printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

FY 2010 Program and Budget Guide: Africa


Report
Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
Share

Burkina Faso

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

100

100

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2010 INCLE program will strengthen the law enforcement capability of Burkina Faso to combat trafficking in persons and to deal sensitively with victims of trafficking. INCLE assistance will help Burkina Faso’s government and NGOs be effective and reliable partners with U.S., West African, and other international law enforcement partners in the battle against trafficking in persons.

Progress will be measured by (a) the number of individuals and groups apprehended and convicted for trafficking in persons offenses; (b) we will also be checking for better treatment of victims by government officials.

Broader Policy Considerations

FY 2010 INCLE trafficking in persons assistance to Burkina Faso will bolster efforts of the Government of Burkina Faso to assert the rule of law and contribute to the development of sustainable peace and security.

Program Justification

The United States in its relations with Burkina Faso has an interest in promoting democratic governance and human rights, regional stability and security, and economic growth and development. Combating trafficking in persons, while respecting human rights and the rule of law, is an important part of the role of civilian law enforcement agencies. An INCLE assistance program can help to foster professionalism in law enforcement, including respect for human rights and rule of law in a democratic society. Burkina Faso has a very low capacity to enforce its laws, and in the case of trafficking in persons, it lacks an appropriate legal framework so even modest INCLE assistance will have a very positive impact on Burkina’s ability to protect trafficking victims and develop an approach to deter trafficking in persons through more effective law enforcement.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific INCLE funding for Burkina Faso was requested for the first time in FY 2009. The modalities of final program implementation have not been decided.

FY 2010 Program

INCLE funds for trafficking in persons will be used in Burkina Faso to take action against trafficking in persons through criminal justice sector improvements, and/or support for protection and assistance services to victims, and/or trafficking prevention programs. Specifically, the funds will help to: develop comprehensive legislation; strengthen anti-trafficking laws and enforcement strategies; train criminal justice officials on those laws and practices and how to implement them; and/or develop victim-centered identification and assistance protocols and practices; and/or provide shelter and comprehensive protection and assistance services to victims.


Burkina Faso

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Trafficking in Persons

-

-

95

100

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

5

-

SubTotal

-

-

5

-

Total

-

-

100

100



Cape Verde

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

496

500

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

FY 2010 INCLE funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Cape Verde (GOCV) to combat narco-trafficking. The program will work to develop GOCV counternarcotics capacity in the law enforcement and judicial sectors to investigate and prosecute complex narcotics crimes.

Program effectiveness will be measured through a combination of output and outcome indicators. The number of law enforcement and judicial officials trained will be tracked. In addition, judicial and police experts will develop indexes to measure the institutional progress of law enforcement agencies that conduct effective investigations and judicial systems able to convict guilty traffickers.

Program Justification

The United States has excellent relations with Cape Verde, a democracy with strong historical ties to the United States and Western Europe. The group of islands constituting Cape Verde, a nation of about a half million people, lies 300 miles off the coast of West Africa and is thus strategically located in relation to North and South America, Europe and Africa. Because of its geographic location and the underdeveloped judicial system, Cape Verde is very vulnerable to transnational crime, particularly the trafficking of cocaine from Latin America to Europe. Drug trafficking, drug corruption, and related crimes have the potential to undermine the progress that Cape Verde has made as a democracy and a free market economy. At present, the extent of drug trafficking and money laundering in Cape Verde it is unknown.

Narco-trafficking through West Africa is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence in an already unstable sub-region with a history punctuated by civil wars and coups. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific INCLE funding for Cape Verde was requested for the first time in FY 2008. INL is presently implementing two projects: an FBI Training project to improve the capacity of local enforcement officers to deal with narcotics-trafficking street gangs, and a cooperative project with the U.S. Coast Guard which will permit Cape Verde law enforcement to patrol their territorial waters while embarked on U.S. Coast Guard vessels. The Coast Guard project should also develop Cape Verde’s capacity and assets to eventually be able to patrol territorial waters without Coast Guard assistance.

FY 2010 Program

In FY 2009 INL will lead an interagency assessment team to develop a comprehensive USG-wide approach to counternarcotics assistance in Cape Verde. This assessment will inform FY 2010 plans. Generally, the FY 2010 INCLE funds will be used to support investigations and prosecutions of mid and senior level narco-traffickers. The assessment findings will inform specific program design and ensure proper coordination both within the USG and with other donors.


Cape Verde

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

450

-

475

1,900

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

46

-

25

100

SubTotal

496

-

25

100

Total

496

-

500

2,000



Democratic Republic of Congo

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

1,488

1,500

1,700

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

To build the capacity of law enforcement services in the Democratic Republic of Congo to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes, as well as provide security in urban areas. Enhance police performance to positively impact the ability of the state to provide security service delivery and to support broader conflict mitigation.

Assistance will emphasize skills-based training, but also may include technical assistance and equipment delivery. Police academy development and training on general police skills will improve the capacity of DRC police to prevent crime and use developed techniques in criminal investigations. INL assistance will also focus on developing capacities in border control, customs, and related policing efforts that are complementary and reinforcing to efforts by other donors.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in the DRC will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement services in the DRC.

Program Justification

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a “rebuilding country” that has made some progress in addressing pressing political, economic and social challenges since completing historic democratic elections in 2006. The government has begun building state institutions accountable to the people and rebuilding professional police and judicial institutions that protect civilians and have the authority and willingness to combat crime and corruption. Ongoing conflict in the eastern provinces, however, points to the continuing need for international engagement and support for the transition to stability, and these challenges will test the government’s capacity to consolidate and build on democratic gains.

An emerging priority, as cooperation among the countries in the region increases, is providing assistance to the Congolese National Police and customs authorities on border controls. Japan, the only other international donor funding border management programs in the east besides the United States, recently announced in Kinshasa it had no follow-on year funds to continue its work in the Kivus.

Program Accomplishments

INL assistance in the DRC began in October 2008, with work to establish the Border Directorate in the Ituri District. Selection and training of Congolese command leaders and border police trainers is set to begin in summer 2009, and will provide the organizational structure and capacity necessary for institutional development and sustainment. Further development of the Congolese National Police and customs authority’s border control capability will be implemented with FY 2009 and FY 2010 INCLE funds. All activities will be closely coordinated with the host government and other international donors.

FY 2010 Program

Funds will continue sustainable improvements in the capacity of DRC law enforcement institutions. The program will focus on training and may include training for general policing skills, border guards, as well as police academy development, and specialized training courses. The program may also include technical assistance and equipment procurement.


