (DR) and Jamaica strengthen their maritime interdiction capabilities and cross-border cooperation (in the case of the DR and Haiti). To assist the DR in countering a significant increase in airborne and maritime drug trafficking activity, funds will be requested to establish an operation known as “Sovereign Skies” to build up the DR’s capabilities to maintain and operate existing air assets owned by that government. Also in the Bahamas, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, technical assistance will be provided to support vetted counterdrug units supervised by DEA. Funding will also support the development and prosecution of money laundering and other financial crime cases.
South America ($1 million): FY 2010 funding in Argentina will continue to support inter-agency interdiction operations through training and upgrading of equipment as well as sustaining the northern and eastern border task forces that target counternarcotics operations along the Bolivian border and in the sensitive Tri-Border area. Additionally, FY 2010 funding in Argentina will provide technical expertise in judicial reform and Intellectual Property Rights. In Paraguay, FY 2010 funds will support the narcotics detection canine program and provide technical assistance, training, and equipment to the anti-narcotics secretariat in order to boost its ability to conduct counternarcotics enforcement activities. Funds for Paraguay will also support an ongoing drug abuse awareness program. FY 2010 funding in Chile will provide equipment and training to law enforcement agencies to disrupt major trafficking organizations and support border enforcement and port security. In addition, funds will also support Chilean efforts to investigate and prosecute transnational crimes. In Uruguay, funds will be used to provide software and technical operations training to law enforcement as well as support for demand reduction activities.
Centrally-Managed Programs – $189.711 million
Anticrime Programs ($14.65 million): INL will continue to support a range of diplomatic and programmatic anti-crime initiatives focusing on alien smuggling, border security, money laundering, various intellectual property theft and cyber-related threats, and corruption.
Border Security/Alien Smuggling: INL works with our interagency and international partners to combat cross-border crimes including to interdict and halt alien smuggling as far from our borders as possible. INL provides law enforcement training to recipient governments in developing countries on ways to combat international migrant smuggling and illegal migration. INL assistance courses that focus cooperation on cross-border crimes provide technical, legal, and managerial training to enhance the participating foreign officials’ ability to implement border security professionally and effectively. Because of international crime and human smuggling and trafficking ignore or exploit national borders, INL programs promote international cooperation between the U.S. and our partners
Anti-Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing: INL will promote the use of legislative, enforcement and regulatory tools to deny criminals and terrorists access to financial institutions and markets. Funding will support continuation of the regional technical assistance/training program in the Pacific Island region. Regional programs are particularly cost effective because they provide training and assistance to several countries sharing similar terrorist financing and money laundering problems. Funding will also provide short- and long-term advisers to selected countries to help strengthen their overall anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing regimes. Through the UN Global Programme against Money Laundering (UNGPML), INL will fund an innovative “Financial Investigative Unit (FIU) in a Box” initiative that will develop scaled-down software that will enable small FIUs to collect, analyze and disseminate financial intelligence to domestic law enforcement and to other FIUs globally. INL will continue to fund UNGPML’s long-term residential mentoring program and innovative programs in the Western Hemisphere through the Organization of American States. INL will also continue to support multinational anti-money laundering organizations, such as the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and regional FATF-style bodies.
Cybercrime, Cyber security and Intellectual Property (IP) Crime: INL fills a key role in the overall USG strategy to combat criminal misuse of information technology through our ability to provide capacity-building training to foreign law enforcement. INL will continue to support law enforcement training and legislative-drafting workshops to combat IP crime in priority countries. INL also provides policy support and training assistance to our foreign partners to help them address criminal misuse of information technology.
Fighting Corruption: Effective efforts against crime and terrorism are bolstered by assisting countries to combat corruption. Funding will support several international mechanisms – at the U.N., Council of Europe, Organization of American States (OAS), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperative (APEC), MENA Governance for Development, and others – to monitor and assist implementation of anticorruption commitments by more than 100 nations. Funding will also support continued implementation of the UN Convention against Corruption, a comprehensive global framework to fight corruption that has been signed by 140 countries and ratified by 136. Recent initiatives in Africa and Eurasia that provide platforms for regional dialogue and training will continue to ramp up. Funding will also support application of Presidential Proclamation 7750 (no safe haven denial of entry to corrupt foreign officials and those who bribe them) and its application to extraction of natural resources per Congressional mandate.
