President’s Interagency Task Force (PITF)
• On April 9, 2013, the White House hosted a Forum to Combat Human Trafficking to highlight the significant progress the Obama Administration has made, including developments since President Obama delivered his first ever full-length speech on the fight to end trafficking in persons at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) in September 2012. The event brought together leaders from government, the private sector, advocates and survivors, faith leaders, law enforcement, and academics to discuss ideas for ending human trafficking. Notable guests included Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett, Assistant to the President and U.S. Chief Technology Officer Todd Park, Attorney General Eric Holder, Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) Deputy Secretary Bill Corr, National Survivor Network Survivor Organizer Ima Matul, Chair of the President’s Advisory Council on Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships Susie Stern, and Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Luis CdeBaca. The Forum highlighted new technology that is being used to help victims, connect them to services, and expose traffickers, and featured demonstrations of tools focused on reaching victims, including Polaris Project’s new texting capability for integration into the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC), a new victim outreach tool from FAIR Girls, and Thorn’s new technology-based tool that helps law enforcement better identify child sex trafficking victims in online environments.
• On May 17, 2013, the Obama Administration held its fourth meeting of the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (PITF) and focused on efforts related to victim services, government procurement and supply chains, rule of law, and public awareness and outreach initiatives. Secretary of State John Kerry chaired the meeting – the second to be live-streamed from the White House. Senior Advisor to the President Valerie Jarrett opened the meeting and discussed the importance of the issue to President Obama, and Denis McDonough, President Obama’s Chief of Staff, highlighted key accomplishments over the year including the development of: regulations to address government procurement and contracting, a strategic action plan on services for trafficking victims, private-public partnerships to provide technology tools for law enforcement, and efforts to spur awareness on college campuses and among consumers and suppliers.
• After an interagency nomination process, Secretary of State John Kerry presented the first Presidential Award for Extraordinary Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons to survivor advocate Florrie Burke and hospitality and travel company Carlson at the beginning of the May 17 meeting of the PITF. Ms. Burke and Former Carlson Chairman and CEO Ms. Marilyn Carlson Nelson also were honored at the April 9, 2013 White House Forum to Combat Human Trafficking.
• In September 2013, the Obama Administration published a progress report highlighting key milestones achieved and announcing new initiatives and commitments to deliver on the vision laid out by the President in September 2012.
Throughout 2013 and into 2014, the White House and PITF agencies announced a number of collaborative initiatives, programs, policies, and partnerships, including:
• The Department of Justice (DOJ), HHS, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), co-chairs of the Senior Policy Operating Group (SPOG) Victim Services Committee in partnership with PITF agencies, developed the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States 2013-2017, which was released in January 2014.
• The SPOG Grantmaking Committee, co-chaired by the Departments of State (DOS) and Labor (DOL), continued to share information on matters relating to international and domestic grants and funding priorities to inform funding decisions and to ensure programs are strategic and not duplicative.
• The SPOG Procurement and Supply Chain Committee, co-chaired by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), DOS, and DOL, which focuses on the implementation of Executive Order 13627 and the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), worked to gather data on the sectors at greatest risk of trafficking-related activities in federal contracts and global supply chains with the aim of helping agencies implement controls and training to improve monitoring and compliance.
• The SPOG Research and Data Committee, co-chaired by DOS and DOJ, updated and improved a matrix on all human trafficking research funded across the U.S. Government in order to provide the public with a transparent and user-friendly listing of all federally funded research and enable federal agencies to ensure their future research projects are complementary and not duplicative of previous studies.
• The Partnership for Freedom, a public-private partnership with DOJ, HHS, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and Humanity United, launched the first of three innovation competitions, “Reimagine: Opportunity,” dedicated to improving the infrastructure of support for survivors of modern day slavery, and hosted an Innovation Workshop for the 12 finalists in January 2014.
• The FAR Council, working with several agencies, developed a proposed rule to implement Executive Order (E.O.) 13627 and Title XVII of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013, which is being finalized after a public comment period.
• DOJ, DHS, and DOL collaborated in developing high-impact human trafficking investigations through six pilot Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams (ACTeams), developed regional strategic plans, implemented coordinated strategies, and disseminated ACTeams Operations Guides.
• DOJ, together with DHS, DOS, and HHS, hosted a one-day Survivor Forum and Listening Session for a diverse group of 19 human trafficking survivors to gain insight on appropriately engaging survivors in developing more effective programs and strategies.
• HHS launched the SOAR to Health and Wellness Network at the annual meeting of CGI in September 2013, a pilot initiative designed to educate medical and health care providers on how to identify and serve victims of human trafficking, in coordination with DOJ, DHS, DOS, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).
• The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), in dialogue with other federal agencies, private industry, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), academia, and law enforcement, launched an initiative designed to identify financial red flags and provide guidance to financial institutions on how to detect and properly report suspected human trafficking. FinCEN’s goal is to aid law enforcement efforts by supporting the effective detection and reporting of human trafficking financing through Suspicious Activity Reports (SARs). SAR-reported information is intended to supplement and aid law enforcement investigations.
• DOL, in partnership with HHS and DOJ, held a first series of conference call listening sessions with an informal network of grantees, workforce investment boards, and stakeholder groups around the issue of employment and training services for trafficking victims.
• The final two ACTeams participated in the Advanced Human Trafficking Training Program, which focuses on complex issues of human trafficking investigations and prosecutions.
• USAID, DHS, HHS, DOL, DOJ, the Department of Defense (DOD), and DOS prioritized outreach and training to combat human trafficking by participating in numerous trainings, symposiums, and seminars, domestically and internationally, including by training foreign and domestic law enforcement partners to enhance prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts.
• DOS, DOD, DOJ, DOL, HHS, the Department of Transportation (DOT), DHS, USAID, and the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) continue to meet with federal partners and private sector, non-governmental, community, and faith-based stakeholders to receive feedback on programs, to help shape future initiatives, and to collaborate on anti-trafficking prevention, protection, and prosecution efforts.
• DHS worked with DOS, DOJ, DOD, the Department of Education (ED), and HHS to produce four trainings on human trafficking developed specifically for school resource officers and law enforcement.
• DOL and DHS participate in 15 DOJ-funded task forces that are operating in 11 states, and 35 non-DOJ funded task forces, located in 14 states, the District of Colombia, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
• The Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center (HSTC) continued to develop the federal government’s first-ever interagency National Human Trafficking Assessment on human trafficking trends in the United States. Scheduled for completion in FY 2014, the assessment aims to help the U.S. Government more effectively deploy law enforcement and victim services resources by identifying hotspots for trafficking activity across the United States and revealing trends in victim recruitment and exploitation.
• HSTC continued to provide actionable intelligence through the pursuit of operational leads in support of law enforcement human trafficking investigations on behalf of interagency working groups and task force partnerships.
• HSTC continued to host the interagency Human Trafficking Data Sharing Working Group to advise on the development of the first-ever, interagency domestic human trafficking assessment for law enforcement, policymakers, and other federal stakeholders.
• The Intelligence Community, PITF agencies, and HSTC continue to build processes to improve, review, and share intelligence reporting with a focus on preventing human trafficking, protecting victims, and contributing to prosecutions. The assessment aims to help the U.S. Government allocate law enforcement and other resources by identifying hotspots for trafficking activity across the United States and revealing trends in victim recruitment and exploitation.
• HSTC gained momentum and conducted more outreach to domestic and international law enforcement, NGOs, intelligence community partners, and foreign government officials on human trafficking, awareness, and information exchange, than previously recorded.
Department of State (DOS)
• On June 17, 2013 Secretary of State John Kerry released the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report), describing the anti-trafficking efforts of and ranking 188 countries and territories, including the United States. This year marked the first year in which the DOS applied the 2008 Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act’s (TVPRA) automatic downgrade provision without the benefit of a waiver. Three countries received Tier 3 rankings as a result of this provision in the 2013 TIP Report. In addition to the country narratives, the TIP Report highlighted the theme of victim identification, shared best practices from around the world, and analyzed emerging human trafficking trends.
• Under the auspices of the United States-Myanmar Joint Plan on Trafficking in Persons launched in 2012, Ambassador CdeBaca chaired a U.S. delegation to the inaugural session of the U.S.-Myanmar Trafficking in Persons dialogue in August 2013 in Nay Pyi Taw, Burma. In-depth discussions covered a variety of human trafficking issues, including forced labor, sex trafficking, and the unlawful recruitment and use of child soldiers. There was a particular focus on the importance of employing a victim-centered approach to combating human trafficking, the need to show concrete results in holding to account perpetrators of all forms of trafficking, and the benefits of robust government-civil society partnerships. The Joint Plan committed the U.S. Government to providing technical assistance to the Burmese; to this end, the TIP Office announced a $500,000 award to the Warnath Group for a project, which will begin in early 2014. With this funding, the Warnath Group will provide technical assistance to the Government of Burma’s newly established anti-human trafficking division.
• In response to an unprecedented request to provide anti-trafficking legislative assistance to Morocco directly related to the TIP Office Ambassador’s diplomatic engagement, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) conducted legislative workshops with the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) in June and October 2013, followed by expert legal consultation. One of the central outcomes of UNODC’s legislative assistance is the MOJ’s decision to propose adopting a stand-alone comprehensive law to combat trafficking, rather than amending its criminal code as previously planned.
• DOS and New Perimeter, LLC, a non-profit organization established by the global law firm DLA Piper, launched a public-private partnership announced at the White House Forum to Combat Human Trafficking to increase the availability of pro bono legal support and protection in the United States and internationally to combat trafficking.
• Ambassador-at-Large Luis CdeBaca represented the United States at the United Nations (UN) High Level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Global Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons, May 13-14 in New York. Ambassador CdeBaca delivered the U.S. statement, highlighting the U.S. Government’s new victim assistance strategy.
• DOS’s Foreign Service Institute (FSI) and the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office) developed and released a new interactive online course, “Human Trafficking Awareness Training,” to enhance DOS personnel’s understanding of the signs of human trafficking and DOS reporting obligations.
• In December 2013, the DOS Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) launched an online human trafficking training course, “Trafficking in Persons for Diplomatic Security Personnel,” which covered different human trafficking schemes and the fundamentals of investigating trafficking cases and related offenses. The course is available to DS employees worldwide and is mandatory for personnel assigned to DS domestic field offices. The course is specifically designed to educate agents and analysts on the basics of trafficking and how it can be investigated. With agents stationed in more than 160 countries and throughout the United States, DS’s global reach allows it to contribute significantly to the international fight against trafficking.
• DOS’s Office of eDiplomacy began a series of TechCamps focused on fighting human trafficking. The first was held in Cambodia in September 2013 and convened more than 150 participants, including technology experts and regional anti-trafficking NGOs. The second was held in Mexico in December 2013, in conjunction with Embassy Mexico City, and included representatives of Mexico’s government and civil society. TechCamps are designed to bring together technology experts and anti-trafficking organizations to design low-cost, easy-to-implement tools to combat modern slavery.
• DOS and civil society partners hosted a day-long workshop on combating human trafficking in the seafood sector. Leaders from seafood importers, restaurants, and retailers joined with supply chain experts, seafood sector specialists, and government representatives to discuss promising approaches to supply chain management and to examine ways to leverage existing environmental and marine sustainability policies and structures to address human trafficking within the sector.
• Ambassador-at-Large Luis CdeBaca traveled to Minnesota to deliver the keynote address in the "Minnesota Girls Are Not for Sale" convening and to hold additional meetings. Together with representatives of the Department of the Interior (DOI) and HHS, the Ambassador met with service providers and members of the American Indian community to learn about the challenges the community faces in addressing human trafficking. In a meeting with the Minnesota State Human Trafficking Task Force, the Ambassador learned about efforts to document and address labor trafficking in the state. The Ambassador also met with state and local leaders to discuss efforts to hold traffickers accountable, and with local legal professionals to encourage them to be a voice for human trafficking survivors.
• The Organization of American States, with TIP Office funding, hosted a roundtable discussion, “Raising Awareness of Domestic Servitude in the Americas,” on June 25, 2013 in Washington, DC. The event drew over 130 attendees and 553 webcast viewers from the Western Hemisphere and Europe. During the roundtable, panelists discussed the characteristics of involuntary domestic servitude, as well as the importance of increasing regional engagement on the issue.
• Throughout the year, the TIP Office sought to advance efforts by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to combat trafficking in persons both at the organizational level and at the individual state level. For example, Ambassador CdeBaca participated in the June 2013 High-Level Conference on “Strengthening the OSCE Response to Trafficking in Human Beings,” where he delivered specific recommendations on topics to be included in the proposed Addendum to the 2003 OSCE Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, such as demand reduction, government procurement, victim protection, and involuntary domestic servitude, including in diplomatic households. Following-up on these recommendations, the U.S. delegation vigorously and successfully negotiated the text for a strong Addendum over the next few months, which was eventually adopted by the Ministerial Council in Kyiv, in December 2013.
• In April 2013, the TIP Office and the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Washington organized a bilateral high level workshop on cutting edge innovations and strategic challenges in the fight against human trafficking. The U.S. and Dutch governments and NGO participants discussed a case study on recent innovations in the prevention and prosecution of trafficking cases and shared insights in strategic and operational problems in prosecuting trafficking cases, successes, challenges, and lessons learned. The day concluded with presentations and discussion at a public forum sponsored by the Migration Policy Institute. U.S. participants included representatives from DOS, HHS, DHS, DOJ, DOL, EEOC, local law enforcement, state prosecution, and Polaris Project.
• DOS’s Bureau on Population, Refugees and Migration led an interagency delegation to the UN’s second High Level Dialogue on Migration and Development in New York. The United States and Mexico co-chaired the second of four high-level roundtables, which included ant-trafficking as a major sub-theme within the context of protecting the human rights of all migrants, especially women and children.
• DOS worked closely with governments to support the passage and implementation of victim-centered anti-trafficking laws in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, and Malaysia.
• In FY 2013, the TIP Office implemented a more targeted competitive funding process and awarded 40 new grants and cooperative agreements to NGOs, international organizations, and universities for projects to address both sex and labor trafficking and to support efforts focused on child sex tourism, demand reduction, debt bondage, and forced child labor, among other topics. Ninety-four percent of the grants funded by the TIP Office with FY 2013 funds have a protection component, including provision of direct services to victims. Additionally, 79 percent of all grants are conducting prosecution activities, such as capacity building for law enforcement and prosecutors to apprehend and prosecute traffickers. As of the start of FY 2013, the TIP Office had 119 open and active projects in 58 countries, totaling over $66 million.
• In FY 2013, the TIP Office provided additional funding for the NGO World Hope International in Sierra Leone, where the organization has established the first-ever shelter for young female victims of trafficking. The shelter is playing a vital role in introducing and institutionalizing quality care for trafficking victims.
• With TIP Office funding, UNODC facilitated awareness-raising workshops in Laos to sensitize law enforcement officials to trafficking issues and improve victim protection and identification efforts. As of the fall of 2012, UNODC had successfully trained 138 officers to build capacity to identify trafficking cases. The TIP Office provided continuation funding for this project in FY 2013.
• In 2013, the TIP Office continued to support short-term, targeted training and technical assistance activities that aim to increase government and/or civil society capacity to combat human trafficking. This funding mechanism has been shown to be effective in providing expert assistance that is highly responsive to knowledge and capacity gaps in a diverse range of countries.
• TIP Office grantee the Warnath Group assisted the Government of Haiti to strengthen draft anti-trafficking legislation. Most notably, a definition of child trafficking (significant considering the form of trafficking most prevalent in Haiti is children in involuntary domestic servitude) has been incorporated by the Haitian government into the draft bill.
• In India, TIP Office grantee International Justice Mission has strengthened greatly the anti-trafficking capacity of local government officials in Chennai and Bangalore provinces and stimulated public demand for the authorities to rescue and assist victims and prosecute traffickers. This two-pronged approach is gradually and systematically changing the culture of impunity that allows modern slavery to persist.
• In 2013, the TIP Office continued to support programs to improve the prevention of human trafficking and the prosecution of traffickers, especially through training and technical assistance for law enforcement, judiciary officials, and members of civil society. With FY 2013 funding, the TIP Office is supporting International Justice Mission in the Dominican Republic to implement a model of targeted training and collaborative casework for law enforcement and service providers in the identification, rescue, investigation, and prosecution of child sex trafficking cases.
• In Malaysia, the TIP Office is supporting the NGOs Health Equity Initiatives (HEI) and Pusat Kebajikan Good Shepherd for work in both NGO- and government-run shelters. HEI will work to improve mental health services within Malaysia’s government-run shelters by providing ongoing training and support to shelter staff to build their capacity to effectively provide services to trafficking victims; and Good Shepherd will provide mental health services to women in two of Malaysia’s four government-run shelters, in addition to providing shelter and other services for trafficking victims in its own facility in Kuala Lumpur.
• Identifying and protecting victims and holding traffickers accountable is especially challenging in conflict-affected areas; through programming that totals nearly $2 million, the TIP Office is supporting three projects that strategically address protection challenges in Afghanistan.
• The TIP Office also funds the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to provide short-term, emergency assistance to victims of trafficking who are in desperate need of immediate support. For example, IOM assisted adult victims of domestic servitude from Indonesia, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka in Jordan; child victims of forced begging from Guinea Bissau in Senegal; and child victims of forced begging from Haiti in the Dominican Republic. Assistance provided by IOM included repatriation, reintegration, medical care, legal assistance, education, transport, family tracing, psycho-social counseling, and shelter.
• DOS’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) supports International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) overseas that deliver instructions to foreign law enforcement officials to address and help counter international crimes, including trafficking in persons. During the reporting period, the ILEAs trained over 500 international law enforcement officials on anti-trafficking topics from countries across the Americas, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa.