Democratic Republic of Congo

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Crime Control/Civilian Police

1,438

-

1,450

1,650

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

50

-

50

50

SubTotal

50

-

50

50

Total

1,488

-

1,500

1,700


Ethiopia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

---

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL programs will enhance border security in Ethiopia and strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice sector to detect, investigate and prosecute crimes of concern to the U.S., including drug trafficking. Initiatives will focus on skills-based training for specialized law enforcement and border security units to improve their capability to deny use of borders and points of entry for illicit activity. Performance indicators will include increased numbers trained at training facilities as well as the development and implementation of modern curricula and teaching methodologies in select training facilities.

Program Justification

The on-going tensions stemming from the still-unresolved Ethiopia-Eritrea border conflict, several domestic insurgencies, and continuing instability in Somalia negatively impact economic development in Ethiopia. These factors make Ethiopia’s population vulnerable to transnational crimes such as trafficking in small arms or in persons.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2010 represents the first year of funding for this program

FY 2010 Program

The FY 2010 program will aim to achieve sustainable improvements in the capacity of select Ethiopian law enforcement and border institutions to interdict narcotics trafficking through training and assistance in such things as narcotics risk assessment profiling and selection, passenger examination, surveillance and intelligence, investigations, and drug testing kits. Programs will also provide assistance to enhance Ethiopia’s efforts to combat illegal migration and trafficking in people and other illegal contraband; and to promote human rights. Training and assistance will also focus on investigative techniques, collection of information, and information sharing among law enforcement and border agents.

Ethiopia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Border Control Development

-

-

-

450

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

-

50

SubTotal

-

-

-

50

Total

-

-

-

500


Ghana

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

496

500

500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2010 INCLE program for Ghana will focus on improving skills within the criminal justice sector to assemble and present evidence in sophisticated crime cases, such as narcotics trafficking and laundering the proceeds of crime. This will be done through the intermittent presence of onsite U.S. advisors, who will employ various methods for building skills which could include formal training workshops, on the job advice, and informal mentoring.

Progress will be measured by the number of complex crime cases brought to court and convictions secured.

Program Justification

Ghana is a leader in promoting peaceful conflict resolution in Africa and is a major contributor of troops to UN peacekeeping missions. Currently, Ghana has troops serving in missions in Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Lebanon. Ghana is also a key U.S. partner on counterterrorism and economic development. Within the African Union, Ghana projects substantial influence on issues of importance to the United States. Ghana is a significant transshipment point for illegal drugs, however, and this threatens both national security and Ghana’s ability to be a regional leader.

Narco-trafficking through West Africa is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence in an already unstable sub-region with a history punctuated by civil wars and coups. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength.

Program Accomplishments

Previous INCLE funded programs in Ghana have focused on community policing and countering trafficking in persons. In 2008, INCLE funds supported an intermittent legal advisor who worked with the Ghana Police Service to strengthen investigations into cases of trafficking in persons. In recognition of the rise in narco-trafficking through Ghana, INCLE funds have begun to focus on building counternarcotics capacity. An interagency assessment team visited Ghana in 2008 and developed a comprehensive plan for USG counternarcotics assistance to Ghana.

FY 2010 Program

Funds will be used to develop skills within the criminal justice sector to assemble evidence in sophisticated crime cases, such as narcotics trafficking and laundering the proceeds of crime, and to prosecute these complex crimes. This will be done through the intermittent presence of onsite US advisors, who will employ various methods for building skills which could include formal training workshops, on the job advice, and informal mentoring.


Ghana

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

450

-

500

475

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

46

-

-

25

SubTotal

46

-

-

25

Total

496

-

500

500


Guinea

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

100

110

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

FY 2010 INCLE funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Guinea (GOG) to combat narco-trafficking. A portion of the FY 2010 program funds will support a comprehensive assessment of the counternarcotics capacity in Guinea’s criminal justice sector. Guided by these findings, INCLE funds will support the development of investigation and intelligence capacity in Guinea’s counternarcotics agencies. No INCLE funding for assistance to Guinea, however, will be obligated until the military junta, currently in power, organizes and conducts free and fair elections for transition to an elected administration.

Program effectiveness will be measured through a combination of output and outcome indicators. The number of law enforcement and judicial officials trained will be tracked. In addition, judicial and police experts will develop indexes to measure the institutional progress of law enforcement agencies that conduct effective investigations and judicial systems able to convict guilty traffickers.

Program Justification

Located in West Africa adjacent to Sierra Leone, Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Senegal and Guinea-Bissau, Guinea is strategically important to the stability of the region. The United States wants to encourage the development of democracy in Guinea and discourage backsliding into authoritarian rule. We seek to encourage a more democratic Guinea to join its neighbors in playing an effective and helpful role in the region across a range of issues. Combating drug trafficking, while respecting human rights and the rule of law, is an important part of the role of civilian law enforcement agencies. An INCLE assistance program can help to foster professionalism in law enforcement, including addressing the major problem of public corruption.

Narco-trafficking through West Africa is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence in an already unstable sub-region with a history punctuated by civil wars and coups. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength.

Program Accomplishments

Country-specific INCLE funding for Guinea was requested for the first time in FY 2009. The modalities of final program implementation in Guinea have not been decided pending free and fair elections, transition to an elected administration and an assessment of needs by INL and the interagency.

FY 2010 Program

FY 2010 INCLE program funds will allow for an assessment of needs, and will assist the Government of Guinea to enhance its law enforcement counter-narcotics and drug related anti-corruption capabilities including against the transiting of Latin American cocaine through West Africa to European and other destinations. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, such as by the European Union and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities of Guinea to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers. Assistance may include basic police investigative skills, anti-corruption and money-laundering training.

Guinea

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

-

-

100

104

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

-

6

SubTotal

-

-

-

6

Total

-

-

100

110


Guinea-Bissau

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

600

100

3,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

FY 2010 INCLE funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Guinea-Bissau (GOGB) to combat narco-trafficking. The program will work to develop GOGB counternarcotics capacity in the judicial and law enforcement sectors.

Within the judicial sector, the program will address the laws, judicial accountability, and prosecutorial skills. Program objectives include strengthening the GOGB’s counternarcotics legal framework, developing a culture of judicial accountability, and improving prosecutors’ ability to present effective cases in court. FY 2010 INCLE funds will also support development of Guinea-Bissau’s counternarcotics law enforcement agencies’ investigation and intelligence capacity.