Civilian Police Program ($4 million): Funds will the U.S. capacity to participate in international civilian police and criminal justice components of peacekeeping missions and respond to complex security operations. The FY 2010 program will expand INL’s capacity to manage and oversee the recruitment, selection, training, equipping, deployment and support for uniformed and non-uniformed U.S. civilian police and law enforcement, justice and corrections trainers, advisors and experts overseas participating in and supporting peacekeeping missions and complex security operations. The program will also maintain a capacity to deploy these U.S. advisors, trainers and experts. Funds additionally support development of relationships with federal, state and local law enforcement, justice and corrections associations, organizations and unions; promote high quality, standardized civilian police peacekeeping training; maintain INL management and oversight capabilities, and support in-house law enforcement, justice and corrections expertise. Funds will allow us to improve our capacity to implement these programs through outreach to domestic law enforcement agencies and by supporting international effort to create and deploy formed police units. INL expects to continue managing post conflict operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Kosovo, Haiti, Liberia, Lebanon and Sudan as well as new missions as determined by policy makers.
Criminal Youth Gangs ($7 million): FY 2010 funding will continue support for a regional advisor who will provide training and technical assistance to anti-gang units, other justice sector actors (including prisons) and community prevention groups in, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala. Prevention programs will continue in Belize, Nicaragua and Panama and will be extended to Panama. The FY 2010 program will also promote regional sharing of law-enforcement information. Activities will complement country-specific bilaterally funded activities and programs funded under the Merida Initiative.
Drug Awareness/Demand Reduction ($12.5 million): INL assistance will give particular attention to cocaine producing and transit countries in Latin America, the recurring amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) epidemic in Southeast Asia, the drug-related HIV/AIDS epidemics in Southeast Asia and Africa, the gang problem in Central America, the shortage of treatment facilities for addicted women and children worldwide, the dearth of prevention/treatment services in Africa, and the heroin threat and addiction problems in Southwest Asia and Afghanistan. A continued area of focus will be the Middle East and South Asia where over 400 Muslim-based anti-drug programs are members of an INL-sponsored civil society/drug prevention network.
The FY 2010 program is divided into three general categories. A training and technical assistance program, begun in 1990, imposes a four-year limit on all countries for receiving such assistance. Experience has shown that this period of time is sufficient for countries to implement self-sustaining programs based on training concepts, in addition to allowing enough time for accomplishment of outcomes such as sustained reductions in drug use by target populations. The research and demonstration program initiative that began in 2000 has a three/four-year time limit in order to allow the program to become self-sufficient and perfect “best practices” that can be subject to rigorous scientific evaluation. The evaluation component of these programs (by independent sources) continues for at least two years after program funding terminates in order to reliably assess sustained, long-term change (outcome). The coalition and network building program has a three-year time limit per region.
International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) and the Shared Security Partnership (SSP) Initiative ($36.7 million): Funds will continue to support the work of the established ILEAs ($19.5 million) in Bangkok, Budapest, Gaborone, Roswell, and San Salvador. Instruction will continue to focus on such critical topics as counter-terrorism, financial crimes, drug trafficking, gang proliferation, human smuggling, and rule of law. Other activities will include continuing to modify curricula for core and specialized curriculum to address emerging international criminal activities, and also continue construction activities for the permanent facility in San Salvador. FY 2010 is the first year of the SSP ($17.2 million), a new multi-year Administration initiative to expand bilateral, regional and multilateral partnerships focused on enhancing capabilities to address a wide array of common threats involving terrorism, drug trafficking, border security, nonproliferation of WMD, transnational crime, and other criminal activities. INL will work to establish a Regional Security Training Center (RSTC) for West Africa to serve as a venue to help strengthen law enforcement and broad security capabilities and partnerships in the region. In addition to RSTC, expert mobile training teams will be used to deliver training in selected countries and will focus on delivering specialized courses tailored to regional security needs. SSP funds will also support the transition of the Regional Training Center in Lima into a permanent ILEA for countries in the Southern Cone and Andean Regions; develop an internet-based ILEA Global Network that will establish a database of ILEA participants to encourage bilateral and regional law enforcement cooperation among ILEA alumni and USG counterparts; and to support program management and oversight responsibilities.