• On 23-25 September 2013, INL, in partnership with the Thai National Anti-Corruption Commission, the UNODC, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the American Bar Association, brought together over 180 anti-corruption investigators, law enforcement officials, and policymakers from over 20 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) economies, as well as representatives from civil society organizations, international organizations, and the private sector, to participate in the APEC Pathfinder Dialogue on Combating Corruption and Illicit Trade, including human trafficking. Specifically, participants shared knowledge on linkages between corruption and trafficking; responses to trafficking-related corruption, given challenges and current capacities; and strategies and countermeasures to more effectively address trafficking-related corruption across the Asia-Pacific region.
• In August 2013, INL and the Regional Security Office at the U.S. Embassy in Kinshasa held training for 45 Congolese police officers, customs officials, and immigration specialists on how to conduct investigations, combat trafficking in persons, and identify fraudulent immigration documents. The participants also learned how to use basic investigative tools, including surveillance techniques, crime scene investigation and management, and crime scene sketching. Within one month of the training, one of the attendee police officers arrested a Congolese man for sex trafficking. A Congolese officer involved in the case also identified trafficking indicators in other pending investigations. Subsequent to the training, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement sent a special agent to assist the Congolese police with these new human trafficking cases.
• The United States pledged to provide funding to support the implementation of the UNODC project, “Building Institutional Capacity to Respond to the Threat Posed by Illicit Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in Sierra Leone.” Funding is used for several capacity building efforts at the Sierra Leone Transnational Organized Crime Unit (TOCU). Through the TOCU, INL assisted Liberia and Sierra Leone with a case of trans-border human trafficking. In January 2013, the Transnational Crime Unit (TCU) Liberia and the Liberian National Police and Interpol staff, following the exchange of intelligence with the TOCU, conducted an operation to disrupt organized networks involved in human trafficking activities across national borders. Three girls and one boy were rescued, with two suspects arrested in Liberia and one in Sierra Leone. The TOCU continues to participate in international criminal investigations, including with the TCU Liberia.
• In 2013, a team from DOS, DHS, and DOJ provided technical assistance to Thai and other Southeast Asian entities involved in combating trafficking to address areas of weakness in anti-trafficking efforts, including victim identification and protection, investigations, and prosecutions. These efforts, which involved direct police and prosecutor training, as well as the facilitation of regional networking, have enhanced law enforcement capacity and promoted international cooperation. In July 2013, key Thai anti-trafficking officials visited Seattle and San Francisco to meet with counterparts, share information, and observe first-hand a major anti-trafficking operation.
• INL partners with more than 50 U.S. state and local agencies, which help foreign law enforcement, corrections, and legal and judicial officials enhance their civilian security and justice sector capacity. Through these agreements, U.S. partners develop networks of contacts with foreign counterparts that assist them in stemming the tide of illicit drugs and transnational crimes, including human trafficking, that beset their own communities. Making international law enforcement connections on drug-related and gang-related issues has a long-term impact on cross-border, state-level, and community security. In addition, all contracted advisors who receive pre-deployment training from INL participate in a course to raise their awareness of trafficking in persons issues, conducted by the TIP Office.
• Eight officers from the Ecuador National Police completed a three-week study tour of the Webb County, Texas Sheriff’s Office in May 2013. The study tour included observation of Webb County officers conducting drug interdiction operations, human trafficking investigations, money laundering and smuggling operations, weapons investigations, undercover operations and techniques, and confidential source management.
• In November 2013, INL Brazil, the Government of Brazil, and Brazil’s northern Amazonas state partnered to provide a five-day anti-trafficking training for federal and state law enforcement officials – the first in a series of trainings scheduled for different Brazilian cities. The training was tailored to address Brazilian law enforcement weaknesses on trafficking issues as identified in the 2013 TIP Report, such as improving interagency coordination and recognizing that trafficking includes forced labor, internal trafficking, and child exploitation. Extensive media coverage of the event helped raise public awareness of the trafficking problem in Brazil. A second training is scheduled for February 2014.
• From March 2013-February 2014, INL’s Justice Sector Support Program (JSSP) conducted 13 trainings in Afghanistan on human trafficking for 219 prosecutors, police, defense lawyers, judges, and service providers from 14 different justice institutions and ministries. These trainings, held in Kabul, Balkh, Herat, Kunduz, Nangarhar, and Wardak provinces, focused on the following: 1) investigating and prosecuting human trafficking cases; 2) education on the trafficking law; 3) understanding the elements of crime to distinguish between related crimes such as human trafficking, human smuggling, abduction and kidnapping; and (d) protection and support services for trafficked victims.
• INL’s JSSP provides capacity building support and technical assistance to Afghanistan’s High Commission to Combat Crimes of Abduction and Human Trafficking (high commission) and it’s Secretariat assisting in preparing progress reports, facilitating communication and coordination among member ministries, and planning and executing technical committee and high commission meetings. JSSP worked with the Ministry of Justice (chair of the high commission) to hold three meetings to motivate the high commission to implement specified activities from the 2013 National Action Plan within a set timeline. The meetings were held from December 2013-February 2014 and resulted in the high commission: 1) revising the National Action Plan for 2014; 2) revising its Terms of Reference; 3) commencing the process for Afghanistan to ratify the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol) which is now awaiting Parliament’s approval; 4) issuing a nationwide directive to cease prosecution of trafficked victims; 5) initiating a plan to work with shelter providers to provide additional shelters to facilitate the separation of minors and adult victims of trafficking; and 6) agreeing to seek amendment of the current human trafficking law to adhere more closely to the Palermo Protocol.
• The U.S. Mission to the UN invited foreign diplomatic personnel in the New York area to a briefing to update them on U.S. government requirements relevant to the employment of domestic workers by foreign mission personnel and to promote a continued dialogue to address these issues.
• By way of diplomatic communications DOS has continued to convey its policies and procedures for the employment of domestic workers which included in August 2013 that domestic workers employed in the private residences of foreign diplomatic personnel ordinarily do not quality for A-2 visas. In September 2013, DOS issued a diplomatic note to all foreign missions and International Organizations informing that DOL’s prevailing wage rates for domestic workers had been updated and that all new and existing contracts between domestic workers and their employers must reflect the updated amounts.
• The DOS Office of the Chief of Protocol hosted a briefing with the NGO community to discuss U.S. government requirements for the employment of domestic workers by foreign mission personnel and to promote continued dialogue with them on related issues.
• In partnership with UNODC, U.S. Embassy La Paz developed a 21-episode radio soap opera that tells the story of three cases of human trafficking. The Embassy also developed an accompanying user guide for the radio soap opera that includes conversation topics, questions, and victim resource information that radio presenters can use for programming after each episode, and recorded interviews with some of the novela actors and civil society leaders that radio stations can also play after episodes. It is currently being transmitted by 155 radio stations in all nine regions of Bolivia with a listenership of at least 300,000. Embassy staff shared materials with embassies in neighbouring countries to solicit wider participation. As a way to generate public interest and media coverage of the radio soap opera launch, Embassy La Paz has organized two concerts. The Embassy expects at least 5,000 people from La Paz and El Alto to attend these events and has worked with the city government to arrange information booths where civil society groups and the police and prosecutors will share information with the public about human trafficking and the victim support services they offer.
• With DOS INL funding, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) Hong Kong conducted anti-trafficking training in Taiwan, in coordination with Taiwan’s National Immigration Agency (NIA) and the American Institute in Taiwan. The training highlighted HSI’s victim-centered approach to investigating trafficking cases. The training was attended by approximately 90 officers from the NIA, the National Police Agency, NGOs, and other agencies and organizations.
• The Consular Training Division at FSI continued to educate consular officers about the “Know Your Rights” pamphlet, developed in response to the TVPRA 2008. The pamphlet provides information regarding the legal rights of aliens holding employment- or education-based nonimmigrant visas, as well as the responsibilities of their employers, and refers applicants to NGOs that provide services to victims of trafficking and worker exploitation. The Bureau of Consular Affairs (CA) distributed the pamphlet at all visa processing posts to recipients of visas in visa classes vulnerable to trafficking; and consular officers are required to ensure that applicants have read and understood the contents of the pamphlet, which is available on travel.state.gov in Albanian, Arabic, Bahasa, Bulgarian, Chinese, Creole, English, Farsi/Dari, French, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Latvian, Macedonian, Mongolian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Tagalog, Telegu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese. In FY 2012, the pamphlet generated more than 1,000 calls to the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC) hotline. It has generated nearly 3,200 calls since its original issuance in 2009. DOS increased awareness among consular officers overseas of the special T and U visa categories available to human trafficking victims and their qualifying family members.
• DOS, in partnership with DHS, expanded the “Know Your Rights” outreach by translating the pamphlet into nine additional languages for a total of 36 languages and creating a video, which will be available in 39 languages, to make visa applicants’ aware of their legal rights and protections in the United States.
• In FY 2013, CA began developing a “Know Your Rights” informational video in response to section 1206 of the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 (Pub. L. 113-4). The video will complement the “Wilberforce” pamphlet and provide information on protections for certain employment- and education-based nonimmigrant visa applicants, including domestic workers. Embassies and consulates overseas will play the video in consular waiting rooms as appropriate, in languages spoken by the greatest concentrations of those applicants. The video is available at http://travel.state.gov/content/visas/english/general/rights-protections-temporaty-workers.html.
• In FY 2013, embassies and consulates abroad processed 657 T visas and 1,876 U visa applications, a combined 8.4 percent increase over the previous year. The visas enabled family members of victims living abroad to enter the United States and rejoin the victim. Additionally, the visas allow victims who have departed to reenter the United States if they remain in qualifying status.
• In partnership with DHS HSI, U.S. Consulate Hong Kong in April 2013 held a public screening of the human trafficking documentary Nefarious as part of an outreach event for Hong Kong government officials and NGOs.
• At the March 2013 Human Rights Council (HRC) session, the United States participated in the first regional meeting on the “Right to An Effective Remedy,” convened by the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons. This meeting was held as a follow-up to HRC Resolution 20/1, “Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children: Access to Effective Remedies for Trafficked Persons and Their Right to an Effective Remedy for Human Rights Violations.”
• The United States supported inserting strong language on combating trafficking in persons into the Agreed Conclusions outcome document from the March 2013 Commission on the Status of Women session, “The Elimination and Prevention of All Forms of Violence Against Women and Girls.”
• At the June 2013 HRC session, the United States participated in an interactive dialogue with the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons, as well as the May 2013 side event “Human Trafficking and Exploitative Labour in Supply Chains: Addressing the Demand and Supply Side.”
• At the Sixty-Eighth session of the UN General Assembly in November 2013, the United States co-sponsored the Third Committee resolution on “Improving the Coordination of Efforts Against Trafficking in Persons.” Language on trafficking in persons was included in Third Committee resolutions concerning “Violence Against Women Migrant Workers” and “Strengthening the United Nations Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Programme, in Particular its Technical Cooperation Capacity.” The United States also participated in the Third Committee’s interactive dialogues with the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons and the Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography.
• The Return, Reintegration, and Family Reunification Program for Victims of Trafficking in the United States, supported by DOS’s Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration and implemented by IOM, helps eligible family members join trafficking victims with T visa status in the United States through the provision of financial and logistical support. For trafficking victims who wish to return home, the program provides travel and reintegration assistance to reduce the likelihood of re-trafficking. In FY 2013, the program assisted two survivors of trafficking to voluntarily return home and helped 240 family members join trafficking survivors in the United States.
• To expand reporting on global trafficking in persons using existing law enforcement reporting mechanisms, DOS is encouraging diplomatic posts with active Law Enforcement Working Groups (LEWGs) to include human trafficking in their portfolios to ensure that any relevant information discovered be shared with DS and other appropriate law enforcement contacts within DOS and other federal agencies.
• An interagency pilot project – led by DS – has commenced at 10 overseas posts designed to combat human trafficking. Within this project, Washington-based experts are working closely with 10 select LEWGs to first ensure that all pertinent embassy staff are properly trained on trafficking issues, and then will work to increase U.S.-host country information-sharing related to trafficking using a variety of methods tailored to each country.
• DS’s Overseas Criminal Investigations (OCI) branch manages the Assistant Regional Security Officers for Investigations (ARSO-Is) program, which includes 109 DS special agents assigned to 97 posts in 67 countries. Over the past year, OCI expanded its training curriculum to include recognition and identification of human trafficking. In the past, decisions for creating new ARSO-I positions were driven by the amount of visa fraud in prospective posts. Since June 2013, OCI includes a country’s TIP Report tier ranking as one the key evaluation points in determining where to place new ARSO-I positions.
• In July 2013, DS created a new supervisory civil service agent position tasked to coordinate the agency-wide trafficking portfolio. Also, DS has increased the number of domestic field office agents assigned to trafficking task forces within each region. This facilitates greater information sharing and allows other agencies to harness DS’s resources overseas.
• DS’s Human Trafficking Unit aggressively promoted its ability to handle trafficking cases with a nexus to passport and visa fraud to other law enforcement agencies (overseas and domestic). Further, a bolstered network of contacts within the NGO community has resulted in an increase in case referrals to the Unit. In one such case, DS secured convictions in late 2013 against labor recruiters and providers in Pennsylvania for trafficking-related offenses. The labor recruiters and providers imported foreign women to serve as domestic employees and harbored them for commercial advantage and personal gain. Some of the women alleged serious abuse by their employers. In a joint DS-DHS ICE HSI case, a man was arrested in December 2013 based on an indictment in Miami for multiple counts of sex trafficking, passport fraud, aggravated identity theft, and other crimes related to his alleged importation of women for prostitution.
• DOS’s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) awards grants to support organizations promoting internationally recognized labor standards, as laid out in the eight International Labor Organization (ILO) core conventions. One portion of DRL’s labor programs targets forced labor directly and engages stakeholders to address underlying conditions that can lead to forced labor. In 2013, DRL continued to support over $2.9 million in activities in Jordan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Haiti, and the East Asia and Pacific region that sought to reduce marginalized population’s vulnerability to human trafficking. These projects worked to introduce core labor rights and empower migrant workers to assert their rights, promote Decent Work for brick kiln workers, and provide psychological rehabilitation and vocational training for former child soldiers. New programs awarded in 2013 promoted safer migration as a way to prevent labor trafficking in Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Burma. Examples of these programs include the following:
• IOM worked to enhance the protection of marginalized and vulnerable migrant workers and their access to safe and affordable migration channels in five Lower Mekong countries by means of expanding migrants’ awareness of their rights through access to pre-departure orientation and post-arrival training programmes across the subregion.
• In Malaysia, Johns Hopkins University began its work collecting and analyzing data on the migrant worker sector in Kuala Lumpur and raising awareness among migrant workers, including domestic workers, of labor rights, relevant labor legislation, and effective strategies for remedy.
• In April 2013, DRL highlighted the issue of trafficking in persons, and detailed violations of labor rights in law and in practice, as well as other conditions that increase vulnerability of workers to trafficking in persons, in its annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, in particular Section 7 (available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/index.htm).
• DRL continued to participate in interagency policy work on the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) worker rights petition for Niger, which has resulted in the government taking steps to address forced labor and human trafficking issues raised in the petition.
• DRL supported the development of a pilot training program for law enforcement officials to explain how the current gaps in legislation and law enforcement have led to the occurrence of forced labor in Jordan.
• DOS’s Office of Global Women’s Issues led the Department’s efforts on implementation of the first ever “U.S. Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally,” released in August 2012. The FY 2013 DOS annual report to the National Security Council included detailed information on efforts to combat trafficking in persons as a specific form of gender-based violence.
• In 2013, DS and the Bureau for Education and Cultural Affairs (ECA) worked closely together to examine the Summer Work Travel (SWT) program, also known as the J-1 Visa program. Fundamental reform of the SWT program will lessen the chances that foreign university students will be exploited. Current regulations for the SWT program prohibit jobs deemed dangerous to exchange visitor health, safety, and welfare, as well as jobs considered inappropriate for a cultural exchange. Under the current regulation, sponsors must use extra caution when placing participants in certain job types that have been associated with trafficking in persons. DOS continues to review the SWT program carefully and note how it may be further reformed under a full final rule anticipated in 2014.
• During 2013, more than 200 DOS employees from ECA and regionally-based management and CA offices visited 667 sites in 32 states, conducting more than 2,800 program monitoring interviews. Working closely with ECA, DS investigated the allegations of exploitation and labor law violations. No incidents involving trafficking were reported in the program in 2013. DS, ECA, and Consular CA are hoping to increase the number of interviews with J-1 visa holders to further investigate this program to ensure future program participants are not subjected to human trafficking and other forms of exploitation.
• The ECA bureau has identified the need to create a new investigative position within the bureau to ensure cases of suspected human trafficking and human exploitation are referred to DS as soon as they are reported.
• The 2011 cap on SWT program participation remained in place at 109,000, as did the moratorium on new sponsors; however, participant numbers on the program continued to fall from 91,600 in 2012 to around 80,000 in 2013, an important factor during this time of program reform. Throughout 2013, DOS continued to increase the number of its monitoring staff. ECA established the Office of Private Sector Administration to respond to day-to-day program issues. Also during 2013, DOS convened an interagency discussion group involving representatives from law enforcement agencies to focus on maintaining regular communication and developing joint cooperation on law enforcement matters. The exchange of information works toward protecting the integrity of the Exchange Visitor Program, as well as helping identify any criminal elements or individuals who may use the program for purposes such as fraud and trafficking. DOS continues to consult and coordinate with a broad range of stakeholders representing civil society, advocates, cabinet offices, and local government officials.