Program effectiveness will be measured through a combination of indicators. The number of law enforcement and judicial officials trained will be tracked. In addition, judicial and police experts will develop indexes to measure progress towards judicial accountability, prosecutorial effectiveness, and law enforcement investigation capabilities.

Program Justification

Guinea-Bissau is a major transshipment point for South American cocaine en route to Europe. Narco-trafficking is a grave threat to Guinea-Bissau’s stability and the risk of the country degenerating into a narco-state is a real possibility. The value of the cocaine being trafficked through Guinea-Bissau is likely greater than the entire national income. Guinea-Bissau has a long history of instability, most recently manifesting in the assassination of the Chief of the Army and killing of the President.

Narco-trafficking through West Africa is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength. As a major hub for drug trafficking in the region, Guinea-Bissau is central to the United States’ interests in regional stability and defeating the criminal organizations that threaten health and security in the United States.

The United States has good relations with Guinea-Bissau but there is currently no U.S. Embassy in Guinea-Bissau. The U.S. Ambassador to Senegal is also accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Embassy Dakar covers our relations with Guinea-Bissau.

Program Accomplishments

No FY 2008 INCLE funding was initially requested for Guinea-Bissau but as the urgency of the need to engage became clear, INL reprogrammed $600,000 from other sources. This money will be used to second a US prosecutor to the European Union (EU) Security Sector Reform Mission in Guinea-Bissau.

FY 2010 Program

INL led an interagency team to develop a USG-wide strategy for counternarcotics assistance to Guinea-Bissau. The FY 2010 INL program has been designed as part of this larger effort. INCLE funding will support institution building in the judicial and law enforcement sectors and civil society. This assistance will be designed to be supportive of and complementary to other international law enforcement assistance, notably by the EU and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Assistance will aim to increase the capabilities of authorities in Guinea-Bissau to investigate drug trafficking cases and to arrest and successfully prosecute drug traffickers

To support investigating and prosecuting drug traffickers, the FY 2010 program will seek to build a more robust counternarcotics legal framework. Accountability within the judiciary and Public Ministry will be strengthened both by working with the both the respective inspection offices and civil society. Technical assistance to the judicial system will also include enhancing prosecutors’ abilities to oversee investigations and present effective prosecutions in court. FY 2010 INCLE funds will complement other USG agencies in their efforts to build counternarcotics capacity in Guinea-Bissau’s law enforcement community. INL funds will also be used to support Washington based personnel’s effective monitoring and implementation of the program.


Guinea-Bissau

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

600

-

50

2,850

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

50

150

SubTotal

-

-

50

150

Total

600

-

100

3,000

Liberia

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

4,096

4,130

8,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

USG assistance supports the development of the Liberia National Police (LNP) force and its Emergency Response Unit (ERU) into a credible and competent police service that respects human rights and the rule of law. U.S. police officers work with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) as trainers, mentors, and advisors to the LNP and the ERU. U.S. police officers work with the LNP and ERU to encourage better police-community relations and discourage human rights violations. Members of the Senior Advisory Team (SAT) work with UNMIL to help the LNP leadership improve and establish personnel policies, internal affairs, logistics, payroll, discipline, promotion, and civilian oversight. Bolstering the operational and administrative capacity of the LNP is a critical precursor to the drawdown of the United Nations Mission in Liberia. USG assistance also provides non-lethal equipment and improves police infrastructure. Assistance will also be given to the LNP’s Police Support Unit (PSU).

U.S. legal experts work as advisors and mentors to legal professionals in the Liberian formal justice system. In addition, supplies and equipment are procured and donated to the various formal justice sector institutions. Support is also given to strengthening their physical infrastructure.

Program Justification

After more than two decades of conflict and instability, Liberia's ability to enforce its own laws and maintain the peace remains tenuous. The November 2005 election of Ellen Johnson –Sirleaf as President of Liberia, the first female president on the African continent, brought a new sense of hope to the Liberian people. Maintaining peace and stability by ensuring enforcement of Liberian laws is a top priority of the new President. LNP infrastructure and capabilities remain weak, posing significant challenges to effective law enforcement. The Liberian public views the police and other formal justice institutions with fear, skepticism, and mistrust. Strengthening the ability of the new Liberian government to address these and other rule of law and security sector problems is a key USG priority.

Since December 2003 the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) has been providing security and maintaining the peace with a UN Police (UNPOL) component of approximately 1,015 officers from 37 different nations. The U.S. contribution to UNMIL, which reached a high of 76 officers in early 2004, is critical to U.S. interests in maximizing effectiveness of UNMIL. There are 15 U.S. civilian police officers currently assigned to UNMIL. UNMIL delivered a draw-down plan to the Security Council in early 2006 linked to the security situation, an evaluation of progress on developing Liberian police and armed forces, and a forward-look assessment of Liberian capabilities to establish and maintain the rule of law. The UN is expected to remain in Liberia until at least mid 2011. It is crucial for the continued stability and development of Liberia that the LNP be able to provide peace and security upon UNMIL’s departure and that all justice institutions provide quality justice to all Liberians.

Program Accomplishments

In FY 2009 LNP employees underwent in-service training. U.S. police advisors continued providing technical advice and support to the LNP at the same time.

The Senior Advisor Team (SAT) has helped the LNP leadership draft and implement various management tools, such as an updated Police Duty Manual, new traffic codes and process for handling traffic violations, and a personnel verification and ID system in FY 2009.

The ERU trainers and advisors have trained the first several classes of ERU candidates and have helped the unit become operational in late 2008. The unit has also received assistance from other international donors. By the end of FY 2009 the ERU trainers and advisors will graduate 211 ERU candidates. Throughout FY 2009, the ERU trainers and advisors mentored ERU command staff and monitored daily operations. INL procured lethal and non-lethal equipment in February 2009 (the former with PKO funds) and it is being utilized effectively and responsibly by the ERU. The ERU headquarters is near completion. By July 2009 six ERU armorers received training and are securing and maintaining lethal equipment.

Development and reform of the formal justice system through the creation of human and institutional capacity continues. Through advising, mentoring, and training the competency of targeted Liberian legal professionals has improved markedly. Additional specific successes include the establishment the first public defender institution in Liberia, supporting the creation of the Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) Unit in the Ministry of Justice, working with the Ministry of Justice and the judiciary to develop strategic plans, and the drafting for and adoption by the Chief Justice of the Liberian Supreme Court of a case management reform plan.