International Organizations ($4.5 million): In FY 2010, funds will be provided to support the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), its affiliated quasi-judicial International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), and the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission of the OAS (CICAD). UNODC, INCB, and CICAD are issue-specific international organizations that leverage U.S. contributions with those of other donors to conduct capacity-building programs and treaty implementation activities that directly support USG objectives. UNODC is the primary international organization that supports implementation of the three international drug control conventions, the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, and the UN Convention against Corruption. The United States was a primary architect of all five conventions. They mirror and globalize U.S. counternarcotics and anti-crime policies and establish the first ever global framework for international legal cooperation to investigate and prosecute serious transnational offenses. Funding to the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) supports the implementation of a U.S.-initiated system to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals used to manufacture methamphetamine, as well as other precursor chemical control operations. CICAD is the leading regional multilateral organization in the Western Hemisphere. Funding for CICAD will support the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM), legal development projects, supply reduction efforts, demand reduction and youth projects, and the maintenance of a hemispheric data collection system.
Critical Flight Safety Program (CFSP) – ($20.75M): CFSP is a multi-year program to modernize the INL air fleet and then provide ongoing life cycle fleet management (life cycle analysis, safety upgrades and programmed depot level maintenance). The primary objectives of the CFSP are to (1) ensure the structural integrity and airworthiness of all aircraft operated by the INL Air Wing, and (2) guarantee that Air Wing aircraft are maintainable, commercially supportable, and reliable. This program was previously funded under individual country program accounts but is now centrally managed (with the exception of Colombia, which remains under the country program for FY 2010). Ultimately, the CFSP will:
-- Increase the safety margin for aircrews and personnel flying aboard Air Wing aircraft.
-- Extend the service life of aircraft, thus maximizing their value to the USG.
-- Control or potentially eliminate excessively high maintenance and replacement parts cost growth rates by making aircraft more supportable through the use of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) resources.
-- Increase operational readiness and sustain mission success.
Interregional Aviation Support ($60.088 million): In FY 2010, the Interregional Aviation Support (IAS) budget will continue to provide core-level services necessary to operate the current fleet of over 140 fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. The IAS program will: continue to provide aerial eradication aviation support in Colombia while continuing to promote the transition of additional responsibilities to local control; continue to provide logistical and technical support and training to aviation programs in Peru and Bolivia; provide critical aviation support to counternarcotics efforts in Afghanistan and border security efforts in Pakistan; and will continue the new four helicopter air interdiction program in Guatemala directed against drug trafficking in the transit zone. This base of support is essential to sustain logistically depot-level maintenance and the safe and professional operational employment of INL air assets. This budget will be augmented with funding from various country programs to support specific, dynamic local U.S. Embassy and cooperating host government missions.
Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative (GPOI) ($5 million): Funds will be used to further enhance the development of stability policing/formed police unit capabilities for peace support operations. Funds will support ongoing activities at the Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units (CoESPU), a joint Italian-U.S. initiative to train formed police unit trainers. Assistance to CoESPU will include administrative and instructional support for training, curriculum aids, and support for students to attend programming at the school. Funds may also be used to staff a USG billet at CoESPU. Funds may be used to support training and equip activities as well as facilities refurbishment, and to build partner countries’ indigenous capability to train and deploy formed police units. Additional funding will be used to support ongoing efforts to develop internationally-accepted doctrine and training standards for FPUs to enhance global capabilities to deploy well-trained FPUs capable of a range of activities in support of critical peace support operations, such as the UN Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).
Program Development and Support (PD&S) ($24.523 million): Funds will be used for the domestic administrative operating costs associated with the Washington-based INL Staff. Funding covers the salaries and benefits of U.S. direct hire employees, personal services contracts, rehired annuitants and reimbursable support personnel. These funds also cover field travel necessary for program development, implementation, oversight and review, as well as for the advancement of international counternarcotics foreign policy objectives. PD&S funds are also used to maintain reliable and secure information resource management systems, and for office equipment rental, telephone services, printing and reproduction, and the purchase of materials, supplies, furniture and equipment.