• From March 2013 to February 2014, ECA cooperated with the TIP Office to bring 144 foreign leaders with responsibilities related to trafficking in persons to the United States though the International Visitors Leadership Program (IVLP). Participants included government officials, immigration officers, human rights activists, academics, law enforcement teams, and representatives of social service organizations. Through a variety of exchanges lasting up to three weeks, participants met with their American professional counterparts, examined the global problem of trafficking in persons, and explored methods and best practices to prevent trafficking in persons, including prosecution of and enforcement against traffickers. Participants also learned about initiatives to protect, assist, and provide social reintegration for victims of trafficking.
• In connection with the release of the annual TIP Report, ECA and the TIP Office coordinated an IVLP exchange for eight individuals recognized as global heroes for their role in combating trafficking in persons. Secretary Kerry honored the Heroes in a ceremony that also included the official rollout of the TIP Report at DOS. The TIP Report Heroes then participated in a two-week IVLP sponsored by DOS’s ECA, which in addition to Washington, DC, took them to Cincinnati, OH and Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX to meet with senior government officials, including Tina Tchen, Assistant to the President, Chief of Staff to the First Lady, and Executive Director for the Council on Women and Girls, as well as several U.S. Attorneys from Texas. In addition, they met with representatives from nongovernmental organizations and businesses, officials from DOS and other U.S. government agencies, and gave interviews to foreign and domestic press.
• Each year, more than a dozen young and mid-career professionals in the areas of human rights, human trafficking, and law enforcement participate in ECA’s Hubert H. Humphrey Fellowship at the University of Minnesota Law School. The year-long program consists of graduate-level study, leadership development, and professional collaboration. Since 1981, nearly 500 Humphrey Fellows from more than 100 countries have pursued leadership and professional development activities in trafficking-related fields. There are 11 fellows at the University of Minnesota Law School for the 2013-14 academic year. Examples of anti-trafficking achievements by Humphrey Fellows include:
• 2010-11 Humphrey alumnae Agnes Igoye (University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs) initiated the Huts for Peace Program for displaced women and developed a rehabilitation facility for young victims of trafficking. Ms. Igoye also participated in the Women in Public Service Institute in July, which is co-sponsored by DOS, Bryn Mawr College, and the Wilson Center. The institute brings emerging women leaders from post-conflict countries together for two weeks and aims to increase the participation of women’s in public service.
• Dr. Veerendra Mishra, a Humphrey Fellow from India, spent six weeks at George Mason University’s Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center during fall 2013 as part of his Fellowship’s professional affiliation component. Dr. Mishra explored sex trafficking in communities in which there is generational prostitution. He also screened his documentary film, Do I have a Choice? A Saga of Socially Sanctioned Sexual Servitude,on various campuses throughout his program. Dr. Mishra is an expert on community policing and women’s and children’s rights.
• University of Minnesota Law School Humphrey Fellows Sandhya Sitoula (Nepal), Ahn Nguyen (Vietnam), and Liva Sreedharan (Malaysia) were guests on the Imprisoned Show on December 2, 2013, where they were interviewed by award-winning journalist Bukola Oriola. A human-trafficking survivor, Ms. Oriola began producing the Imprisoned Show on local television as a way to educate the public about human trafficking, advocate for victims, and reach out to survivors.
Department of Defense (DOD)
• In August 2013, the 7th Air Force Base in Osan in the U.S. Pacific Command area of responsibility issued a strict policy on Counter-Trafficking in persons (CTIP) specific to South Korean “juicy bars.” Notably, the 7th Air Force Base worked closely with the U.S. Embassy in Seoul, the Korean, and Philippine governments, and the local business community around Osan Air Force Base, including bar owners, to ensure that Service Members could not patronize these establishments. Following a criminal investigation, the 7th Air Force Base determined that a clear link between juicy bars, prostitution, and human trafficking exits, particularly among trafficked Filipina women who entered the country under entertainer visas. U.S. Pacific Command is working to implement a similar policy/blanket ban of juicy bars for all of South Korea beyond the 7th Air Force Base.
• There are five types of training available on the CTIP website at http://ctip.defense.gov/Training: 1) General Awareness; 2) Law Enforcement; 3) Refresher; 4) Leadership; and 5) Contracting and Acquisition. In the fall of 2013, the General Awareness and Law Enforcement trainings were updated to reflect E.O. 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts, and Title XVII of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for FY 2013, End Trafficking in Government Contracting.
• CTIP training is administered online, including via Joint Knowledge Online (JKO), which is utilized by military personnel, multinational, intergovernmental, and interagency individuals. JKO also offers an additional, specialized CTIP course on the impact of human trafficking on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operations.
• In the fall of 2013, DOD executed Unified Endeavor 14-1, a joint training event designed to prepare U.S. and NATO troops for their mission in Afghanistan. CTIP storylines were injected to educate the commands on their roles and responsibilities. The first scenario allowed troops to recognize signs of possible cases of human trafficking and know the appropriate actions required to protect the health and safety of third country nationals supporting U.S. forward operating bases. The second scenario obligated the commands to understand contractor and DOD responsibilities regarding CTIP, contractor vetting process and final pay requirements, and the steps to return a third country national to his or her place of origin.
• Army Regulation 350-1, Army Training and Leader Development, establishes and maintains Army training requirements for human rights, law of war, and cultural awareness. The Army’s CTIP Program includes human rights training, including annual training on protection measures for vulnerable populations, specifically for women and children, into post conflict and humanitarian emergency assistance missions and programs. Although the law of war focuses on treatment of enemy combatants, the training also specifies the importance of identifying and protecting non-combatants. North American Aerospace Defense Command-U.S. Northern Command Tier 1 exercise, ARDENT SENTRY, included a realistic trafficking in persons example that involved social media during a hurricane response scenario in Florida. Using social media stimulating tools, a team of faculty and graduate students in the Homeland Security Program at San Diego State University created fictional human traffickers that solicited responders on social media sites and offered illegal services that deceptively transported people into the disaster area opposite the flow of evacuees. The human trafficking event and CTIP efforts, though confined to a social media environment, represented the hidden human trafficking market that springs up in the aftermath of many major disasters, and contributed to an understanding of this challenge for civil and military responders.
• In an effort to ensure U.S. Southern Command personnel are better educated in CTIP issues related to its area of responsibility, the Human Rights Office secured funding to develop U.S. Southern Command-specific CTIP training modules, which will be added to the DOD-mandated CTIP training. U.S. Southern Command will be the first Combatant Command to launch area of responsibility-specific training on CTIP for its personnel, including all contractors. In addition to reporting a 98 percent compliance with CTIP training, U.S. Southern Command hosted a CTIP conference in Trinidad and Tobago for partner nation defense personnel and civilian counterparts to discuss best practices to counter human trafficking. As resources permit, U.S. Southern Command’s Human Rights Office continues to integrate CTIP presentations and/or the participation of CTIP subject matter experts into its engagements with partner nation militaries in an effort to improve their ability to recognize indicators of trafficking in persons.
• U.S. Africa Command requires pre-deployment anti-trafficking awareness training on human trafficking in East Africa for all U.S. Africa Command personnel.
• Prior to deployment or temporary duty assignment to South Korea, U.S. Pacific Command military, civilians, and contractors are required to take United States Forces Korea’s welcome briefing to include particular cultural considerations, as well as country-specific problems with prostitution and trafficking in persons.
• During U.S. Pacific Command’s monthly Initial Staff Training and Orientation, U.S. Pacific Command CTIP program officers provide an overview of human trafficking issues in the U.S. Pacific Command area of responsibility.
• DOD works with foreign partner militaries to instruct them in counter-trafficking. The Defense Institute of International Legal Studies conducts human rights training of foreign military units receiving equipment or training from the United States. The Defense Institute of International Legal Studies instruction is on sexual and gender based violence, violence against women, trafficking in persons, sexual exploitation and assault, and the exploitation of children in armed conflict.
• DOD, in support of DOS’s Global Peace Operations Initiative, provides training to partner countries preparing to deploy to UN peacekeeping missions, including preventing and responding to human trafficking in UN peacekeeping missions.
• In November 2013, DOD and DHS developed a partnership to collaborate on future human trafficking initiatives, such as new DHS videos designed to educate school-aged children (i.e., in DODEA schools) and law enforcement (i.e., military law enforcement) about trafficking in persons.
• U.S. Pacific Command liases on a regular basis with the local NGO community in order to better integrate them into other U.S. agencies involved in CTIP.
• U.S. European Command’s Joint Interagency Counter Trafficking Center provides support to U.S. law enforcement and international partner agencies, and builds the capacity of partner nations to detect, monitor, and disrupt trafficking events.
• The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Technology & Logistics [OUSD(AT&L)], in conjunction with the FAR council, developed a proposed rule under FAR Case 2013-001, “Ending Trafficking in Persons,” to implement E.O. 13627 and Title XVII of the NDAA for FY 2013, by updating the existing FAR subpart 22.17, “Combating Trafficking in Persons (CTIP),” and the related clause at FAR 52.222-50. Key elements the rule include: handling and possession of identity or immigration documents; recruiting practices; limitations on recruitment fees that may be charged to the employee; return transportation; standards for employee housing; requirements for compliance plans on contracts of certain dollar values of work performed outside the United States and associated certification requirements; access requirements for contracting and law enforcement agencies; and violations, investigations, remedies (including debarment or suspension), and required notifications.
• OUSD(AT&L) also developed a proposed rule under Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Case 2013-D007, “Further Implementation of Trafficking in Persons Policy,” to implement additional controls and oversight on the contractors’ trafficking in persons policies and internal controls, and broadens DOD-specific elements of the agency’s CTIP program as committed to by DOD officials in congressional testimony and exchanges with members of Congress in March 2012. For both FAR and DFARS cases, proposed rules were published in the Federal Register on Sep 26, 2013 for public comment on or before the close date of Nov 25, 2013.
• Additionally, enhancements to the CTIP Procedures, Guidance, and Information (PGI) at DFARS subpart 222.17 were published on March 15, 2013 under DFARS/PGI Case 2013-P003, Combating Trafficking in Persons Procedures and DFARS Class Deviation 2013-O0015, “Contractor Personnel Supporting U.S. Armed Forces Deployed Outside of the United States,” was issued June 27, 2013, which enhance the clauses at DFARS 252.225-7040, Contractor Personnel Authorized to Accompany U.S. Armed Forces Deployed Outside the United States and 252.225-7995, Contractor Personnel Performing in the United States Central Command Area of Responsibility, to inform contract employees of their rights, and post these rights, to ensure against trafficking infractions (e.g., an employee’s right to hold his/her own passport; receive wages that are not below the legal in-country minimum wage; and live in reasonably habitable space, if housing is provided).
• In late 2013, the Air Force established a new Air Force CTIP Task Force comprising Major Command/Direct Reporting Unit/Field Operating Agencies (MAJCOM/DRU/FOAs) that meet quarterly to address Air Force specific concerns related to CTIP, such as training updates, awareness programs, and preparation for DOD Inspector General (DODIG) inspections. DOD CTIP policies have been promulgated into Service level guidance.
• On January 20, 2014, the Central Command Joint Theater Support Contracting Command (C-JTSCC) issued “Acquisition Policy Memorandum #14-04, Combating Trafficking in Persons,” which established command-wide guidance regarding CTIP in support of operations in Afghanistan. Among its requirements, the memorandum mandated that all C-JSTCC Contracting Officers and Contracting Specialists take specialized CTIP training within 30 days of arrival in the AOR; Regional Contracting Center chiefs discuss the significance of CTIP with prospective contracting officer candidates before recomending their appointment; government Contracting Officer Representatives (CORs) accomplish periodic CTIP surveillance using formal COR checklist and report CTIP concerns immediately; and all contract awards include FAR Clause 52.222-50 and C-JTSCC Acquisition Instruction Clause 952.222-0001.
• As part of National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, the DOD published a series of articles about the Department’s and U.S. Government’s efforts to combat trafficking in persons. DOD also publicized this issue through its social media sites on Facebook, Twitter, etc.
• DOD Defense Information Systems Agency incorporated a CTIP briefing into its pre-deployment/temporary duty assessment checklist. DOD also hosted an agency CTIP annual awareness event to include informational pamphlets, program documentation, mandatory training overview, reporting procedures, and prevention efforts. Moreover, DOD aired public service announcements via internal television news media.
• DOD Defense Contract Management Agency developed a comprehensive way to observe U.S. government contractors’ adherence to a trafficking in persons compliance plan. This CTIP Review/Observation Record, which is displayed in a checklist format, is centered on a well-developed list of items which can help reveal human trafficking suspicions leading to show violations during inspections. The Review Record has been standardized and is being used by acquisition professionals in the U.S. Central Command area of responsibility.
• DOD Education Activity (DODEA) launched an information campaign to increase awareness at DOD schools about CTIP. In addition to training all General Schedule employees in CTIP, DODEA also trained all of its bargaining unit employees for the first time.
• DOD Defense Health Agency celebrated “Combating Trafficking in Persons Awareness Day” on August 29, 2013 by distributing literature and yellow ribbon pins for employees to wear in support of trafficking victims.
• The Army implemented a standing requirement for Army Heads of Contracting Activities and Principal Assistants responsible for contracting to analyze existing service and construction contracts to identify risk factors and contracts that pose high risk for human trafficking violations. The directive includes language outlining the FAR and DFAR clauses, along with encouragement to include trafficking in persons language in Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans and Performance Requirements Summaries. The directive emphasizes proactive measures, U.S. Central Command-centric reporting, spot checks, reviews, etc., to provide proper oversight of high risk contracts. Reports to include negative responses are due twice annually in July and December.
• The Army also supported the OUSD(AT&L) Director for Contingency Contracting by collecting data in support of the CTIP Task Force by requesting specific prime contractors provide data on their use of hiring agencies, recruitment fees, and fee amounts. In addition, contractors were asked to provide recruitment agreements and were applicable to the prime and all of its subcontractors.
Department of Justice (DOJ)
Investigations and Prosecutions
• DOJ’s Civil Rights Division, Criminal Division, and the USAOs together brought 161 forced labor and sex trafficking prosecutions in FY 2013 under the TVPA, the highest number of human trafficking cases on record. This total does not include prosecutions involving human trafficking brought under other criminal statutes.
• The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI’s) Innocence Lost National Initiative addresses the growing problem of children recruited into and exploited through prostitution. Established in 2003, this initiative operates in partnership with DOJ’s Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section (CEOS) and the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC). The FBI utilizes a collaborative, multi-disciplinary, and victim-centered approach to investigate human trafficking and child sexual exploitation violations. Since its inception, the Innocence Lost National Initiative has resulted in 1,562 state and federal convictions and 3,325 children recovered and/or identified. Substantial sentences of convicted pimps have been obtained, including 12 life sentences and several ranging in length from 25 to 50 years. The Initiative is supported by the FBI's 69 Child Exploitation Task Forces (CETF) consisting of 381 state and local partner agencies.
• The FBI coordinates national enforcement operations to combat domestic commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) through prostitution. Operations Cross Country I – VII were conducted over three- to five-day periods beginning in June 2008. FBI Field Divisions and their law enforcement partners participated in the operations by targeting venues such as street tracks, the Internet, truck stops, motels, and casinos where children are prostituted. Law enforcement officers from over 450 federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies joined together to rescue child victims and apprehend those who victimize them. As a result of these operations, 434 child victims were safely recovered and 581 pimps engaged in the CSEC were arrested.
• In July 2013, the FBI facilitated the seventh and largest iteration of Operation Cross Country. In preparation for this operation, the FBI enhanced collaboration within its multi-disciplinary anti-trafficking teams. Specifically, the CETF in Denver collaborated with state and local social service agencies to identify at-risk youth believed to be victimized through commercial sex acts. This information was used to generate proactive victim packets which the CETF used to locate victims during the operation. Additionally, the FBI Office for Victim Assistance (OVA) provided training to the Victim Specialists on how to prepare for Operation Cross Country VII, including how to best assist recovered minors by providing shelter, food, clothing, medical and mental health services, reunification with family, and referrals to child protective services. These efforts were instrumental to the recovery of 106 commercially sexually exploited children, the arrest of 151 pimps, and the distribution of services to 394 women and child victims. During Operation Cross Country VII, FBI OVA collaborated with the Violent Crimes Against Children (VCAC) Section and NCMEC to obtain 152 Hope Bags containing clothing, hygiene items, and a food card. FBI Victim Specialists in the field distributed these bags, and others like them collected from local resources, to minors and adults during the course of the operation.
• Beginning in May 2013, the FBI initiated efforts to coordinate law enforcement operations targeting the commercial exploitation of children through prostitution at the National Football League 2014 Super Bowl in East Rutherford, New Jersey. The FBI initiated a regional approach to the event, utilizing FBI Field Offices in Newark, New York, New Haven and Philadelphia to partner with 50 state and local law enforcement agencies. The operation combined resources from multiple FBI programs including Violent Crimes Against Children investigators, Human Trafficking investigators, Intelligence Analysts, and Victim Specialists. In preparation for this operation, the FBI engaged in an extensive outreach effort to ensure that both governmental and non-governmental entities were engaged in the operation. Additionally, the FBI conducted training for state and local law enforcement agencies. These efforts resulted in recovery of 18 commercially sexually exploited children, the arrest of 48 pimps, the recovery of three foreign national human trafficking victims and the distribution of services to 70 adult and child victims. These services included crisis intervention, medical and/or social services, referrals to child protective services or NGOs who provide post recovery assistance, and case updates throughout the investigation.