FY 2010 Program

The FY 2010 CivPol program will continue the previous year’s activities. USG assistance has supported the development of the Liberia National Police (LNP) since 2003, and the LNP Emergency Response Unit (ERU) since 2007 through UNMIL. U.S. police officers will continue to work with the LNP as trainers, mentors, and advisors. The Senior Advisor Team (SAT) will increase and continue to support the LNP leadership improve and establish personnel policies, internal affairs, and civilian oversight. Additional ERU advisors will implement a field training and mentoring program for the ERU. Training and equipping of the Police Support Unit (PSU) within the LNP, the unit responsible for low-grade civil disorder management, will begin. USG assistance will also provide non-lethal equipment and improvements in police infrastructure.

The FY 2010 JSSL program will continue to provide legal experts to work with justice institutions, including the judiciary and Ministry of Justice. JSSL advisers will foster institutional reform, build capacity and encourage a more consistent and effective justice process. Technical assistance, training, equipping, and physical infrastructure development will be provided throughout Liberia. Among other specific areas of focus, JSSL advisors will provide assistance for counties outside of Monrovia, the corrections system, and the institution of the public defender. Various activities will be undertaken to advise, train, equip, and improve the physical infrastructure of all aspects of the formal justice system.

Funds will be used to maintain an INL office at post, staffed by a Foreign Service Officer and local staff or eligible family members. INL personnel from Washington will travel to Liberia to assist in program design and learning.

Liberia

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2009

FY 2010

Stabilization Ops & Security Sector Reform

4,096

3,730

7,550

Program Administration

-

400

450

Total

4,096

4,130

8,000


Mauritania

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Actual

FY 2010 Request

---

---

330

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The FY 2010 INCLE program for Mauritania remains circumscribed by legislative and policy constraints of U.S. funding triggered by the August 2008 coup and thus is intended to provide direct but limited counterterrorism training to law enforcement officials, such as port and airport security, where U.S. security interests are directly supported.

Progress will be measured by increased collaboration between operational U.S. and Mauritanian law enforcement agencies as well as by increased counter-terrorism investigations, arrests, and prosecutions.

Program Justification

It remains vital for the United States to maintain some level of cooperation with Mauritania on direct terrorism threats. The government's capacity for action remains limited and it is in U.S. interests to strengthen the government’s ability to control its borders and deal with direct threats. Mauritania is the only Islamic Republic, and one of only three Arab League states, to recognize Israel. Although there is strong public opinion against such recognition, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania has not yet completely ended its relationship with Israel. As an area of operation for Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and the site of numerous recent terrorist attacks against Western targets, Mauritania is critically important for U.S. counterterrorism goals in the region,

Program Accomplishments

This is the first year of INL funding in Mauritania.

FY 2010 Program

INL funds will build on previous INL and Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security assessments and Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) programs and provide technical assistance and training for law enforcement personnel and units to strengthen their capacity to address direct terrorist threats affecting Mauritania and the region. Projects will focus on enhancing airport, port and border security through the training of police and gendarmes to build capacity to interdict terrorist movements and other illicit activities taking place in Mauritania such as drug trafficking and migrant smuggling.

Mauritania

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Law Enforcement Support

Border Control

-

-

-

330

SubTotal

-

-

-

330

Total

-

-

-

330


Mozambique

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

---

300

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL’s objective in Mozambique is to improve border control at land borders and seaports of entry.

A strategic plan for border control is implemented. Improved detection techniques and training lead to a reduction in illegal migrants and human trafficking leaving and entering Mozambique; increased seizures of drugs and other contraband; increased customs revenue collection; and reduced processing time for international travelers and commercial shipments.

Program Justification

East and Southern Africa (Tanzania, Uganda, and Mozambique) comprise a transit route for African and Asian criminal activities including trafficking in narcotics, persons, and other contraband; alien smuggling; money laundering; financial crime; and terrorist attacks.

Mozambique is the southern Africa “middleman,” providing a vital outlet for landlocked countries such as Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Zambia and the Congo. Although South Africa boasts the longest coastline of any country on the continent, it also relies heavily on Mozambican ports because—for many of these countries—the ports in Mozambique are the closest and easiest for transshipment of goods.

A major challenge at ports of entry (POE) in Mozambique is the circumvention by immigrants of the designated official crossing points. The use of Mozambique as a thoroughfare for illegal aliens from the Horn of Africa and the Indian Sub-continent, who continue to South Africa (Mozambique and South Africa signed a bilateral agreement to lift visa requirements in early 2005) and further destinations, is detrimental to security and stability in the region.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Mozambique have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. A Border Security Program started in 2005 continued to develop and utilized INL funding to enhance the capability of point of entry-based immigration, customs, and law enforcement units to interdict criminal elements, and to quickly and accurately share information with relevant agencies. Under this program, a comprehensive port assessment of all the land borders identified areas that would benefit from additional assistance. In addition, the Government of Mozambique recently formed the Institution of Sea and Borders as a collaborative effort to secure its borders.

The Academy of Police Sciences (ACIPOL) in Mozambique was established in 2000 to train a class of new leaders to continue the anti-corruption efforts of the police. INL introduced several courses in instructor development and criminal investigations to ACIPOL cadets, select members of the Mozambican law enforcement community, and a handful of prosecutors, engendering greater cooperation between police and prosecutors. INL continued to provide training for police officers in basic skills and community policing for officer candidates at the Academy during the year.

A Community Policing Program expanded upon previous INL-funded activities, incorporating additional actors in Mozambique’s law enforcement community. As a result of the success of this program—specifically the bicycle patrol program—the Government is looking to expand the community policing program nationwide. The community-policing program allowed the police to begin gathering criminal intelligence and has assuaged some of the mistrust between the police and the community which they serve.

INL funds were also used for an anti-corruption program to improve the performance of the recently restructured Central Office for the Combat of Corruption, formerly the Anti-Corruption Unit, in the Attorney General's office. INL-funded training for prosecutors in investigative and case management skills. INL funds also supported a scholarship program for degree training in law and auditing for Attorney General personnel.

