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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Resources: Protracted Refugee Situations

Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
February 25, 2011


Fact Sheet:

Key links:

Key publications:

Background Reading:

Links to the most relevant articles from the Forced Migration Online search:
  1. The Changing Role of the UN in Protracted Crises, B.D. Jones
  2. Beyond the Continuum: An Overview of the Changing Role of Aid Policy in Protracted Situations, A. Harmer & J. Macrae
  3. Development During Crisis: Promoting Asset-building in Protracted Refugee Situations, Topher Leinberger McDougal
  4. Responding to protracted refugee situations: a case study of Liberian refugees in Ghana, Shelly Dick
  5. Responding to protracted refugee situations: a case study of Liberian refugees in Côte d'Ivoire, Tom Kuhlman
  6. Minimum standards and essential needs in a protracted refugee situation: a review of the UNHCR programme in Kakuma, Kenya, Arafat Jamal
  7. Comprehensive solutions: a 'whole-of-government' approach, Adele Dion
  8. Doubly forgotten, Thais Bessa
  9. Understanding the Challenge, Gil Loescher and James Milner
  10. Durable Solutions for Burundian Refugees in Tanzania, Jessie Thomson
  11. Burundi: Seven Years of Refugee Return, Andreas Kirchhoff
  12. The forgotten solution: local integration for refugees in developing countries, Karen Jacobsen.
  13. Food security assessments, self-reliance, targeting and phasing out in ongoing refugee situations: summary report of an inter-agency workshop, Rome, 3-5 November 1999
  14. Improving quality and attainment in refugee schools: the case of the Bhutanese refugees in Nepal, Timothy Brown
Links to other articles (UNHCR, etc):
  1. Refugees and mobility: The way that mobility is dealt with in respect of protracted refugee situations shows a gap between social practices and international policies, Giulia Scalettaris.
  2. Voices on Education in Protracted Refugee Situations: Reflections and Recommendations of Sudanese Refugees, Jane Courtney Langan
  3. A community-based approach to refugee protection in a protracted refugee situation, Joel Harding and Sheila Varadan. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine.
  4. Development During Crisis: promoting Asset Building in Protracted Refugee Situations, Topher McDougal. MIT International Review.

International legal instruments related to protracted refugee situations include:

  • 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 14
  • 1949 Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War
  • 1950 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Articles 3-6, 8-10, 13-14, 16
  • 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and 1967 Protocol
  • 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Articles 2, 12 and 13
  • 1969 European Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa
  • 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict (Protocol 1)
  • 1984 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Article 3
  • 1984 Cartagena Declaration on Refugees
  • 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 22
  • 1990 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 13
  • 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
  • 1994 Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (“Convention of Belem do Para”)

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