• Since 2008, the FBI's Child Sex Tourism Initiative has been employing proactive strategies to identify U.S. citizens who travel overseas to engage in illicit commercial and non-commercial sexual conduct with children. These strategies include a multi-disciplinary approach, using partnerships with foreign law enforcement and non-governmental organizations, to provide child victim with available support services. In 2013, these efforts continued with successful prosecutions for illegal activities occurring in various locations throughout the world.
• Select child sex trafficking and sex tourism cases:
• On January 14, 2014, in the Central District of California, Paul Edward Bell pleaded guilty to federal sex trafficking charges, admitting that he used force, fraud and coercion to recruit teen-age girls and then prostitute them across Southern California. Bell was the eighth and final defendant to plead guilty in the case. A task force, comprised of FBI agents and state and local law enforcement, identified a child prostitution ring led by members and associates of the Rolling 60s Crips gang out of Compton, California. Several pimps used young women as “bottom girls” to recruit students at local high schools. Those victims were then taken to hotels in Compton and were forced to engage in prostitution for the gang. The victims were held hostage, locked in a residence, and were slapped, pepper-sprayed, and threatened with guns to ensure they did not escape. Eight victims were identified and rescued. Christopher Weldon, who pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to engage in sex trafficking received a six-year prison sentence. The remaining defendants are awaiting sentencing.
• In December 2013, in the Northern District of Georgia, Terrance Anderson was sentenced to 25 years in federal prison, followed by seven years of supervised release, and ordered to pay $154,550 restitution on charges of sex trafficking of a minor and two counts of transporting adults in interstate commerce for prostitution. From February 2008 through December 2011, Anderson ran a prostitution ring in which he advertised underage girls and other victims for sexual services on the Internet. Anderson previously pleaded guilty in August 2001 to using a cell phone, which is a facility of interstate commerce, to cause a juvenile to engage in prostitution, and to being a felon in possession of a firearm. He received a sentence of seven years in federal prison for that offense. However, Anderson resumed his sex trafficking activities after completing his prison sentence.
• On December 4, 2013, in the District of Columbia, John Ott was sentenced to 20 years in federal prison, followed by lifetime supervised release, for engaging in illicit sexual conduct with a child. Between 2004 and 2005, Ott traveled to Kenya and began working as a medical doctor at a non-governmental organization. During this period, Ott was suspected of sexually abusing boys who were approximately 11 to 13 years of age and provided them with money and other goods. Upon returning to the United States in 2009, Ott joined an organization located in New Mexico which provided an opportunity for him to travel to South America. In July 2011, Ott returned to Kenya where he began working as a medical doctor at a local hospital. On December 10, 2012, Ott was arrested in Tanzania and subsequently charged in the United States. To date, approximately 29 child victims have been identified as being sexually abused by Ott.
• In October 2013, in the Western District of Tennessee, Terrence Yarbrough, aka “T-Rex,” was sentenced to serve 536 months’ imprisonment after a jury convicted him of 10 counts of sex trafficking and one count of conspiracy to commit food stamp fraud. Numerous witnesses testified that Yarbrough repeatedly lured vulnerable victims, some as young as 15 years old, into prostitution with false promises of love, family, and prosperity. The evidence showed that any time a victim refused to engage in prostitution, Yarbrough resorted to threats, intimidation, and violence. The jury heard testimony that Yarbrough’s pattern of recruitment, exploitation, and violent coercion continued for years before his arrest in 2009. During the trial, victims recounted a series of violent acts perpetrated by Yarbrough to coerce them into engaging in prostitution for him, including being beaten with belts, wooden coat hangers, crowbars, padlocks, and dog chains; being thrown down stairs; having their heads smashed in car doors; having their legs burned with irons; and being scalded with boiling water.
• On September 10, 2013, in the Western District of Missouri, Corey M. McKinney was sentenced to life in federal prison following guilty pleas to one count of sex trafficking of a child and one count of production of child pornography. McKinney video recorded the commercial sex act of a 16 year-old child victim and attempted to extort the individual engaging in the illegal sex act. Investigators monitored McKinney as he directed the exchange of the child pornography video in exchange for money.
• On July 31, 2013, in the Southern District of Florida, Matthew Andrew Carter was sentenced to 165 years in prison following his conviction by a jury on five counts of traveling in foreign commerce for the purpose of engaging in illicit sexual conduct with minors, and one count of attempting to do so. Prior to his May 8, 2011 arrest, Carter, a U.S. citizen, resided at and operated the “Morning Star Center” in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The Center, which Carter had operated since 1995, was a residential facility that provided shelter, food, and education to Haitian minors. The minors who lived at the Center were orphans or from impoverished families that could not support them. From 1995 to the present, Carter frequently traveled back to the United States in order to raise funds for the continued operation of the Center, and he would then return to the Center in Haiti. During this period, Carter sexually abused several minors in his care and custody at the Center. The minors’ participation in this illicit sexual conduct was necessary in order for the minors to remain at the Center and to continue attending school, and/or to receive gifts or money from Carter. Carter had a history of abuse going back 40 years, three prior acquittals, and had been systematically abusing dozens of boys in Haiti for decades.
• On May, 30, 2013, in the District of South Dakota, Carl Campbell was sentenced to life imprisonment following his convictions for sex trafficking by force, fraud, or coercion; interstate transportation for the purpose of prostitution; obstruction of a sex trafficking investigation and two counts of sex trafficking of a child. On July 15, 2013, co-conspirator Emmanual Nyuon was sentenced to 30 years for sex trafficking of a child and conspiracy to engage in sex trafficking of a child. On July 15, 2013, co-conspirator Tajahn Clinton, was sentenced to 33.5 years following a guilty plea to one count of sex trafficking by force, fraud, or coercion. These defendants lured young adults and minors and caused them to engage in commercial sex acts in and around Sioux Falls. Campbell assaulted one victim repeatedly over the course of about eight months, during which he forced her to perform commercial sex acts in South Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois.
• On March 22, 2013 in the Middle District of Florida, defendant Weylin O. Rodriguez was sentenced to life plus five years after being found guilty by a federal jury of sex trafficking of a minor; using a firearm in furtherance of a sex trafficking crime; transporting minors over state lines for the purpose of engaging in prostitution through coercion and enticement; and being a felon in possession of a firearm. During the commission of these crimes the defendant recruited multiple minor and adult victims as models. Once the girls met with Rodriguez, he held them against their will and forced them into prostitution.
• Select forced labor and sex trafficking by force, fraud, or coercion cases:
• On January 29, 2014, in the Middle District of Florida, Andrew Blane Fields was sentenced to 405 months in person – over 33 years – for sex trafficking of five victims using addictive drugs to coerce and compel them to engage in prostitution for his profit. A jury found Fields guilty on all counts of sex trafficking and narcotics charges, based on evidence he controlled the victims by manipulating their access to addictive drugs and their fear of withdrawal symptoms.
• On January 17, 2014, in the Southern District of Florida, Damion St. Patrick Baston was arraigned on a 14-count indictment charging him with sex trafficking and related immigration, document fraud, and money laundering offenses arising from a sex trafficking ring that operated in both the United States and Australia.
• On January 13, 2014, in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Deshawn King and Daniel Blount pleaded guilty to all five counts charging then with using heroin to compel drug-addicted women to prostitute at the defendants’ direction.
• On December 6, 2013, in the District of South Dakota, Mohammed Sharif Alaboudi was convicted after trial of sex trafficking for using addictive drugs to coerce vulnerable, homeless, drug-addicted women and girls into prostituting for Alaboudi’s financial gain.
• On November 26, 2013, in the District of Maryland, German de Jesus Ventura, a citizen of El Salvador and an illegal alien, was sentenced to 35 years in prison, followed by five years of supervised release, for conspiring to transport and entice females to travel interstate for prostitution; transporting females for prostitution; enticing females to travel interstate for prostitution; sex trafficking by force, fraud and coercion; and possessing a gun in furtherance of sex trafficking. Ventura was the ringleader of four other individuals who were also sentenced in this scheme. The defendants ran brothels in Maryland and recruited and then prostituted women, many of whom were aliens present in the United States unlawfully. Ventura assaulted and threatened to use violence against one women to coerce her continued participation in prostitution and also sought to intimidate members of the community who assisted his victims. On one occasion, Ventura called and threatened to kill a family who provided temporary housing to one of the prostituted women after she was arrested. He also poured gasoline on their apartment door and smashed windows from their vehicle.
• On November 22, 2013, in the Northern District of Ohio, Daniel J. Brown pleaded guilty in a forced labor case involving the exploitation of a woman with cognitive disabilities and her child. The case involves additional defendants who used violence, threats, sexual assaults, humiliation, isolation, and monitoring to intimidate and control the victims, whom they exploited for domestic service and manual labor.
• On October 9, 2013, in the Southern District of Texas, 14 defendants were charged in connection with a Mexican sex trafficking network.
• In September 2013, in the Western District of Missouri, Edward Bagley, Sr., and Bradley Cook were each sentenced to 20 years in prison for their role in holding a young woman in a trailer home as a sex slave, using extreme violence to torture her, and exchanging cash and items of value for sessions involving physical and sexual abuse of the victim. A total of six defendants pleaded guilty in this case, making it the first time that the customers, or “johns,” have been convicted under the federal sex trafficking statute in a case in which the victim was an adult. The court ordered $738,250 in total restitution be paid to the victim.
• In September 2013, in the Southern District of Georgia, Joaquin Mendez-Hernandez, the lead defendant in a Mexican sex trafficking case, pleaded guilty for operating a scheme that lured victims to the United States on false promises, then used violence, threats, and control over the victims’ children to compel the victims to perform 30-50 sex acts a day across the Southeastern United States. To date, 23 defendants have been convicted as a result of this case.
• On September 20, 2013, in the Eastern District of New York, Angel Cortez-Granados was sentenced to 15 years in prison and ordered to pay $145,815 in restitution. He is the fifth member of the Granados sex trafficking organization to be convicted.
• On July 1, 2013, in the District of Colorado, Kizzy Kalu was convicted following a four-week long trial of 89 counts of forced labor, visa fraud, and related charges, arising from a scheme to hold H-1B workers, primarily from the Philippines, in forced labor in Kalu’s home healthcare operation, using false promises, manipulation of debts, and threats of deportation.
• On June 12, 2013, in the Eastern District of New York, lead defendant Antonio Rivera was sentenced to 60 years in prison, and his co-defendants were sentenced to 25 and 30 years in prison, for exploiting undocumented Central American women and girls for forced labor in the defendants’ restaurants and bars and for forced prostitution.
• In May 2013, in the Southern District of New York, 19 defendants were charged in a sex trafficking case where vulnerable young Mexican women and girls were lured with false promises and compelled into prostitution. This prosecution was the result of a targeted DOJ effort and bilateral cooperation with Mexico. As of January 2014, seventeen defendants had pleaded guilty.
• The Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) served as one of three co-chairs, along with HHS and DHS, in preparing the United States’ first strategic action plan for human trafficking victim services, the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States 2013-2017. The plan was released in January 2014. Implementation of the five-year plan will be facilitated by the SPOG’s Victim Services Committee, also co-chaired by DOJ, HHS, and DHS. The plan outlines federal government-wide goals for short- and long-term improvements in identifying and serving victims of human trafficking. A draft plan was circulated for informal public comment in April 2013 and a series of weekly interagency meetings was held to review the comments and improve the plan.
• OVC, together with the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, DHS, the DOS TIP Office, and HHS’s Administration for Children and Families, sought survivor input in designing a coordinated federal approach to effectively and appropriately engaging survivors in developing more effective programs and strategies. As a result of these discussions, OVC hosted a one-day Survivor Forum and Listening Session to gain insight from a diverse group of 19 victims of human trafficking.
• The Partnership for Freedom, announced by President Obama at CGI in September 2012, is a public-private partnership including OVC, the National Institute of Justice and Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), HHS, HUD, and Humanity United to develop innovative solutions that address human trafficking through a series of three challenge award contests. The first challenge, Reimagine: Opportunity, seeks new ideas to improve and expand access to effective housing, social services, and economic empowerment for human trafficking victims. Twelve finalists were announced on December 12, and winners will be chosen in spring 2014.
• OVC made grant awards to 12 victim service organizations with a demonstrated history of providing trauma-informed, culturally competent services to male and female victims of sex trafficking and labor trafficking. Funding under this program supported either comprehensive services for all victims of human trafficking, or specialized services for victims of human trafficking. Funding also supported efforts to increase the capacity of communities to respond to victims through the development of interagency partnerships and public outreach and awareness campaigns.
• OVC provided the FBI Office for Victim Assistance (OVA) with funding and the authority to provide emergency assistance in major crimes against American citizens overseas in situations where the FBI does not have an open criminal investigation. Through the International Victim Assistance Fund (IVAF), OVA supported victims’ travel to Guam from the island of Chuuk to testify at the trial regarding the Blue House brothel, which masqueraded for four years as a karaoke lounge and was shut down by a police raid in 2008 for human trafficking, prostitution, and criminal sexual misconduct. With the travel assistance provided, it allowed victims to be able to provide powerful testimony which resulted in the brothel owner receiving a sentence of life in prison for forcing nine immigrant women to perform commercial sex acts. Two Guam Police Department officers were convicted of kidnapping, rape, and promoting prostitution for their involvement with the brothel.
• The U.S. Attorneys’ Offices (USAOs), often working through membership in local human trafficking task forces, work on various initiatives to address trafficking victims’ unique needs in the local area. For example, in Milwaukee, a task force is currently working to find ways to meet the housing needs of minor sex trafficking victims in the area. The USAO in Nebraska has partnered with NGOs to develop a cooperative victim services case management protocol for trafficking victims to ensure that each victim has access to necessary and available services. And in the District of South Carolina, the USAO is working with the South Carolina Immigrant Crime Victims Network to satisfy the specialized needs of immigrant trafficking victims.
• The FBI OVA developed brochures in various languages, which are provided to human trafficking victims and are used for public awareness events. Brochures were translated into Spanish, Vietnamese, Japanese, Chinese, and, Korean.
• The FBI Victim Assistance Program (VAP) includes 122 full-time Victim Specialists (VSs) within its 56 Field Offices. The role of the VSs is to work in partnership with FBI agents to assess the needs of potential victims in FBI investigations, provide referrals and resources to these victims, to provide case status updates throughout the duration of the criminal investigation, and to liaise with partner agencies within their communities.
• In FY 2013, OJJDP-funded youth service organizations continued to implement mentoring programs for victims of domestic minor sex trafficking. These programs work to increase victim identification, provide mentoring support, and increase access to services such as crisis intervention, case management, advocacy, housing, educational support, and substance abuse and mental health treatment.
Training, Coordination and Outreach
• The Civil Rights Division’s Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit, the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys, and several USAOs have continued to lead six pilot Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams (ACTeams) in collaboration with the FBI, DHS, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and DOL. Following a competitive, nationwide selection process, six pilot ACTeams launched in July 2011 in the following cities: Los Angeles, California; El Paso, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Atlanta, Georgia; Miami, Florida; and Memphis, Tennessee. The ACTeams were instituted to enhance coordination among federal prosecutors and federal investigative agencies on the front lines and also to enhance coordination between front-line enforcement efforts and the specialized units at DOJ and federal agency headquarters. Each ACTeam has developed a strategic plan to combat the human trafficking threat in its area, and, as of September 2013, each ACTeam had received the Pilot Interagency Advanced Human Trafficking Training Program.
• Each USAO across the country continues to lead or participate in an anti-human trafficking task force. The USAO task forces include those that are operational and focus on criminal investigation and prosecution and those that address related issues, such as regional coordination and information-sharing and trafficking victims’ unique needs. Task forces also engage in training public awareness activities, as well. Task force membership generally includes federal law enforcement partners, state and local law enforcement, and various NGOs, including those providing victim services. In addition, some task forces also include tribal law enforcement, community and faith-based organizations, legal aid, and child and family service organizations. Further, most of the USAOs employ a comprehensive spectrum approach in their task force participation; in addition to the U.S. Attorney, participants from the USAOs may include prosecutors, law enforcement coordinators, and victim assistance personnel.
• Over the last year, the U.S./Mexico Human Trafficking Bilateral Enforcement Initiative has continued to contribute significantly to restoring the rights and dignity of human trafficking victims. DOJ and DHS have collaborated with Mexican law enforcement counterparts to exchange leads and evidence, stabilize victims, and develop high-impact prosecutions under both U.S. and Mexican law. Through this collaboration, both U.S. and Mexican officials have increased their capacity to dismantle human trafficking networks operating across the U.S.-Mexico border, prosecute human traffickers, rescue human trafficking victims, and reunite victims with their families. To advance the interdisciplinary Initiative, DOJ and DHS have continued to participate in exchanges of expertise, capacity-building programs, and direct coordination to ensure that simultaneous and successive investigations and prosecutions enhance, rather than impede, each other.
• The Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys’ National Advocacy Center, with the assistance of the CEOS Section, held the Project Safe Childhood Advanced Online Child Exploitation Seminar February 25-March 1, 2013. Significant focus was placed on the investigation and prosecution of child exploitation offenses that were, as of that time, recently incorporated into the Project Safe Childhood initiative, including domestic prostitution of minors and sexual exploitation of children who were outside the United States.
• In November 2013, the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys held a Working with Victims of Violent Crimes and Civil Rights Crime Seminar for USAO Victim-Witness personnel. Included on the agenda were sessions about resources for human trafficking victims and strategies for human trafficking case management, including partnering with NGOs.