FY 2010 Program

FY 2010 funding will be used to continue improving Mozambique’s capacity to control its borders and general law enforcement institutional capacity building. Equipment and training will strengthen Mozambique’s virtually nonexistent ability to patrol its extended coastline, making Mozambique a less inviting country for clandestine movement across borders of people and contraband. Fighting trafficking in persons is a key objective for the government which has identified actors, both within and outside the government, to aid the fight against human trafficking and increase arrests. Technical assistance on border control and detection techniques at land ports of entry will be directed at Mozambican customs and other law enforcement entities. Funds will provide for train-the-trainer courses and seminars covering issues such as integrity, interdiction, and document fraud. Continued improvements to border security at these outlying posts will help make Mozambique a more difficult operating environment for cross-border crime, as well as bring it closer to international standards for border controls. Funds will also be used for Washington based personnel to effectively implement and monitor the program.

Mozambique

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Border Security

-

-

-

300

Total

-

-

-

300


Nigeria

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

590

720

2,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

INL objectives in Nigeria are to strengthen the capacity of Nigerian law enforcement agencies to combat organized crime such as drug trafficking, money laundering and other financial crimes. Over the middle-term, Nigerian enforcement should be able to target, investigate and convict the leadership elements of drug trafficking organizations.

Performance will be measured by the specific actions taken by Nigerian law enforcement agencies, including through cooperation with the United States and other partners, in investigating, arresting and prosecuting high level offenders among drug traffickers and perpetrators of other crimes such as money laundering and financial fraud.

Broader Police Goals

INL designs its assistance programs in Nigeria around the Department of State’s broad policy objective for Nigeria of Peace and Security. As the most populous country in sub-Saharan Africa, a prosperous and democratic Nigeria is vital to Africa’s growth and stability and is important as a strategic partner of the United States in Africa. Peaceful, democratic development in Nigeria depends on strengthening good governance and rule of law and combating corruption. Better managed, more capable law enforcement agencies will add to public faith in government and promote economic and social progress.

Program Justification

Nigeria is in great need of assistance programs advancing good governance and anti-corruption reforms through more effective and capable law enforcement and prosecution of criminals. Improvements in the capacity of the judicial sector will help strengthen civil society, increase economic productivity, and stimulate investment and job growth. The corrosive impact of corruption in Nigeria is evident at every level of government and limits what government can achieve. Years of military rule and economic decline also contributed to the expansion of narcotics trafficking and criminality in Nigeria. Nigerian organized crime groups dominate the African narcotics trade. Low average per capita income, severe unemployment and widespread corruption accentuate the incentives and the means for Nigerian criminal organizations to make Nigeria a major player in the international narcotics trade. Nigeria, as a drug-transiting crossroads, is on the U.S. list of major drug producing and drug-transit countries.

Criminal organizations in Nigeria are also engaged in money laundering and other forms of financial crime, such as Advance Fee Fraud, that defraud U.S. citizens and businesses. The Nigerian law enforcement agencies require increased training and professional enhancement in order to combat the threat of widespread criminality and to increase the faith of the public in rule of law under democratic government. Providing support to institutions involved in counternarcotics efforts and combating financial fraud is important for strengthening democratic institutions in Nigeria.

Program Accomplishments

Since its return to democratic government in 1999, Nigeria has taken some measures to strengthen efforts combating international crime emanating from Nigeria, including narcotics trafficking and financial fraud. It has also taken some steps focused on combating public corruption, money laundering and terrorist financing, but more is necessary.

Nigeria has been “certified” in recent years as cooperating with the United States in counter narcotics efforts. The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) has undergone a re-organization in an attempt to reduce corruption and promote a core system of values within the agency. The NDLEA has reconstituted the Joint Task Force and expressed a renewed commitment to continued cooperation with the United States. The DEA country attaché maintains close communication with the NDLEA Chairman and the INL Narcotics and Law Enforcement Advisor in Abuja also often consults with key NDLEA officials.

Between 2002 and 2007, INL conducted a number of specialized assistance programs for various agencies of the Nigerian Government concerned with law enforcement and criminal justice. Between 2002 and 2005, INL-funded training and equipment for components of the Nigerian Police Force (NPF), initially including election security and subsequently basic recruit training, as well as curricula for police academies and community policing techniques intended to assist in the reform and development of policing capabilities. INL also funded a technical advisor to the Police Service Commission (PSC) in order to promote civilian oversight of policing in a democracy.

INL provided training and equipment to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) for augmenting Nigerian capability to combat financial crimes, including Advance Fee Fraud and money laundering. INL provided training and equipment to the Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC) to assist in the investigation of corrupt public sector officials. An INL-funded U.S. Department of Justice prosecutor assisted by other TDY U.S. prosecutors and experts from U.S. law enforcement agencies provided advice and training to investigators, prosecutors and other officials of the ICPC, the EFCC, the National Agency for the Prohibition of Traffic in Persons (NAPTIP), the NDLEA, and the Ministry of Justice.

FY 2010 Program

Program objectives include continued strengthening of democratic governance in Nigeria through support for improved law enforcement capabilities, including protecting the United States against crimes emanating from Nigeria such as drug trafficking, money laundering and financial fraud. A key focus will be on supporting efforts of the NDLEA in investigating high level drug criminals and prosecuting kingpins. Efforts will also explore options for appropriate ways of assisting in the capacity building of those Nigerian institutions combating money laundering and financial fraud.

Program Development and Support (PD&S) funds will cover salaries, benefits, and allowances of permanently assigned U.S. and foreign national direct-hire and contract personnel, International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) costs, travel, TDY assistance, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the narcotics and law enforcement affairs programs. Funds will also be used for Washington based personnel to effectively monitor the program.

Nigeria

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Law Enforcement Support

Counternarcotics Support

-

-

120

1,000

Police Modernization

-

-

-

-

Financial Fraud

-

-

-

400

SubTotal

-

-

120

1,400

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

170

-

170

170

Non-U.S. Personnel

90

-

90

90

ICASS Costs

160

-

160

160

Program Support

170

-

180

180

SubTotal

590

-

600

600

Total

590

-

720

2,000


Sierra Leone

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

250

250

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Funds will strengthen the ability of the Government of Sierra Leone (GOSL) to combat narco-trafficking. The program will work to develop GOSL counternarcotics capacity in the law enforcement and judicial sectors.

In the law enforcement sector, FY 2010 funds will support the development of investigation and intelligence capacities in Sierra Leone’s counternarcotics agencies. These agencies will improve the collection and analysis of counter-drug intelligence and conduct investigations that support prosecutions. In the judicial sector, FY 2010 funds will enhance the judicial sector’s ability to prosecute and adjudicate complex narcotics cases.

Program effectiveness will be measured through a combination of output and outcome indicators. The number of law enforcement and judicial officials trained will be tracked. In addition, judicial and police experts will develop indexes to measure the institutional progress of law enforcement agencies that conduct effective investigations and judicial systems able to convict guilty traffickers.

Program Justification

Sierra Leone is a transshipment point for South American cocaine en route to Europe. Narco-trafficking is a threat to Sierra Leone’s security and the overall stability of the country. A brutal, 11-year civil war ended in 2002 and Sierra Leone is still a fragile, post-conflict nation. Diamond smuggling, with profits of tens of millions dollars a year, played a significant role in Sierra Leone’s civil war but is waning due to decreased demand and supply. It is estimated that the wholesale value of cocaine transiting West Africa is $1.8 billion a year. The potential for cocaine trafficking through Sierra Leone to increase and be destabilizing is significant, particularly with the export of diamonds diminishing.

Narco-trafficking through West Africa is of serious concern to the United States for two primary reasons. The first is its potentially destabilizing influence in an already unstable sub-region with a history punctuated by civil wars and coups. The second is that the proceeds of drugs trafficked through West Africa and sold in Europe flow to the same drug trafficking organizations that move cocaine to the United States and reinforce their financial strength.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 was the first year Sierra Leone receives INCLE funding.

FY 2010 Program

In FY 2009 INL will lead an interagency assessment team to develop a comprehensive USG-wide approach to counternarcotics assistance in Sierra Leone. This assessment will inform FY 2010 plans. Generally, the FY 2010 INCLE funds will be used to support investigations and prosecutions of mid and senior level narco-traffickers. The assessment findings will inform specific program design and ensure proper coordination both within the USG and with other donors. A significant cocaine case is currently in the courts. Analysis of this case, the first to be prosecuted under the 2008 Narcotics Control Act, will reveal GOSL strengths upon which to build and highlight areas of weakness FY 2010 funds can address.

Sierra Leone

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Counternarcotics

-

-

200

237

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

50

13

SubTotal

-

-

50

13

Total

-

-

250

250

Sudan

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

13,578

10,000

15,400

24,000

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

The two primary objectives of the INL Sudan program are: (1) the development of Criminal Justice sector institutions in Southern Sudan, and (2) support for the implementation and operation of policing missions (CIVPOL) in the UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as well as the UN/African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).

The Criminal Justice Development program with the Government of Southern Sudan (GOSS) is implemented in the form of support for police, justice, and corrections components. Technical experts and trainers are deployed to assist the GOSS in developing and implementing strategies for criminal justice reform, and training and equipping criminal justice sector personnel.

Support for the Southern Sudanese Police Service (SSPS) will be measured in terms of the number of trainers trained by U.S. police advisors and the expansion of training into areas outside of Juba, Bor and Rumbek. Performance of justice sector assistance will be measured in terms of case disposition time in courts assisted by INL and the number of laws passed to the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly. The corrections program will be measured in terms of the number of prison service officers and trainers trained by corrections advisors.

The CIVPOL program provides funding for U.S. police advisors working under the command of UNMIS. INL support to UNMIS includes 11 police officers that are helping Sudan transform its police into a credible and competent service that respects human rights and rule of law. It also includes 4 judicial and corrections advisors that mentor and monitor Sudanese counterparts to develop a more consistent and better functioning justice process. The deployment of U.S. police with UNMIS demonstrates U.S. support for the CPA and for the UN’s efforts in developing rule of law throughout Sudan.

The U.S. has also begun providing support to the AU-UN Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID). INL intends to deploy up to 10 U.S. Police Advisors to advise, mentor and monitor Sudanese police in Darfur. INCLE funds also support the deployment of Formed Police Units (FPU) to Darfur, a critical precursor to the safe and secure establishment of the UN/AU mission.

The performance of the CIVPOL program will be measured by the number of Sudanese officers trained and mentored by U.S. advisors, as well as by the number and success of ad hoc activities conducted by the U.S. advisors such as development of training curriculum. Support for UNAMID will be measured by the number of PFUs supported and deployed and the number of Sudanese police trained and mentored.

Program Justification

INL programs in Sudan support two primary U.S. foreign policy goals including consolidating the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and stabilizing Darfur. INL supports the CPA through bilateral programs with the GOSS which assist in developing institutional capacity of the criminal justice system in Southern Sudan, and through multilateral programs which support the efforts of UNMIS and UNAMID. Strengthening criminal justice sector institutions in Southern Sudan will help generate public confidence in both the GOSS and the CPA and will help to provide the security needed to carry out peaceful elections in February 2010 and a democratic referendum in 2011. U.S. Police Advisors working under UNMIS and funded through INCLE provide key resources towards the establishment of security in Southern Sudan. Furthermore, assistance to UNMIS helps to mitigate localized conflict and monitor geographic flashpoints while GOSS security and rule of law capabilities are stood-up. INL assistance to UNAMID involves providing U.S. Police Advisors as well as equipping other countries that contribute Police Advisors. U.S. Police Advisors may prove to be a critical component to UNAMID’s ability to bring stability to Darfur. Security in Darfur will be further enhanced by INL through careful training and equipping of foreign FPUs.

Program Accomplishments

INL bilateral programs have deployed more than five senior advisors to assist and support development of Southern Sudan’s Law Enforcement and Judicial systems under the oversight of an INL Director in Juba. A Resident Legal Advisor provides assistance to the Ministry of Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development (MOLACD) in drafting and printing legislation. INL will soon add a Justice Officer to the program to assist with issues pertaining to Customary Law. Among other initiatives, Police Advisors have been assisting with curriculum development and training. INL expects to add three additional Police Advisors in order to expand the reach of the training to sites beyond Juba, including Bor and Rumbek as well as a Police Training Consultant to provide further assistance in curriculum development. In FY 2009, INL successfully carried out two Instructor Development courses, which included approximately 18 individuals among the Southern Sudanese Police Service (SSPS) and members on the Ministry of Legal Affairs and Constitutional Development (MOLACD). In order to support the reformation of Southern Sudanese Corrections institutions, INL partnered with UNODC to carry out workshops and training as well as to assist the GOSS with improvements in prison infrastructure buildup.

Multilateral programs have supported the deployment of 15 officers to UNMIS. These deployments continued to include law enforcement, judicial and corrections officers. In addition to its traditional programs, INL is using FY 2008
Supplemental funds and working closely with the Political and Military bureau (PM) to support the deployment of Formed Police Units (FPU) to Darfur. INL may leverage its funding toward the deployment of Mobile Training Teams (MTTs), which first train and evaluate FPUs prior to the donation of equipment and deployment.