• USAOs regularly engage in various training programs for federal, state, and local law enforcement personnel and others. For example, in February 2013, the USAO in the Eastern District of Wisconsin, with state and local partners, conducted the “Not For Sale: Wisconsin’s Response to Human Trafficking” conference where approximately 500 people attended, including law enforcement officers, representatives of NGOs, members of the faith community, medical personnel, and more. In addition, Assistant United States Attorneys in the Eastern District of Kentucky spoke at a human trafficking conference at Northern Kentucky University and a continuing legal education program sponsored by the Kentucky House of Representatives. Further, the Eastern District of Virginia’s USAO participated in three regional trainings hosted by the Virginia Attorney General’s office, and made major presentations at trafficking conferences hosted by the European Union in Brussels, Johns Hopkins University, the Freedom Network, and the American Bar Association.
• The FBI Civil Rights Unit continues to make outreach and training an important part of their effort to combat human trafficking. In the past year, the FBI has coordinated and/or participated in numerous trainings, symposiums, and seminars with both domestic and foreign partners who are members of law enforcement, non-governmental agencies, private businesses, and the community in general. Some of those events include training with various Canadian law enforcement agencies; meeting with the European Union Anti-Trafficking Coordinator and staff; the American Bar Association Human Trafficking Symposiums in San Diego, California, and Washington, DC; the Human Trafficking Symposium at the University at Mary Washington; training with Maldivian law enforcement agencies; and training with Panamanian law enforcement agencies. The FBI’s training efforts are ongoing.
• Since 2003, the FBI has partnered with NCMEC to host the Protecting Victims of Child Prostitution training course. To date, over 1,350 law enforcement officers and prosecutors have received this training on the comprehensive identification, intervention, and investigation of the commercial sexual exploitation of children.
• In 2013, the FBI established a partnership with the National Association of School Resource Officers Association (NASRO) to enhance training and intelligence sharing opportunities. In July 2013, the FBI Criminal Investigative Division Assistant Director provided the keynote speech to nearly 800 members at the NASRO annual convention. Additionally, agents provided training to conference attendees specific to the commercial exploitation of children through prostitution. The FBI continued to assist NASRO by collaborating to establish a block of training which will become part of the annual training mandatory for all NASRO members.
• In January 2014, the FBI OVA collaborated with the FBI Civil Rights Unit and Violent Crimes Against Children Section, as well as the HHS Administration for Children and Families (ACF) Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons to conduct webinar trainings for FBI personnel to commemorate National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month. Training topics included: coordinating large scale operations that focus on domestic minor sex trafficking; human trafficking in Indian Country and the Bakken region of North Dakota and Montana; identifying resources and services available to adult and foreign minor victims of human trafficking; and, understanding and identifying labor trafficking. The OVA also worked with the FBI Office of Public Affairs to post a human trafficking news blog on the FBI Internet site and awareness information on the FBI’s internal hallway monitors.
• The FBI OVA developed a “Guide to Applying for Continued Presence for Victims of Human Trafficking,” which was distributed to all Victim Specialists, Special Agents working human trafficking cases, and Civil Rights Program Coordinators.
• OJJDP and its grantee, Girls Educational Mentoring Services (GEMS), provided training to OJJDP-funded Internet Crimes Against Children (ICAC) Task Forces in an effort to build capacity of ICAC Task Forces to respond to domestic minor sex trafficking.
• ODDJP-funded National Center for Juvenile and Family Court Judges conducted a two-day Community Roundtable focused on the role of courts in addressing the needs of victims of domestic child sex trafficking. This roundtable will inform the development of a judicial curriculum and tool to better identify victims of domestic child sex trafficking already involved with the juvenile and family court systems.
• The Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), in partnership with Futures Without Violence, presented a training, “Building Collaborative Responses to Trafficked Victims of Domestic Violence and Sexual Assault,” for OVW grantees on March 14-16, 2013 in San Francisco, CA. The training hosted nine teams of two to five individuals. Teams included grantees from OVW programs including Legal Assistance for Victims, Culturally Specific Services, Grants to Encourage Arrest, STOP Violence Against Women, Disabilities, State and Territorial Coalitions, and Rural grant programs. The two and half-day training focused on developing multi-disciplinary collaborative strategies in responding to adult foreign trafficked victims/survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. Participants developed effective skills on identifying and assisting domestic violence and sexual assault victims who have also survived human trafficking. The training is supplemented with one year of follow up support on team action plans.
• The FBI strengthened partnerships through ongoing collaboration with the USAO and many other federal, state, and local partners in investigating and prosecuting trafficking offenders and supporting trafficking victims on tribal land in South Dakota. This work has resulted in two life sentences for traffickers identified by the Minneapolis Field Office/Sioux Falls Resident Agency.
• The FBI was instrumental in partnering with other stakeholders to provide human trafficking training in the Montana/North Dakota Bakken oil region, which has resulted in an increase in prosecutions. This region is experiencing a wide variety of crime, which has impacted policing and crime-fighting strategies. There has been a sharp increase in drug use and drug trafficking, violent crimes, human trafficking, domestic violence, and sexual assaults. As a result, there is a concentrated effort by federal, state, tribal, and local providers to enhance knowledge of and training about human trafficking.
• OJJDP supported a webinar for juvenile justice and child welfare professionals to increase understanding of CSEC, so they may assess and identify victims of CSEC and trafficking and provide appropriate case management and intervention services.
• The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) and OVC jointly awarded funding to support 15 Enhanced Collaborative Model Task Force sites through the FY 2013 Enhanced Collaborative Model to Combat Human Trafficking. In total, OVC awarded funding to 26 organizations to provide services to victims of human trafficking; including seven Enhanced Collaborative Task Force grants in partnership with BJA-funding for law enforcement partners.
• OVW grantees have provided services to human trafficking victims on sexual assault, domestic violence, immigration, and stalking issues. These grantees include the South Asian Network (SAN) under OVW’s Culturally Specific Services Program, and Crisis Center of Tampa Bay and GEMS in NYC under OVW’s Youth Services program.
• USAOs also regularly participate in community awareness events and give presentation to community, faith-based, and other groups in order to increase the awareness of human trafficking. For example in the District of Arizona, the USAO, in conjunction with its local human trafficking task force, has given presentations to the Arizona Court Reporters’ Association, several hotel owners’ organizations in both Phoenix and Flagstaff, medical personnel, faith-based groups, and field workers in the Yuma area (in cooperation with the Mexican consulate). And the Southern District of Illinois has participated in sessions with health care providers, educators, counselors, and the community at large to ensure that those who may come in contact with victims of human trafficking are able to recognize the signs and direct victims to law enforcement and/or service organizations.
• OVC produced a 60 second PSA showing eight diverse survivors of human trafficking, including men and women of multiple ethnicities. The PSA, available on OVC’s website, was released along with the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States at the OVC Survivor Forum and reflects the commitment of OVC to serving all victims. The PSA will be distributed to more than 9,300 crime victims, victim service providers, and allied professionals when it is included in the National Crime Victims’ Rights Week materials.
• DOJ Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance & Training (OPDAT) and International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program (ICITAP) assisted Kosovo in drafting the Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons and Protecting Victims of Trafficking, passed in July 2013, which established legal provisions to protect the rights of victims of trafficking, with special emphasis on the rights of children, sensitive to cultural and gender aspects, in full compliance with international human rights instruments and standards. DOJ OPDAT provided training to Kosovo’s Victim Protection and Assistance Office in the Chief State Prosecutor’s Office to enact provisions in the revised Criminal Procedure Code, which grant victims the status of an injured party during criminal proceedings. Trafficking victims are priority cases for this office, which is building expertise in providing guidance, advice, and representation in the criminal justice system for victims – a serious improvement over past practice where victims were treated poorly and were not protected from harm during legal proceedings.
• DOJ OPDAT worked with the Philippines Judicial Academy to produce a TIP Bench Book that delineated the roles of judges, prosecutors, investigators, social service providers, and NGOs in trafficking cases.
• NIJ was able to make three grant awards under the FY 2013 transnational crimes solicitation to study trafficking in persons.
• In “Labor Trafficking in North Carolina: A Statewide Survey Using Multistage Sampling,” San Diego State University will produce credible, statewide statistical estimates of the scope of labor trafficking victimization among crop farmworkers in North Carolina, as well as investigate the types of victimization experienced by this population. This project also will compare what is learned about the scope and nature of labor trafficking victimization in the state with the nature and scope of victimization indicated in prosecuted labor trafficking cases, involving North Carolina farmworkers, for validation and comparison.
• Texas Christian University will examine the scope and scale of organized crime’s involvement in human trafficking in the United States in “An Empirical Analysis of the Scope and Scale of Organized Crime’s Involvement in Human Trafficking and the United States.” Researchers will develop, analyze, and publish a database of cases in the United States between 2000 and 2012 that include human trafficking and organized crime components to determine: organized crime syndicates most engaged in this type of crime, how they operate, with whom they collaborate, common victim characteristics, and other criminal activities in which they engage, as well as the most prevalent locations and general distributions of illicit markets for trafficked persons in the United States.
• In “Transnational Crimes among Somali-Americans: Convergences of Radicalization and Trafficking,” the University of Chicago will examine the convergence of radicalization and human trafficking among the Somali diaspora in the United States. This three-year, multi-site, mixed-methods study will: 1) systematically review all known cases of radicalization and trafficking among Somali-Americans to identify similarities and differences with respect to risks, protective resources, and law enforcement responses and efforts; 2) conduct interviews with law enforcement personnel, community advocates, parents, and youth regarding how activities involving these crimes emerge, develop, and impact the community; and, 3) design specific community practice strategies for prevention and intervention through a convening of regional and national workshops with practitioners, advocates, policymakers, and academics.
• OJJDP released the Institute of Medicine and the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education of the National Research Council’s study on the commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States, “Confronting Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Sex Trafficking of Minors in the United States.” The report sets forth six strategies for a coordinated, multi-sector response to commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of minors in the United States. OJJDP and the Institute of Medicine have developed a dissemination strategy for the report in 2014 and OJJDP continues to review the report to inform program planning and research activities.
Department of the Interior (DOI)
• In 2013, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Office of Justice Services (OJS) Division of Drug Enforcement (DDE) was involved in numerous human trafficking investigations which netted multiple arrests. One investigation was successful through extensive efforts and contributions by multiple Federal, State and Tribal agencies. This operation led to human trafficking investigations on Indian Country casinos and the surrounding local communities. A total of 42 total arrests were made which included the following: 13 individuals were arrested for engaging in prostitution; 20 individuals were arrested for soliciting prostitution; seven individuals were arrested for pandering; one individual was arrested for aiding and abetting prostitution; and one individual was arrested for possession of methamphetamine. In addition, three women were identified as victims of sex trafficking and transported to a shelter facility.
• A second notable investigation in 2013 was conducted at the WinStar World Casino and Resort in Thackerville, Oklahoma. The Casino is one of the largest Casinos on Indian Land located on I-35 at the Oklahoma-Texas line. This human trafficking investigation focused on the exploitation of underage females who may be forced into performing prostitution acts. The operation was a collaborative effort between federal, state and tribal departments. The investigation resulted in 18 individuals being arrested for prostitution and possession of drugs.
• BIA-DDE continued to work with other federal and tribal agencies on the Tohono O’Odham reservation, which is located along the Southwest Border, to combat human trafficking across the Mexico border, and with local agencies in the Bakken Oil region within North and South Dakota and Montana.
• The BIA OJS National Victim Assistance Program (NVAP) provides services to victims of crime for BIA operated law enforcement programs located in eight states (OK, AZ, NM, UT, WY, MT, SD, and ND). During the past year the BIA-NVAP provided approximately 16,000 services to over 2,000 victims of crime. A handful of these cases were referred or identified as human trafficking and/or possessed elements of a human trafficking crime.
• In the state of Oklahoma, two shelters recently have been certified specializing in working with victims of sex trafficking. There were approximately 60 women who were identified as victims of sex trafficking, in which seven women were of native descent (3-MT Tribal Affiliate, 4-OK Tribal Affiliate).
• BIA Supervisory Victim Specialists, located in Billings, MT serve on the Montana Statistics & Human Trafficking Task Force. Training was provided on November 12-14, 2013.
• Additional challenges exist to properly detect and or assess the rate of occurrences of human trafficking on and/or nearby tribal lands. An example of this is that human trafficking is not commonly identified in tribal criminal codes.
• The BIA-NVAP has forged an on-going partnership with the FBI OVA to address the need to prioritize resources and responses to areas of concentration. The agencies have prioritized North Dakota and Montana as areas of concentration as they are affected by the Bakken Oil boom. Meetings will continue on a quarterly basis, and resources and assistance will be coordinated as needed for immediate and long-term assistance.
• BIA-DDE worked in collaboration with other federal, state, tribal, and local entities on human trafficking investigations. BIA is working with other partners to multiply forces to combat the growing human trafficking problem in and around Indian Country.
• In 2013, BIA-DDE began collaborating with the DOS TIP Office. BIA-DDE officials met with Ambassador CdeBaca and discussed combating human trafficking globally, the PITF, and the SPOG that works with other agencies, and the U.S. narrative of the annual TIP Report. BIA-DDE officials were able to talk about BIA’s commitment to address human trafficking of Native Americans, current law enforcement efforts in Oklahoma, and the broader plans to engage tribes and law enforcement departments working specifically in tribal areas. Stakeholders were able to discuss the types of human trafficking seen in Indian Country, what is working well in responding to the problem, identifying the gaps in addressing human trafficking of American Indians, identifying partners to work together to respond, and what is still needed to assist in combating the problem.
• The BIA-DDE has begun focusing drug agents on human trafficking and illegal gang activities in conjunction with combating illegal narcotic trafficking on Indian Country. BIA-DDE Agents are looking to attend additional advanced training programs to educate agents on current human trafficking enterprises and related criminal activities.
Department of Labor (DOL)
Detection and Law Enforcement
• In 2013, DOL’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD) and Office of Inspector General (OIG) have continued to participate in the Federal Enforcement Working Group, and are actively working alongside law enforcement partners in the six pilot ACTeams located in Atlanta, Georgia; El Paso, Texas; Kansas City, Missouri; Los Angeles, California; Memphis, Tennessee; and Miami, Florida. WHD plays a key role in these interagency efforts by assisting the law enforcement agencies that are developing and prosecuting human trafficking cases. For example, WHD computes back wages and liquidated damages for the victims, reviews employer records, and provides translation services where necessary, as well as helping to identify potential trafficking cases in the course of regular WHD investigations. The OIG investigates fraud and abuse related to DOL’s Foreign Labor Certification (FLC) Programs (PERM, H-2A, H-1B, H-2B, etc.), as well as non-traditional organized crime threats that may jeopardize the integrity of these FLC programs.
• WHD is also participating in 15 DOJ-funded task forces that are operating in 11 states. These task forces, composed of both federal law enforcement agencies and NGOs, are working to strengthen domestic trafficking investigations and prosecutions. Additionally, WHD is participating in 35 non-BJA/OVC funded task forces, located in fourteen states, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Marina Islands. These task forces comprise federal, state, and local government agencies, along with a number of NGOs that have come together for a common purpose to combat human trafficking and to provide assistance to victims within the capabilities of the individual organizations.
• WHD continues to enforce worker protections for temporary foreign workers, a group at particular risk for trafficking, including enforcement actions under the H-2A, H-2B, and H-1B programs for temporary nonimmigrant workers. WHD also enforces broad federal minimum wage and overtime protections for all covered workers.
• While human trafficking charges were not brought in the first of these cases, they both illustrate the connection between trafficking and the broader spectrum of labor exploitation that DOL is charged with addressing:
• Tal Nazar – Los Angeles District Office: WHD staff successfully completed an investigation for an Ethiopian domestic worker who had not been paid any wages by her employer. The worker was also an alleged trafficking victim and the FBI investigated these allegations, but was unable to bring human trafficking charges against the Nazars. Mr. Tal Nazar, a Saudi Arabian national, and his wife, hired the worker in Saudi Arabia and brought her to work in their Beverly Hills home in March of 2010. The worker reportedly worked 119 hours a week for approximately four months without any compensation. After an investigation by WHD, the case was settled administratively, without a court order, and the worker was paid $10,000 in back wages.
• United States v. Kizzy Kalu, et. al. (D. Colorado): As a result of a joint DOS DS, ICE HSI, and DOL OIG investigation, Kizzy Kalu, a Colorado business owner, was found guilty on July 1, 2013, of 89 counts of mail fraud, visa fraud, human trafficking, and money laundering for his role in an H-1B visa fraud scheme. Kalu’s co-defendant, Philip Langerman, previously pled guilty for his role in the scheme. From 2008 through 2010, Kalu, through his companies Foreign Healthcare Professional Group (FHPG) and Advanced Educational and Training for Foreign Healthcare Professionals Group, LLC, recruited foreign nationals and on their behalf filed Labor Condition Applications with DOL, so they could obtain H-1B visas. As part of the scheme, Kalu told the foreign nationals they would be working as nursing instructors/supervisors for a local University, although the school existed in name only. In reality, the workers were subcontracted by Kalu’s company to work as nurses at long-term care facilities. Kalu also required the foreign nationals to sign a contract that imposed a $25,000 penalty if they ceased working for his company and threatened others with cancelation of their H-1B visas if they stopped working.
• WHD has continued exercising its discretionary authority to complete Supplement B forms for U visas, and has begun to examine the feasibility of expanding this certification to include T visas.
• In 2013, DOL sought stakeholder input and began updating and enhancing its web-based trafficking awareness and referral training for WHD investigators throughout the country. This training seeks to enhance the capability to detect and refer cases of trafficking in persons.
• DOL officials engaged in a number of trafficking related events and webinars around the country in 2013, promoting awareness of labor trafficking and employment and training services available to survivors.
• In 2013, DOL began developing a staff awareness training.