FY 2010 Program

As in previous years, the FY 2010 program will include both bilateral and multilateral components. The bilateral program will continue to focus on reform of criminal justice sector institutions in all three components of a functioning Criminal Justice system – law enforcement, justice, and corrections. Advisors will continue to assist the GOSS with training, which is expected to expand to further sites and include a greater number of graduates. The program will also involve equipment procurement and infrastructure development, including the establishment of a central training academy. The U.S. bilateral efforts will complement INL multilateral efforts, which will continue to support UNMIS. Through support to UNMIS and UNAMID, INL will continue to engage in the multilateral international police effort to maintain peace and stability in Sudan.

Civilian Police (CIVPOL)

INL funds will continue to support the deployment of up to 15 U.S. police officers to UNMIS. U.S. officers will provide expertise in training, mentoring, and curriculum development. Activities will include patrols and monitoring of key areas in Sudan, and providing an official presence to encourage and support CPA implementation.

Additionally, increased funding in FY 2010 will enable INL to strengthen its support for Darfur. The size of the US contingent will increase to 15-20 officers, thereby expanding the opportunity to impact enhanced security in IDP camps and other locations where CIVPOL will be deployed. U.S. advisors will also help to develop and monitor rule of law in Darfur.

GOSS Police Development

The GOSS Police Development program will build the institutional capacities of the Southern Sudanese Police Service to better support the CPA and maintain security needed to carry out peaceful elections and a democratic referendum. Projects will include infrastructure development, equipment donations, training and the deployment of U.S. law enforcement experts to build criminal justice and election security capacity in Southern Sudan. Specifically this will include infrastructure development projects for police stations, equipment donations and an expansion of training of Southern Sudanese Police to 1,500 officers and to additional sites outside of Juba, Bor and Rumbek. Police Advisors will continue to design training curriculum and carry out instructor development training as well as comprehensive police development projects.

Criminal Justice Reform

INL will continue to support Justice Sector reform in Southern Sudan to ensure that the judicial system meets the basic legal needs of communities and that the formal judicial system can function in tandem with customary legal systems. Increased funding will allow an expansion of training for judges, prosecutors, judicial staff, Legal Affairs staff, and customary justice officials. INL will implement projects to improve and speed up case management and harmonize the relationship between long existing customary legal systems and the formal justice system in Southern Sudan. The program will also support infrastructure development for Southern Sudan's Judiciary and MOLACD, including the refurbishment or construction of state courts, judicial training facilities and a training center for the MOLACD. INL assistance in FY 2010 will strengthen the capacity of the criminal justice system to support a democratic referendum in 2011.

Correctional Development

INL will deploy additional Corrections experts in order to continue supporting the GOSS in further developing a Corrections system that is secure and meets international human rights standards. Activities will also include technical advice and additional training and workshops for Corrections administrators in order to improve security and human rights performance. Additional funds will also support the refurbishment of prison facilities and the procurement of essential equipment for Corrections officers.

Program Development and Support

PD&S funds will be used for the salaries, benefits, allowances, and travel of direct-hire and contract U.S. and foreign national personnel, and other general administrative and operating expenses for program planning, design, implementation, monitoring, management and evaluation. INL funds will also be used to support Washington-based personnel’s effective monitoring and implementation of the program.

Sudan

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008

Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Crime Control/Civilian Police

4,900

10,000

5,000

6,000

Police Development and Reform

4,878

-

6,100

11,000

Criminal Justice Development

Justice Reform

1,850

-

1,850

3,000

Correctional Services Development

1,450

-

1,450

3,000

SubTotal

3,300

-

3,300

6,000

Program Development & Support

U.S. Personnel

150

-

300

300

Non-U.S. Personnel

100

-

200

200

ICASS Costs

-

-

100

100

Program Support

250

-

400

400

SubTotal

500

-

1,000

1,000

Total

13,578

10,000

15,400

24,000

Tanzania

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

---

450

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Improve law enforcement capabilities in Tanzania through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement organizations.

Increase numbers trained at select police training facilities; develop and implement modern curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select police training facilities; develop and implement strategic plans for improving law enforcement training; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation results in more effective law enforcement.

Program Justification

Tanzania is a key U.S. ally in East Africa that has maintained a stable government since independence. The 1998 terrorist bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Dar es Salaam served to bring the governments of Tanzania and the United States into a closer economic, political, and security alliance.

While the situation in Tanzania has improved, the threat of terrorism remains at a critical level, partly due to porous borders and the perception that terrorists can act with impunity and little risk of detection in the country. The crime environment is permissive, as indicated by the increasing frequency of criminals carrying firearms. Tanzania's long and poorly controlled border fails to prevent would-be criminals and bandits from other countries from entering it.

Tanzania is located along trafficking routes linking Latin America, the Middle East and Asia as well South Africa, Europe and, to a lesser extent, the United States. Drugs like hashish, cocaine, heroin, mandrax, and opium have found their way into and through Tanzania's porous borders. Tanzanian institutions have minimal capacity to combat drug trafficking, and corruption reduces that capacity still further.

Program Accomplishments

Prior to 2008, the law enforcement development program in Tanzania flourished with limited funding. During those years, the Tanzanian Police Force (TPF) received civil disorder management training (CDM), including the development of a riot deployment strategy designed by command-level officers with the assistance of a U.S. advisor. Having institutionalized CDM training at its basic academy in Masindi, the TPF trained an additional one thousand TPF members in CDM. In June 2006, INL funded a one-week CDM course to TPF personnel to review lessons learned from the 2005 election.

FY 2010 Program

The program in Tanzania will be based on an in-country assessment, and FY 2010 INL funds will be used for programs recommended in the assessment. We anticipate that the assistance will help advance the Mission’s long-term strategy of modernizing Tanzania’s law enforcement system through programs such as training, advice and mentoring.

Tanzania

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Police Development and Reform

-

-

-

450

Total

-

-

-

450


Uganda

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

---

385

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in Uganda will continue through the modernization and professionalization of law enforcement agencies. Support police performance to positively impact the ability of the state to provide security service delivery and to support broader conflict mitigation. Training will focus on further development of community policing techniques, particularly in Northern Uganda, when feasible.

Increased numbers trained in community-based policing; development and implementation of community engagement by police; development and implementation of plans to improve law enforcement responsibility and rule of law; an increase in investigations conducted as a result of community involvement and cooperation with police; and improved bilateral law enforcement cooperation result in more effective law enforcement.