International Engagement, Monitoring, and Research
• In February 2014, DOL expanded its partnership agreements with embassies and consulates to include Belize, bringing the total number of partnerships to 11. These partnerships help to ensure that workers from other countries in the United States know their labor rights and how to exercise them. Consulates may assist DOL, for example, in communicating with workers whom the Department might not otherwise be able to reach (including those who may be vulnerable to trafficking) through targeted information-sharing and outreach.
• In September 2013, DOL’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) released updates to two reports on child labor and forced labor: 1) the 2012 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (Trade and Development Act Report); and 2) the List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor pursuant to the TVPRA of 2005 (TVPRA List). These reports continue to serve as important resources for DOL to assess future technical assistance and research priorities as it seeks to combat child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor around the world. ILAB updated the TVPRA List to remove three items (tobacco from Kazakhstan, charcoal from Namibia, and diamonds from Zimbabwe). With these updates, the TVPRA List includes 134 goods from 73 countries, and a total of 342 line items.
• In July 2013, following consultation with DOS and DHS, DOL published a final determination pursuant to E.O. 13126, which updated a list of goods which the Departments have a reasonable basis to believe might have been mined, produced, or manufactured with forced or indentured child labor. The update added cattle from South Sudan, dried fish from Bangladesh, fish from Ghana, garments from Vietnam, and gold and wolframite from the Democratic Republic of Congo. With this update, the E.O. 13126 List now comprises 35 products from 26 countries.
• DOL funds projects to combat exploitative child labor, including child trafficking. While DOL/ILAB did not fund new projects specifically focused on child trafficking in FY 2013, the child labor projects funded by ILAB support efforts to provide assistance to children in or at risk of the worst forms of child labor, including those that could potentially be victims of trafficking.
• Pursuant to a TVPRA mandate, ILAB launched a new online resource, “Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor: A Toolkit for Responsible Businesses,” on December 14, 2012. This free, easy-to-use online toolkit can help businesses combat child labor and forced labor in their global supply chains. The Toolkit highlights the need for an integrated social compliance system and provides practical, step-by-step guidance on the critical elements of such a system, including: engaging stakeholders and partners; assessing risks and impacts; developing a code of conduct; communicating and training across the supply chain; monitoring compliance; remediating violations; independent review; and reporting performance. The Toolkit is the first guide for businesses focusing on child labor and forced labor developed by the U.S. Government. Throughout 2013, ILAB carried out broad dissemination of the Toolkit to businesses and industry groups, corporate social responsibility-focused groups, foreign governments, NGOs, the media, and others, through participation in conferences and web-based events, as well as one-on-one meetings.
• DOL coordinated with other co-chairs of the SPOG Procurement and Supply Chain Committee to gather data on the sectors at greatest risk of trafficking-related activities in federal contracts and global supply chains with the aim of helping agencies implement controls and training to improve monitoring and compliance with E.O. 13627.
• DOL’s Employment and Training Administration’s (ETAs) network of more than 2,500 American Job Centers and its Job Corps Program continue to offer employment and training services to victims of severe forms of trafficking, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Act.
• DOL hosted a webinar for the public workforce system on May 14, 2013, which provided further guidance and context around workforce, training, and referral services to victims of human trafficking, complementing the information in Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) 9-12, which was issued in October 2012. A second webinar is planned for 2014.
• In 2013, DOL, in partnership with HHS and DOJ, held the first of a series of conference call listening sessions with an informal network of grantee organizations, state and local workforce investment boards, and stakeholder groups around the issue of employment and training services for victims of trafficking. The calls sought individual stakeholder input to identify underutilized services, common barriers to employment, and promising practices in employment and training services around the country. The network will continue to share and promote, where possible, the integration into service delivery of the information identified.
• DOL’s WHD assists victims of human trafficking to gain full restitution for the labor they performed by computing back wages and liquidated damages.
Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
• The Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) within ACF issued 406 Certification Letters to foreign trafficked adults in FY 2013 (increased from 366 certifications in FY 2012). ORR issued 114 Eligibility Letters to foreign trafficked children for benefits and services (increased from 103 letters in FY 2012). ORR has two Child Protection Specialists dedicated to reviewing requests and facilitating the prompt delivery of assistance to eligible children. Child Protection Specialists have conducted training and outreach activities regarding services for foreign child trafficking victims and have traveled to 11 locations, including Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC) programs. They met with new Case Coordinators and the local Federal Field Specialists and provided the “Responding to Foreign Child Victims of Trafficking” training to staff at the Division of Children’s Services’ facilities, as well as met with law enforcement, child welfare agencies, and other local stakeholders.
• ACF ORR continues full implementation of Section 107(b)(1)(F) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), which requires the HHS Secretary to promptly determine if an alien child in the United States who may be a victim of trafficking is eligible for interim assistance. The HHS Secretary delegated authority to implement this provision to the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families who further delegated it to the Director of ORR. In 2013, the ORR Division of Children’s Services screened all 24,668 UACs for human trafficking and provided placement services to UACs, including those who were trafficked. ORR conducted several trainings on child trafficking, including training sessions for Customs and Border Patrol Agents in El Paso, Texas; direct service providers in Jackson, Mississippi; and Rescue & Restore grantees and college students in Washington, DC.
• ACF ORR awarded a grant of $800,000 to Polaris Project, a DC-based anti-trafficking organization, to operate the National Human Trafficking Resource Center (NHTRC). The NHTRC received 29,064 calls in FY 2013 (an increase from 21,287 calls in FY 2012). In FY 2013, the NHTRC received reports of 4,792 unique cases of potential trafficking, a 52 percent increase over the previous fiscal year. The NHTRC is a dedicated, toll-free, U.S. national telephone hotline (1-888-373-7888) that provides emergency assistance 24 hours a day, seven days a week, every day of the year. The NHTRC provides service referrals for victims, passes on tips to law enforcement agents, and provides information and training on human trafficking. Internet users can also report possible tips of trafficking cases to the NHTRC via an online reporting form.
• ACF ORR awarded $2.9 million for third-year continuation grants to 11 organizations for the Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Regional Program. All organizations received continued funding during 2013 to proceed with projects in Fresno, Sacramento, and San Francisco, California; Denver, Colorado; Honolulu, Hawaii; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; St. Louis, Missouri; New York, New York; Dallas and Houston, Texas; and Seattle, Washington. The central purpose of these grants is to maximize and increase the identification and protection of human trafficking victims in the United States and to increase public awareness about human trafficking. The grantees are responsible for leading or participating in an anti-trafficking coalition, conducting public awareness activities, and providing training and technical assistance on human trafficking issues to local organizations. Each grantee must sub-award at least 60 percent of grant funds received to local organizations that can identify and/or work with victims of human trafficking.
• There were 29 Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking Coalitions across the country, including unfunded coalitions that support public awareness by distributing campaign materials through local outreach activities.
• HHS, along with co-chairs at DOJ and DHS and other federal partners, finalized a five-year coordinated Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services to Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. HHS Deputy Secretary Bill Corr moderated a panel at the White House Forum to Combat Human Trafficking, releasing the draft Plan for public comment in April. The final Plan was released in January.
• HHS Secretary Kathleen Sebelius noted the intersection between human trafficking and child welfare systems at a forum on child trafficking at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. ACF released new guidance to child welfare systems and runaway and homeless youth programs on how to strengthen identification and service responses to child trafficking. Follow-up training on child trafficking included presentation at the 28th Annual San Diego International Conference on Child and Family Maltreatment.
• HHS strengthened intra-agency coordination and collaboration on anti-trafficking initiatives by forming a multi-disciplinary working group meeting monthly within ACF (including ORR; Children’s Bureau; Family and Youth Services Bureau; Administration for Native Americans; Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation; Office of Human Services Preparedness and Response; and Office of External Affairs) and a multidisciplinary working group meeting quarterly across HHS (including the ACF; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Health Resources and Services Administration; Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration; and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning, Research, and Evaluation)
• HHS ACF has integrated anti-trafficking initiatives within the 2014 ACF Strategic Plan, recognizing that victims and survivors of human trafficking intersect with multiple programs and services across the agency.
• ACF ORR awarded over $5.0 million for second-year supplements and third-year continuation funds to three organizations for its National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program (NHTVAP), originally awarded on September 30, 2011. The central purpose of these grants is to provide comprehensive case management services on a per capita basis to foreign victims and potential victims of trafficking seeking HHS certification in any location in the United States.
• ACF ORR NHTVAP grantees served a total of 915 clients (increased from 761 clients in FY 2012). The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants and its sub-awardees served 431 clients (274 victims and 157 derivatives). Tapestri, Inc. and its sub-awardees served 206 clients (127 victims and 79 derivatives). Heartland Human Care Services, Inc. and its sub-awardees served 278 clients (211 victims and 67 derivatives).
• The ACF Family and Youth Services Bureau (FYSB) awarded approximately $37.6 million through the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, which included explicit language enabling victims of human trafficking to be served through the 205 Transitional Living Program and Maternity Group Homes (transitional shelter up to 21 months), 321 Basic Center Program (short-term crisis center up to 21 days), and 138 Street Outreach Program (street-based services).
• ACF FYSB continues to partner with FBI Innocence Lost Task Forces in a pilot initiative to integrate trafficking components into policies and to strengthen outcomes for trafficked children and youth through four runaway and homeless youth programs. The four pilot cities include Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grantees in Miami, FL; Seattle and Everett, WA; and Toledo, OH.
• ACF Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) awarded continuation grants to two organizations conducting demonstration projects to examine whether engaging pre-certified foreign national victims of human trafficking in enhanced employment services can improve self-sufficiency outcomes.
• HHS ACF, DOJ, and HUD partnered with Humanity United in the Partnership for Freedom, which announced the “Reimagine: Opportunity” challenge competition to spur new ideas for sustainable housing, economic self-sufficiency, and comprehensive social services for survivors of human trafficking in September. Award finalists participated in a multi-day innovations workshop in January.
Training and Technical Assistance
• HHS announced a new initiative to enhance the health care system’s response to human trafficking at the annual meeting of CGI. ACF and the Office of Women’s Health at HHS hosted a national technical working group meeting of medical and health providers and other experts to launch the associated SOAR to Health and Wellness initiative, with involvement from DOJ, DHS, DOS, and USAID.
• ACF’s regional offices supported the rollout of new child trafficking guidance by holding community forums in Atlanta, Georgia; San Francisco, California; Dallas, Texas; New York, New York; and Seattle, Washington. ACF also supported training on child trafficking for senior staff at the New Jersey Department of Children and Families in preparation for the Super Bowl and long-term community response needs to human trafficking. The Chicago Regional Office conducted a Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Training on July 31, 2013. Participants included the Mexican Consulate, NGOs, and federal partners.
• ACF FYSB supported training, services, and advocacy for both domestic and foreign victims of trafficking who come in contact with domestic violence programs through 1,600 shelters, 1,100 non-residential service sites, and 56 state and territorial coalitions.
• ACF FYSB supported Family Violence Prevention and Services Act grants to state and territorial domestic violence coalitions. Approximately half (27) of the 56 state and territorial domestic violence coalitions worked to build the capacity of their member programs to serve trafficking victims through training, technical assistance, and advocacy. Some examples of this work include:
• The Kansas State Domestic Violence Coalition led trainings for state law enforcement on responding to victims of human trafficking, and continued to serve as a member of the Kansas State Attorney General’s Human Trafficking Task Force.
• The Arizona State Domestic Violence Coalition revised its program Service Standards to include best practices for accommodating the unique needs of victims of human trafficking. These Service Standards guide the operation of the state’s member programs, which are primary purpose victim service providers.
• The Virginia Sexual and Domestic Violence Action Alliance developed a day-long training for its member programs, which represent both sexual assault and domestic violence service providers throughout the state, to improve advocates’ awareness of how to make services more accessible to trafficking victims.
• ACF FYSB supported the Asian & Pacific Islander Institute on Domestic Violence (APIIDV) to develop and lead training and technical assistance on the complex social and economic factors behind human trafficking, helping the domestic violence field to better assist victims. Over the past year alone, APIIDV has offered workshops, seminars, and webinars to 588 individuals, from community-based organizations, domestic violence programs, state domestic violence coalitions, and Federal agencies. Complementing these trainings are technical assistance briefs published by APIIDV, covering topics such as the health needs of trafficking victims, and approaches for domestic violence advocates in serving trafficked women and girls, which are available for download on their website. Services Available to Victims of Human Trafficking: A Resource Guide for Social Service Providers received more than 600 unique downloads in 2013, from individual and organizations across the United States and globally.
• ACF ORR Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons (ATIP) provided dozens of trainings and presentations on a range of victim identification and service topics, reaching frontline responders in many fields across the country (e.g., ACF Region II Training Institute on Human Trafficking; the Anti-Human Trafficking Symposium at Georgetown University; the AKA Sorority Founders Day event; the Asian American and Pacific Islanders Texas Regional Conference; the Jefferson Educational Society; and FBI and/or DHS/ICE field offices in California, Nevada, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington).
• ACF FYSB provided a one-year, $351,000 grant to the Runaway and Homeless Youth Training and Technical Assistance Center (RHYTTAC) operated by National Safe Place, to strengthen training and technical assistance to more than 400 runaway and homeless youth grantees to help enhance their work with survivors of human trafficking, including the identification of victims, provision of appropriate and trauma-informed services, and expansion of network of services. RHYTTAC provided direct training through six institute events, three webinars, and a five-course e-learning module on human trafficking.
• ACF FYSB featured human trafficking at the pre-conference institute and four workshop sessions at the National Runaway and Homeless Youth Conference held in Atlanta, Georgia. RHYTTAC’s Community of Practice has 822 active members and had several discussion threads regarding human trafficking in FY 2013.
• ACF Children’s Bureau (CB) maintained a “spotlight” page providing links and resources to child welfare-related personnel on responding to human trafficking of children through the Child Welfare Information Gateway. The Children’s Bureau also included information on human trafficking in the Children’s Bureau Express, a monthly e-newsletter.
• ACF ORR ATIP hosted nine briefings for international visitors sponsored by the State Department’s International Visitor Leadership Program. Government and non-governmental professionals from 45 countries received information on ORR’s efforts to combat human trafficking and assist foreign victims in the United States.
• ACF participated in a bilateral high level workshop on cutting edge innovation and strategic challenges in the fight against human trafficking, organized by DOS and the Royal Netherlands Embassy in Washington, which involved participation from other federal agencies and NGOs.
• ACF ORR ATIP distributed 747,741 public awareness materials (posters, brochures, etc.) publicizing the Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking (Rescue & Restore) public awareness campaign, increased from over 714,000 in FY 2012. The Rescue & Restore training video Look Beneath the Surface is posted online in English and Spanish.
• ACF ORR funded the NHTRC, which created eight online trainings and sent 12 monthly newsletters on trafficking issues to its listserv of 13,644 members in FY 2013 (increased from 8,375 members in FY 2012).
Public Engagement, Coordination, and Collaboration
• HHS participated in multiple meetings with stakeholder organizations representing survivors of human trafficking, service providers, researchers, advocates, state and local government organizations, and the general public. Events included a conference on multi-system approaches to the domestic sex trafficking of girls at the Georgetown University Law Center; a convening of the Innovative Catholic Women Religious Leaders Fighting Human Trafficking; the 11th annual Freedom Network conference; the National ACF Hispanic Roundtable; a Congressional Forum on Child Trafficking and Child Welfare; an international summit of Student’s Opposing Slavery at President Lincoln’s Cottage; a National Colloquium on evaluating shelter and service responses to child sex trafficking; and a U.S. Commission on Civil Rights public briefing on human trafficking of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LBGT) youth in the District of Columbia.
• The ACF-ORR Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons (ATIP) hosted training for its grantees during which they received information from several ACF Program Offices and Federal law enforcement representatives, and had opportunities to discuss challenges encountered and lessons learned during grant project implementation.
• ACF-ORR ATIP also hosted an in-person and teleconference Stakeholders Meeting to solicit input from grantees and others regarding ATIP’s public awareness and outreach efforts, including its free public awareness posters, brochures, and other materials.
• HHS supported a national Survivor Forum and Listening session, hosted by DOJ Office of Victims of Crime, on how to strengthen survivor engagement in federal anti-trafficking initiatives. HHS supported a DOJ Office of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention community roundtable on court responses to domestic child sex trafficking. HHS supported listening sessions with stakeholders hosted by DOL on the scope and needs of labor trafficking victims. HHS supported a webinar on child sex trafficking hosted by ED for educators and school personnel. HHS supported the President’s Advisory Council on Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships in multiple stakeholder events.
• FYSB hosted a phone panel and discussion on human trafficking with grantee partners to commemorate National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month.
• ACF regional offices engaged with stakeholders throughout the year including the following highlights:
• Region 1 (Boston, MA) participated in a regional anti-trafficking working group hosted by DHS.
• Region 2 (New York, NY) participated in NJ Coalition Against Human Trafficking meetings and presented at the Stronger Families New York Coalition meeting.
• Region 3 (Philadelphia, PA) engaged with the Philadelphia Mayor’s Office of Faith-Based Initiative and the Mayor’s Office of Community Empowerment and Opportunity to discuss human trafficking as it relates to the City of Philadelphia.
• Region 4 (Atlanta, GA) hosted three community forums on human trafficking to inform the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services to Victims of Human Trafficking and ACF’s new child trafficking guidance. They also held their annual Regional Conference.
• Region 5 (Chicago, IL) participated in monthly calls and two in-person roundtable discussions on human trafficking. Discussions revolved around housing and program services for survivors of labor and commercial sex trafficking. Gaps, specific to human trafficking victims and housing, were identified. The group also discussed potential options for closing gaps in services for at-risk young adults and LGBT of all ages.
• Region 6 (Dallas, TX) hosted four community forums on human trafficking.
• Region 7 (Kansas City, MO) hosted a human trafficking roundtable for child welfare staff with representatives from Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas sharing current state effort on human trafficking.
• Region 8 (Denver, CO) coordinated and facilitated a training for stakeholders in the Four Corners tourism and agriculture regions of the country in Durango, Colorado.
• Region 9 (San Francisco, CA) collaborated with the Children’s Bureau Training and Technical Coordination Center to provide training on child trafficking and hosted a community forum on human trafficking.
• Region 10 (Seattle, WA) collaborated with Region 9 to conduct a national listening session on the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking. The regional office participated in multiple community working groups on human trafficking including in Thurston County, Pierce County, and the Washington state-wide task force. The regional office also engaged in collaborative efforts with the City of Seattle’s Human Trafficking efforts.
• ACF Administration for Native Americans (ANA) hosted a tribal consultation in Washington, DC on topics including the issue of human trafficking.
Department of Transportation (DOT)
• DOT and DHS secured the participation of five airlines (Delta Air Lines, Inc., JetBlue Airways, Allegiant Air, Silver Airways, and North American Airlines), in the Blue Lightning Initiative. The initiative includes a computer-based training module that participating airlines will use for training airline personnel to safely identify suspected human trafficking incidents and alert federal law enforcement authorities in real time.
• DOT trained federal, state, and local bus and truck inspectors and new employees about human trafficking awareness. Nearly all 55,000 DOT employees have received similar training.
• DOT led efforts to expand the Transportation Leaders Against Human Trafficking partnership, encouraging more industry members to join the partnership, train their employees about human trafficking, increase anti-trafficking public awareness activities, and maximize the transportation industry’s collective impact in combating human trafficking.
• DOT held stakeholder webinars and led efforts to raise awareness about human trafficking by including human trafficking on the agenda of key transportation industry conferences, and in research and legal forums.
• DOT contract and acquisition specialists received specialized training on the policies and responsibilities for combating human trafficking in accordance with E.O. 13627, Strengthening Protections Against Trafficking in Persons in Federal Contracts.
• DOT led efforts to include human trafficking on the agenda of the APEC Transportation Ministerial. Twenty-one APEC Ministers joined forces to “condemn any use of the transportation system by human traffickers within and across APEC borders,” and directed the Transportation Working Group to explore ways to continue to raise awareness about the issue.
• DOT contracted with a private firm to develop public awareness materials tailored to the transportation industry.
• DOT, DHS, and Amtrak partnered to train all 20,000 Amtrak employees and Amtrak Police Department officers to identify and recognize indicators of human trafficking, as well as how to report suspected cases of human trafficking. This training continued in 2013.
Department of Education (ED)
• ED’s Office of Safe and Healthy Students (OSHS) remained steadfast in its commitment to raise awareness about – and ultimately prevent – domestic human trafficking amongst school-aged youth nationwide in 2013.
• ED is committed to: providing outreach to school communities and informing school leaders, faculty and staff, students, and parents about the problem of domestic human trafficking; helping schools understand how the problem relates to teaching and learning and why it is important for schools to address the problem; providing school resource and security officers and campus police with information and resources; and working with programs at ED and in other federal agencies and stakeholders to develop and disseminate resource material.
• ED hosted a policy briefing, “Working Together to End the Trafficking of American School-Aged Youth,” which included a presentation and discussion about how federal agencies are working with state and local officials to combat human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.
• ED hosted a webinar on the commercial sexual exploitation of children in schools that reached nearly 1,000 participants nationwide. ED partnered with the HHS Administration for Children and Families, the National Center for Homeless Education, and Grossmont Union High School District in California.
• ED drafted a MOU with DHS that allows for the two agencies to co-brand materials developed in partnership, to include a poster series and an “anti-trafficking 101” document for schools. ED also provided input on a video training DHS is developing for school resource officers.
• OSHS included announcements about training opportunities, reports, and other publications about human trafficking and CSEC in program office publications, including the Safe and Supportive Schools Newsletter and the Prevention Newsletter. The newsletters are distributed through a large and active listserv that is used as a mechanism to notify individuals about training opportunities, ongoing research, new publications, and grant opportunities.
• OSHS revised its “Fact Sheet on Domestic Human Trafficking” to include information about labor trafficking based on a series of meetings with national and international NGOs. The fact sheet describes how human trafficking affects schools, the signs that school staff should be aware of, and how to report incidents of trafficking.
• OSHS staff published a blog, “Putting an End to Human Trafficking,” on ED’s homepage to spotlight National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, January 2014.
• OSHS updated web pages under the heading: “The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Forced Child Labor or Human Trafficking.” The web pages are presented on the Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center’s website. The web pages include interactive links and information regarding federal agencies and organizations involved with human trafficking issues, available resources, and related publications and reports. Information on human trafficking is also posted on the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environment’s website.
• OSHS awarded a Safe Schools/Healthy Students supplement grant of $20,000 to Grossmont Union High School District in San Diego, California to develop a guide for educators and school staff that helps them identify potential victims and take the appropriate steps to protect students and work with partners in their efforts to prosecute traffickers. The draft of the guide was completed at the close of 2013 and is being cleared for public release.
• ED participated in the PITF, the SPOG, and interagency work groups out of DOJ that are focused on the trafficking issue.
• ED was active in drafting the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States. The plan is intended to support the ongoing battle against modern-day slavery to ensure that all victims of human trafficking in the United States have access to the tools and services they need to escape exploitation and rebuild their lives.
• ED’s Office for Civil Rights (OCR), which enforces Title IX of Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX), resolved 45 complaints on sexual assault/violence in 2013. OCR has prioritized proactive investigations on sexual violence during this Administration, emphasizing OCR-initiated sexual violence investigations at a rate 10 times their percentage of all complaints OCR receives.
• ED developed a key policy letter from Education Secretary Arne Duncan as a resource for Chief State School Officers to guide efforts to create safer communities for young women by raising public awareness of gender-based violence, including human trafficking; educating communities about how violence affects women and youth; and encouraging new efforts to prevent and respond to violence.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
• DHS increased its capacity to combat human trafficking through the strengthening of the Blue Campaign. The Blue Campaign is the unified voice for DHS’s efforts to combat human trafficking. Working in collaboration with law enforcement, government, and non-governmental and private organizations, the Blue Campaign strives to protect the basic right of freedom, and to bring those who exploit human lives to justice.
• In collaboration with DOJ and DOL, DHS created an advanced human trafficking training course for the ACTeams. The first training was held in 2012 and included expert instructors from DOJ, FBI, DHS ICE/HSI, and DOL. This highly interactive course utilizes adult learning techniques and focuses on complex issues of human trafficking (such as discovery issues, immigration relief, strategies concerning which witnesses to call to testify, search warrant information, interviewing both cooperative and uncooperative witnesses, and evidence gathering). All six ACTeams (from Atlanta, El Paso, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Memphis, and Miami) participated in the training. HSI is evaluating the possibility of expanding the training to state and local led human trafficking task forces.
• In 2013, two other training sessions were held in March and September with ACTeams from Kansas City, El Paso, Miami, and Memphis participating. This completes the training for all six ACTeams throughout the country, with 79 personnel trained in total.
• In 2013, DHS sponsored a human trafficking seminar for approximately fifty state and major urban area fusion center analysts on the indicators, trends, and tactics of human trafficking, as well as the anti-trafficking resources available to support state and local analysts. DHS also developed a Fusion Center Referral Protocol that enables fusion center personnel to share information about human trafficking with federal law enforcement for investigation. During FY 2013, DHS trained 320 fusion personnel via four webinar trainings about human trafficking and new protocol.
• ICE HSI conducted more investigations in FY 2013 containing a nexus to human trafficking than ever before – many with the help of the public through tips about suspected human trafficking – resulting in 1,025 initiated cases, 816 convictions in federal cases with a nexus to trafficking, over 330 identified trafficking victims, and seized assets of over $1.8 million.
• ICE HSI raises awareness about human trafficking through training efforts with federal personnel and with state and local law enforcement partners, coordination with DHS fusion centers, and information-sharing with NGOs. In addition to these efforts, ICE HSI provides a free tip-line where individuals around the world can report suspicious criminal activity, including human trafficking. Highly trained specialists take reports from both the public and law enforcement on possible violations of more than 400 laws enforced by ICE. The tip-line is available by calling 866-347-2423 or completing an online form available at www.ice.gov/tips 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The ICE HSI Tip Line received 248 human trafficking tips in FY 2013. The statistics for the past three years reflect the following human trafficking tip numbers: 588 tips in FY 2012, 384 in FY 2011, and 231 in FY 2010.
• In recognition of the needs and unique challenges of interviewing trafficked minors, as well as other child and special needs victims, ICE established a Forensic Interviewing Program. The four full-time Forensic Interview Specialists (FISs) conduct developmentally-appropriate, legally-defensible, victim- and culturally-sensitive forensic interviews for all ICE investigations, domestically and internationally. Interviews are conducted in English and Spanish, or in any other language through an interpreter.
• To assist in the complicated needs of trafficking victims, the ICE HSI Victim Assistance Program (VAP) has 26 full-time Victim Assistance Specialists (VASs) in 24 of its local investigative offices. The ICE HSI VASs are responsible for assessing victims’ needs for all victims linked to an HSI investigation, working with agents to integrate victim assistance considerations at the beginning and throughout the duration of the criminal investigation. Specialists ensure that potential human trafficking victims are rescued, transferred to safe locations, and provided with referrals for medical, mental health, and legal assistance, including for long term immigration relief, case management, and other services. Since FY 2012, ICE HSI VASs have assisted more than 3,000 victims of crime, which includes more than 600 trafficking victims.
• ICE has designated 39 specially trained human trafficking subject matter experts – at least one in every ICE HSI Special Agent in Charge (SAC) field office. These individuals are trained to handle human trafficking leads, address urgent victim needs appropriately, and serve as designated points of contact for local officers and leads.
• ICE Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO) has designed and implemented an automated Risk Classification Assessment (RCA) module to improve transparency and uniformity in detention custody and classification decisions. RCA automates the review of an alien’s biographic information, criminal history, immigration history, special vulnerabilities, and community ties. RCA guides ICE officers to determine whether there are any special vulnerabilities that may impact custody and classification determinations, including whether a person is a victim of persecution or torture, sexual abuse or violent crime, or human trafficking. RCA will never recommend detention for an individual with a Special Vulnerability if not subject to mandatory detention.
• DHS continues to participate in the HSTC that represents collaboration between DHS, DOS, and DOJ to ensure a whole-of-government approach to the U.S. Government’s human trafficking data and intelligence efforts. The Center annually submits to Congress a strategic assessment regarding vulnerabilities in the United States and foreign travel system that human traffickers may exploit. ICE continues to play a leading role in the HSTC by providing substantial support and staffing, including 21 full-time analysts and special agents.
• On May 1, 2013, the ICE HSI New York field office announced the arrest of 13 individuals on charges of sex trafficking and other crimes. These arrests are a direct result of a joint effort to enhance investigative data analysis with DOJ and FBI, with support from HSTC.
• In 2013, ICE produced a finished intelligence product on human smuggling and trafficking trends of Indian nationals into the United States.
• ICE HSI provided international training and outreach to over 4,300 foreign officials in FY 2013, and engages foreign law enforcement partners to enhance prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts.
• DHS, with DOJ and HHS, has led the interagency effort to develop the first-ever Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States that coordinates and complements federal efforts, enhances resources, increases awareness, and strengthens the reach and effectiveness of available services.
• DHS provides a suite of materials to enhance public awareness and explain the types of services and resources that are available to victims of human trafficking. These materials are disseminated across the United States, are available for order or download, and are regularly distributed to foreign embassies in the United States by DOS. The Blue Campaign created new handout materials with tailored messages for NGOs, faith-based organizations, law enforcement, judges and lawyers, first responders, and healthcare professionals to educate on victim identification and crime reporting, the case investigation process, and available resources for victim support.
• DHS continues to mandate that all employees who are likely to encounter victims of human trafficking take specialized human trafficking training. The computer-based training module explains DHS employees’ anti-trafficking roles and responsibilities.
• Through the Blue Campaign, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), ICE HSI VAP and Law Enforcement Parole Section (LEPS) partnered in 2013 to develop a joint comprehensive training module covering Continued Presence, T visas, U visas, and the DHS resources available to federal, state, and local law enforcement. This training will continue throughout FY 2014.
• ICE distributed 1.5 million outreach materials.
• In 2013, USCIS trained approximately 770 federal, state, and local law enforcement officials using co-training presentations that it developed for the purpose of teaching state and local law enforcement, as well as NGOs.
• Working jointly with DOS, ICE HSI conducted training on cyber-crime and child exploitation investigations for first responders in Bulgaria, Cambodia, and Thailand.
• ICE provided international training and outreach on international forced child labor, human trafficking, and child sex tourism to over 180 foreign officials in Jamaica, Brazil, and Vietnam. ICE collaborated with foreign Cabinet-level officials in the respective host countries to engage appropriate and specialized law enforcement entities to participate in these prosecution, prevention, and protection efforts. This collaboration led to several joint or ICE-assisted foreign investigations.
• ICE conducted trainings and distributed materials throughout the United States and around the world to raise awareness among law enforcement and the public about how to identify human trafficking and provide tips to law enforcement. In FY 2013, ICE trained or provided anti-human trafficking materials to over 49,000 people. These numbers include both domestic and international HSI offices.
• ICE HSI coordinated and held an Advanced Human Smuggling/Human Trafficking training course for ICE HSI personnel. The training was held in September 2013 and included 24 trainees from ICE HSI. ICE HSI has scheduled two additional Advanced Human Smuggling/Human Trafficking classes for May and August 2014, both to include 24 trainees. These trainings will include ICE HSI personnel, other federal agency personnel, and state and local personnel. These trainings assist Special Agents and other agency law enforcement officers working with ICE HSI to identify indicators of human smuggling and human trafficking, as well as immigration relief options available to trafficked victims, while evaluating case-studies of human smuggling and human trafficking cases.
• The Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC) conducted in-person training on identifying indicators of human trafficking, case-studies of trafficking investigations, and immigration relief options available to trafficked victims as part of its State and Local Law Enforcement Training Symposium. FLETC trained over 106 officers who attended the symposium in Charleston, South Carolina.
• DHS works diligently to expand the reach of its state and local web-based human trafficking training.
• DHS worked with the International Association of Directors of Law Enforcement Standards and Training to make the training available to all of its members, which includes representatives from state and local law enforcement training academies.
• Six states have loaded the DHS state and local law enforcement training onto their statewide training systems, or are utilizing this training in their police academies.
• USCIS conducted numerous in-person and web-based trainings and presentations on combating human trafficking and on immigration relief options for victims. Participants included federal, state, and local law enforcement, NGOs, immigration advocates, and attorneys, judges, and others. Personnel conducted in-person trainings in cities and regions across the United States, including: Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; Houston, Texas; Las Vegas, Nevada; northern Virginia; Phoenix, Arizona; Raleigh, North Carolina; San Diego, California; Vermont; and Washington, DC.
• USCIS conducted bi-monthly webinar trainings for federal, state, and local law enforcement focused on issues unique to law enforcement’s role, rights, and responsibilities in the T and U visa programs, while also explaining the certification process which is done with Forms I-914 Supplement B and I-918 Supplement B.
• USCIS Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations Directorate (RAIO) developed a training module in 2012 on trafficking to train all new officers at RAIO. The module includes instruction on international and domestic laws regarding trafficking and a discussion on common forms of human trafficking, rights, and immigration relief for victims, and interviewing and other adjudication considerations. All new officers at RAIO are also required to complete an online USCIS course on trafficking. RAIO’s Asylum Division conducted additional training for new asylum officers at the Asylum Division Officer Training Course, which is required for all newly hired asylum officers. The training covers the TVPRA, making UAC determinations, detecting indicators of trafficking, and what asylum officers should do if they suspect that an asylum applicant has been or is being trafficked. Each asylum office has designated a human trafficking point of contact, who has established communications with their local ICE Special Agent in Charge (SAC) trafficking points of contact and local ICE Victim Assistance Coordinators in order to establish referral and information-sharing mechanisms on human trafficking-related cases.
• USCIS distributed over 10,000 pamphlets on immigration options for victims of crimes, including human trafficking victims. These pamphlets are also available online in English, Spanish, Chinese, and Russian.
• For the fifth year in a row, USCIS reached the annual statutory cap for U visas (10,000), which provide immigration relief for victims who cooperate in the investigation or prosecution of certain crimes, including human trafficking and domestic violence. USCIS also saw an increase in T visa applications, which are specifically for victims of a severe form of trafficking in persons.
• DHS continued distributing two roll-call videos for state and local law enforcement that explain how DHS immigration benefits (Continued Presence, T visas, and U visas) for victims of human trafficking can be beneficial to their investigation. Each video is five to six minutes in length and includes a subject matter expert panel consisting of DHS experts from ICE and USCIS, as well as a police officer from Salem, Massachusetts who has experience working on cases involving these types of immigration benefits. To date, 3,400 officers have viewed this training.
• The Coast Guard (CG) increased awareness of human trafficking across its service. The Coast Guard Investigative Service (CGIS) incorporated training on recognition of human trafficking by having the previously mentioned DHS anti-trafficking computer-based training uploaded to the CG Training Portal, thereby making it available to all CG members. The online anti-trafficking training also was made a mandatory requirement for all CGIS special agents. The Coast Guard Intelligence Directorate created a standing intelligence requirement and an indicators list to ensure field personnel can identify human trafficking.
• U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) continues to train its officers to screen all unaccompanied alien children encountered to determine if they have been victims of trafficking, are at risk of being trafficked, or have a fear of persecution if they are returned to their home countries.