Program Justification

Uganda has established itself as a regional leader advancing efforts to resolve conflicts in Congo, Sudan, Burundi, Somalia and in its own northern region. Conflicts in the north have furthered Uganda’s struggle to transition to a fully representative, multiparty democracy. The needs in northern Uganda include better security, continued reintegration of ex-combatants, and increasing steps towards national reconciliation. As northern Uganda transitions from a conflict emergency to more traditional development assistance, increasing support will be needed to ensure stability. By making Uganda less attractive to criminal elements and enhancing the stature and legitimacy of police authorities, INL programs foster the rule of law that forms the bedrock upon which the USG’s broader strategic goals of democracy, prosperity, and peace and security are established.

Program Accomplishments

Programs aimed at institutional law enforcement development in Sub-Saharan Africa have met with success despite limited funding and brief histories. Notable among these successes has been the investment by the government of Uganda which has maximized INL assistance by replicating USG training and methods, and funding laboratory upgrades beyond those provided by INL.

In 2004, the Ugandan government began applying the U.S.-developed training curriculum to train over 500 Ugandan Police Force (UPF) recruits. In February 2004, instructors taught a 16-week Basic Skills Development Program using a “train-the-trainer” curriculum with 24 instructors from the UPF: twelve officer and twelve basic recruit instructors. In May 2005, INL-funded management training for field training officers in the UPF, which built upon the basic skills training development program conducted in 2004. Case management training took place during the year. Furthermore, a G/TIP funded police training program was widely successful, reaching 2000 officers in two months.

Forensic training for the UPF, which began in 2004, continued in subsequent years. A Senior Forensic Advisor advised on the lab design during the renovation of the building to house the forensic lab. INL-funded trainers also provided training to the laboratory staff in Crime Scene Investigation, Basic and Advanced Fingerprint Examination, Digital Photography and specialized Computer Software Programs. Additionally, INL funds were used to provide equipment and advanced training in Forensic Autopsy Procedures to the forensic pathologists at Mulago Hospital, which performs autopsies for the UPF. A student of a 2005 INL-funded fingerprint course was called to a crime scene involving major U.S. currency fraud. Using a specialized technique (never before used in Uganda) and advice offered by the TA, a fingerprint was successfully lifted and subsequently identified as belonging to a suspect who had been arrested. This was the only direct evidence that the police obtained linking the suspect to the package.

FY 2010 Program

Building on previous cooperation with the Ugandan police and a country assessment that will be conducted by INL , the FY 2010 program will focus on strengthening the law enforcement sector by professionalizing the UPF, improving police-community relationships, and supporting law enforcement institutional capacity building. Other potential areas for collaboration may include first responder, crime scene protection, criminal procedures, evidence handling, case analysis, trial preparation, and/or trial advocacy.

In addition, funding should be used to help government of Uganda to take action towards the eradication of trafficking in persons through criminal justice sector improvements including training of law enforcement and the judiciary, providing support for protection and assistance services to victims, and trafficking prevention programs.


Uganda

INL Budget

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Modernization

-

-

-

150

Trafficking in Persons

-

-

-

235

Total

-

-

-

385


Africa Regional

Budget Summary ($000)

FY 2008 Actual

FY 2009 Estimate

FY 2010 Request

---

3,000

4,500

Program Objectives and Performance Indicators

Our strategic vision is to build the capacity of law enforcement institutions within the Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership (TSCTP) member governments to prevent and respond to terrorism.

INCLE funds will assist in the development of the capacities of law enforcement organizations in the pan-Sahel (Mauritania, Mali, Chad, and Niger, as well as Nigeria and Senegal) to confront the challenge posed by terrorist organizations in the region and to facilitate cooperation between those countries and other Maghreb state partners in combating terrorism. Assistance could provide training, technical assistance and equipment to TSCTP member law enforcement institutions to develop their capacity in civilian law enforcement based on needs.

Sustainable improvements in law enforcement capabilities in TSCTP member states will be achieved through the modernization and professionalization of select civilian law enforcement units.

Performance will be measured by the numbers of law enforcement officials trained; the development and implementation of modern police curricula and adult teaching methodologies in select training facilities; and the increased capacity of law enforcement officials to detect, investigate and dismantle terrorist groups and other crimes.

Program Justification

The Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Partnership is a multi-faceted, multi-year strategy aimed at defeating terrorist organizations by strengthening regional counterterrorism capabilities, enhancing and institutionalizing cooperation among the region's security forces, promoting democratic governance, discrediting terrorist ideology, and reinforcing bilateral military ties with the United States.

The FY 2010 program would provide regional INCLE funds to focus on developing the capabilities of partner law enforcement institutions through training, equipment and technical assistance with the aim to help build strong foundations for ongoing and planned law enforcement training activities in counterterrorism under the TSCTP. Programming will focus on counterterrorism and seek to build a base for other TSCTP programs.

Program Accomplishments

FY 2009 funds represent the first year for INL assistance in TSCTP. INL will launch projects in Mali and Niger to begin police training and technical assistance planning and implementation through the deployment of policing advisors and trainers. All activities will be closely coordinated with the interagency partners, host governments and other international donors. Implementation will be coordinated with the Department of State’s Bureau of Diplomatic Security activities and training already underway as part of TSCTP which enhance counterterrorism focused law enforcement capabilities in the region.

FY 2010 Program

Funding will provide training, technical assistance and equipment to TSCTP law enforcement institutions to develop their capacity in general policing skills, based on needs. Programs will be designed in coordination with Posts, interagency implementers and host governments. Assistance may include training and technical advising on investigatory techniques, surveillance, crime scene management and evidence collection. Other options include: police equipment support, train and equip programs for specialized police units, police academy development, technical assistance in border control, and training in general and advanced policing skills such as anti-money laundering and counter terrorist financing. Funds will also be used for Washington-based personnel to effectively monitor and implement the program.



Africa Regional

INL BUDGET

($000)

FY 2008

FY 2008
Supp

FY 2009

FY 2010

Stabilization Operations

-

-

-

-

Security Sector Reform (TSCTP)

-

-

2,200

4,170

Sub-Total

-

-

2,200

4,170

Trafficking in Persons

-

-

475

-

Program Development and Support

U.S. Personnel

-

-

200

230

Non-U.S. Personnel

-

-

-

-

ICASS Costs

-

-

-

-

Program Support

-

-

125

100

Sub-Total

-

-

325

330

Total

-

-

3,000

4,500



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.