• CBP Office of Public Affairs launched a public awareness campaign aimed at children and their families from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. The campaign used multiple formats (print, radio, television, and more) to promote awareness of the dangers posed to children, including human trafficking, in attempting to illegally immigrate to the United States. The campaign went live in Central America in January 2013 and continued through April 2013. To date, NGOs and interagency partners continue to assist with placement of the campaign within their respective networks. The campaign was coordinated across DHS and CBP components, along with DOS, DOJ, and HHS; NGO representatives; and Central American government representatives to ensure that the message resonates with the target population. After being exposed to the campaign, 67 percent of youths said they would try to convince friends, acquaintances, or family members not to go to the United States undocumented. Among parents, the number reached 70 percent.
• CBP National Targeting Center Alien Smuggling Interdiction Unit and the Office of Public Affairs worked with DOT to release the Blue Lightning Initiative training, a training module and pocket guide that educates airline employees on how to identify human trafficking in airports or during flights and how to notify law enforcement. This voluntary, advanced reporting allows CBP to research and formulate an appropriate response, including coordination with other federal agencies as needed. Airlines have participated in the development of the training, and several U.S. carriers with international routes have expressed an interest in participating in the Blue Lightning Initiative. Since the June 2013 launch, the Initiative has expanded to five participating airlines.
• Through the Blue Campaign and the Office of Civil Rights and Civil Liberties (CRCL), DHS continues to provide language identification tools (known as “I-Speak” materials), modified to the human trafficking context, to DHS and law enforcement for use in identifying the language of victims with whom they are interfacing. The tools are also available to the public on the DHS Blue Campaign website, and DHS distributed hard copies to the ICE HSI Victim Assistance Program. The purpose of these tools is to enhance communication with potential victims of human trafficking by identifying the appropriate language for interpretation services.
• The DHS Office of Health Affairs (OHA) conducted more than nine briefings and webinars to address human trafficking at the request of state and national medical first responder associations and groups to expand first responder awareness of the indicators of, and response mechanisms to, combat human trafficking in the field.
• DHS OHA continued efforts to share informational materials that were developed specifically to expand awareness of first responders, who may be the only outside contact a victim may have. The video vignettes depict several aspects of human trafficking to help them recognize key indicators. These videos, produced with input from several U.S. government agencies, including DOS, DOJ, DOD, ED, and HHS, continue to help audiences understand the mechanisms available to help victims.
• In June 2013, the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) launched an employee communications plan to broaden awareness and reinforce messaging across the Agency about human trafficking and its key indicators. The plan employed both the internal TSA iShare site and the external TSA.gov to spread the Blue Campaign message to all TSA employees. A Blue Campaign icon was added to the TSA iShare site that provides a direct link to Blue Campaign material and information.
• Among the tools that TSA has utilized for effective outreach are the internal TSA news employee blog, TSA Today; the Employee Communications Committee (ECC) nationwide network; and TSA IdeaFactory. Blue Campaign flyers have been electronically disseminated to all airports via the ECC network. An IdeaFactory poll in July 2013 helped build awareness, while soliciting suggestions from employees across the nation on how to enhance human trafficking training, the best of which were selected in November 2013. Lastly, TSA remains an active participant in the Blue Campaign Steering Committee, providing representation from several TSA Offices.
• The DHS Center for Faith-based & Neighborhood Partnerships conducted outreach to faith-based communities and non-profit organizations. The outreach included forming strategic partnerships, capacity-building initiatives, and conducting training presentations during workshops and conferences. The DHS Center distributed Blue Campaign materials customized to the specific needs and interests of faith-based and non-profit constituencies.
• Through its cross-component working group, DHS continued to proactively address concerns and ensure that age-appropriate care and services are provided to unaccompanied alien children (UACs) encountered by DHS personnel. The DHS UAC working group contains subcommittees tasked with addressing three primary areas for improvement in the management of UACs: screening and training, including on child-trafficking victims; short-term care and custody; and external coordination. Currently, DHS is implementing best practices to improve the short-term care and custody of UACs, testing newly developed products including a video that explains what a UAC can expect while in CBP custody, and making improvements to existing materials and forms. Additionally, DHS continues to work with HHS ORR to place UACs in HHS ORR custody, minimizing the time spent in DHS custody awaiting placement.
• The Science and Technology Directorate Resilient Systems Division has developed a Human Trafficking Toolkit Mobile Application (HT App) to combat human trafficking. The mobile application will provide first responders with a toolkit that references key points of contact (police, social services, etc.), a summary of human trafficking related laws, and links to online human trafficking training. The HT App will help identify victims of human trafficking more quickly; and additionally, law enforcement personnel will benefit from training on how to interview a human trafficking victim; understanding the symptomology of the psychological and emotional trauma that may be experienced by the victim; and conducting a victim needs assessment to determine which social services may be appropriate. There is a potential pilot planned with ICE for the spring of 2014. If that initial pilot is successful, the app will be updated to connect to real time information.
• DHS has continued to make training on the human trafficking provisions of the FAR mandatory for all DHS contracting professionals. As of January 2014, the Department has maintained training 100 percent of its contracting professionals.
• DHS provided DOD with Blue Campaign produced human trafficking training.
• DHS and ED are collaborating through the Blue Campaign on the development of a Human Trafficking 101 training for school administrators and staff to educate them on the issue of human trafficking, potential indicators that they may encounter, and how to report it.
• In September 2013, DHS representatives attended the National Native American Law Enforcement Association’s 21sth Annual Conference to speak about the Blue Campaign’s efforts to combat human trafficking and to cultivate partnerships with tribal and territorial law enforcement agencies to more effectively address human trafficking within Native American communities across the country. DHS distributed its computer-based State and Local Law Enforcement Training and human trafficking awareness materials, and encouraged representatives to utilize the Blue Campaign’s resources to supplement their efforts.
• DHS, DOT, and Amtrak partnered to train all 20,000 Amtrak employees and Amtrak Police Department officers to identify and recognize indicators of human trafficking, as well as how to report suspected cases of human trafficking. This training continued in 2013.
• The Blue Campaign is pursuing partnerships with national associations representing state, local, tribal, and territorial elected and appointed officials. In July 2013, DHS entered into a partnership agreement with the National Association of Counties (NACo) to promote awareness of human trafficking through the Blue Campaign. NACo is the only national organization that represents county governments in the United States and provides essential services to the nation’s 3,069 counties. Through this partnership, DHS will deliver webinar training, share resources to bring awareness about human trafficking, and co-brand public awareness materials with both Blue Campaign and NACo logos.
• At the end of 2013, the Blue Campaign announced a formal partnership with Western Union to promote awareness about human trafficking. Western Union is a leader in facilitating financial transactions, and is committed to bringing awareness about the signs and indicators of human trafficking to their employees and customers. Western Union plans on posting information about human trafficking at thousands of locations within the United States. DHS participated in training 250 Western Union agents and compliance officers about indicators of human trafficking.
• The DHS Blue Campaign Steering Committee approved an initiative to fund distribution of awareness materials nationwide in General Services Administration (GSA) owned federal facilities. Following a pilot program in the National Capitol Region, guidance and DHS Blue Campaign display products were delivered to about 2,000 GSA facilities to coincide with the President’s declaration of January 2014 as National Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month.
• DHS also created the Council on Combating Violence Against Women in March 2013, which works within DHS to ensure that policies and practices for combating violence against women and children are consistent Department-wide. By identifying opportunities to share best practices and coordinate efforts, the Council will support the Department’s missions of effectively administering the laws to prevent violence against women and children. The Council is working to enhance the support that DHS provides to the general public, state, local, and tribal law enforcement officers, first responders, NGOs, faith-based groups, and members of the judicial system.
• The DHS Blue Campaign conducted two stakeholder meetings in February and August 2013, as well as one in February 2014. During the meetings, DHS announced new initiatives and resources, and listened to stakeholder feedback on how to effectively prevent and combat human trafficking.
• USCIS hosted a roundtable discussion with members from OECD on issues regarding family migration, including options for immigration relief for victims of human trafficking and other crimes, current and promising practices, and research goals.
• Former Secretary Janet Napolitano increased DHS’s anti-trafficking engagement with the international community by signing statements of intent on combating human trafficking with the governments of the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, New Zealand, Panama, and Brazil in 2012. Former Secretary Napolitano and Attorney General Holder also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Public Safety Canada Minister Toews between the HSTC and the Canadian Human Trafficking National Coordination Center. Former Secretary Napolitano continued to meet with international counterparts in 2013 to enhance collaborative efforts to combat human trafficking.
• In November 2013, DHS-wide guidance on implementation of 8 USC 1367, mandating Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) confidentiality protections, in accordance with VAWA 2013 was signed. These provisions affect trafficking victims applying for T visas. The guidance requires each component to create its own specific implementing guidance along with assuring the mandatory training is completed. CRCL investigates complaints from the public regarding alleged violations of the confidentiality provisions of 8 U.S.C. § 1367, as well as allegations of civil rights violations related to DHS immigration relief for trafficking and related programs.
• In April 2013, ICE HSI Hong Kong coordinated a visit by several Taiwan government officials to NCMEC in Alexandria, VA for a joint NCMEC and ICE Cyber Crimes Center briefing on child exploitation. This outreach is part of ICE HSI Hong Kong’s effort to engage Taiwan on the issue of child exploitation, which in coordination with the American Institute in Taiwan, is seeking ways to work with Taiwan on investigations and training initiatives. Among the visitors to NCMEC were a prosecutor, a judge, two Central Police University professors, and a representative from the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office.
• In November 2013, ICE HSI Hong Kong presented on the HSTC during the annual International Border Management Seminar in Taipei, Taiwan. The seminar was hosted by Taiwan’s National Immigration Agency and provided a platform and forum for agencies responsible for border control to network and promote mutual understanding and enhance international cooperation. Among the approximately 120 participants were representatives from government agencies, diplomatic corps, academia, airlines, and the immigration technology management sector.
• In September 2013, ICE HSI Hong Kong presented on ICE HSI’s victim-centered approach to human trafficking investigations and DHS’ Blue Campaign for trafficking outreach, at the 2013 Forum on Combating Human Trafficking, Strengthening Partnership & Improving Victim Services conference in New Taipei City, Taiwan. The conference was sponsored by the NGO Garden of Hope Foundation and hosted by the New Taipei City Police Department. Attended by approximately 90 law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, and NGO representatives.
• In October 2013, ICE HSI Hong Kong presented on investigative techniques used in child exploitation cases at the 2013 International Workshop on Strategies for Combatting Human Trafficking, hosted by Taiwan’s National Immigration Agency (NIA) in Taipei, Taiwan. Attended by approximately 100 law enforcement, prosecutors, and NGO representatives.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI)
• The Intelligence Community is deepening its engagement with interagency law enforcement information sharing, which is integral to efforts to disrupt criminal networks and their financial activities specific to trafficking in persons. These efforts have benefited from links with educational and outreach programs across the government, including DOD. Continual information sharing between law enforcement and the intelligence community will increase the U.S. Government’s ability to confront trafficking in persons globally.
U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
• USAID released a Counter-Trafficking in Persons (C-TIP) Field Guide in April 2013 to provide practical guidance to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate investments that implement the Agency’s 2012 C-TIP Policy. The Guide helps educate USAID Mission personnel and partners about trafficking more broadly and includes recommendations for integrating counter-trafficking activities into larger development programs, tools for designing stand-alone activities, and evaluation techniques. It also provides USAID personnel with instruction on how to report suspected trafficking violations committed by employees, contractors, and grant recipients to the Agency's Office of the Inspector General for investigation and action. To access the Guide, go to www.usaid.gov/trafficking.
• USAID collaborated with Nepal’s Ministry of Education and Sports to integrate information on safe labor migration and career counseling into the Grade 6-12 vocational education curriculum in 82 public schools.
Innovation and Technology
• In March 2013, USAID announced the winners of its Campus Challenge Tech Contest to combat trafficking, which launched in October 2012. The first place prize went to “Abolishop,” a browser plug that provides consumers with information about forced labor in product supply chains while they shop online. The second place winning ideas were a global cyber network that enables stakeholders to increase communication and coordination to combat trafficking; the use of Mxit, Africa’s largest social network, to operate a C-TIP hotline; and another web-based plug-in model to combat trafficking called Shop4Society.
• In Ukraine, USAID launched a multi-media campaign with MTV EXIT to raise awareness about C-TIP and engage youth. The campaign included “Challenge Slavery,” a local competition for the most creative and effective technology solutions to combat trafficking in Ukraine (culminating in a "hack-a-thon" co-sponsored by Facebook). The campaign also included the premier of “Trading Lives," a documentary, hosted by Ukrainian singer Jamala, portraying first-hand victim accounts and presenting concrete actions youth can take to stay safe when working abroad.
• USAID continues to leverage technology to address trafficking by supporting the development and implementation of an Android app, “Safe from Sale,” targeted at increasing information and awareness on trafficking in Albania. The app, which is being piloted from December 2013 to March 2014, enables users to send messages to the national trafficking hotline to obtain information about trafficking and access victim services.
Evaluation and Research
• USAID fielded the first ever C-TIP Assessment and Victim Identification Survey in Guatemala to assess current knowledge, attitudes, and practices about the threats of trafficking and to identify survivors. In Phase I of the survey, interviews of 997 people were conducted. Interviews of approximately 4,000 additional people are in the process of being conducted in Phase II of the assessment. The survey results will inform the design of USAID prevention programming in Guatemala and the survey methodology will be replicated in additional countries in the coming years.
• USAID launched its Campus Challenge Research Competition, soliciting innovative ideas for C-TIP research. This challenge resulted in awards of three grants to the University of Southern California, Vanderbilt University, and Texas Christian University to study human trafficking and produce evidence to help USAID and other stakeholders combat it more effectively. The research projects focus on Moldova, Ukraine, Indonesia, and Nepal and will use a variety of methods to establish what local populations know about trafficking, how they receive that knowledge, and what they do with it. The research teams will also study and measure how public knowledge and behaviors related to human trafficking are influenced by various anti-trafficking media campaigns in those countries.
• In October 2013, USAID convened an expert consultation on monitoring and evaluation of trafficking in persons within the context of gender and health. The consultation addressed data collection, monitoring, and evaluation challenges in counter-trafficking programming. Useful methods, tools and approaches to guide and harmonize data collection were discussed by leaders in the field, including representatives from IOM, ILO, UNICEF, USAID, DOS, the National Institute of Health/National Institute on Drug Abuse, and researchers and practitioners from top universities and NGOs. An outcome of the consultation will be the completion and dissemination in the summer of 2014 of a set trafficking program indicators developed by the participants.
Prevention and Awareness Raising
• In December 2012, in partnership with MTV Exit, USAID supported the first ever counter-trafficking concert in Burma. Attended by an audience of 70,000, this was the first international open-air public concert in Burma. The concert showed C-TIP videos, publicized Burma’s anti-trafficking hotline, and featured Jason Mraz and numerous Burmese and regional popular music bands, as well as live messages from Burmese government officials, the UN, the U.S. Embassy, and others. The concert was broadcast on Burma’s Channel 7 and was made into an MTV World Stage program. This program has been aired internationally numerous times, going out to over 300 million people, and was nominated for MTV’s European Music Award.
• In Bangladesh, USAID supported assistance for 85 female and male trafficking survivors associated with the local organization ANRIBAN to bring the power of their personal experiences to raise awareness about trafficking. Over 120 Peer-to-Peer leaders ranging in age from 18 to 48 conducted information gatherings in accessible, local venues such as village courtyards, tea stalls, public markets, mosques, and schools.
• In Beijing, in partnership with China’s Ministry of Public Security, USAID launched a Chinese version of the MTV EXIT human trafficking documentary, “Enslaved,” one of the first documentary programs about human trafficking produced in China. The documentary features stories of a Myanmar woman trafficked to China for forced marriage and a Vietnamese woman trafficked to China for forced prostitution.
Protection and Services
• In Cambodia, USAID provided assistance to 406 victims of trafficking and exploitation or those vulnerable to trafficking through vocational training, medical treatment, counseling, legal aid, shelter, and reintegration assistance that included securing long-term employment for 30 survivors. In addition, 129 Cambodian government officials and NGO service providers were trained on the country’s Policy of Minimum Standards for Protection of the Rights of Victims. USAID also supported the repatriation of 196 trafficking victims to Cambodia from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Mauritius, South Africa, Singapore, and Vietnam.
• In Azerbaijan, USAID provided assistance to three local NGOs to run shelters that provided social, medical, psychological, and legal assistance to 417 adult and child trafficking victims. Additionally, USAID supported a Needs Assessment Report, submitted to the Government of Azerbaijan, recommending actions to improve coordination of trafficking victim services. In March 2013, changes were introduced to existing Azerbaijani legislation to improve standard operating procedures for the return of trafficking victims, clarify the definition of human trafficking, and increase criminal sanctions for sex traffickers.
• In Bangladesh, USAID supported the development of individualized care plans for 700 trafficking survivors to help them receive psychosocial support, life-skills training, livelihood support, and reintegration assistance. The majority of survivors moved from shelter support and protection to self-sufficiency in less than one year.
• In Haiti, USAID supported officials from Haiti's Institute of Social Welfare and Research to travel to the Dominican Republic to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts with the Child Protection Agency in Dominican Republic. As a result, 11 children were repatriated and reunited with their families in Haiti.
• In Nepal, USAID provided assistance to the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare and the National Committee on Controlling Human Trafficking to develop and institutionalize a monitoring tool to assess care facilities for trafficking survivors. The institutionalization of the monitoring tool will support the implementation of Nepal’s National Minimum Standards for Victim Care and Protection and Standard Operating Procedures for Rehabilitation Centers.
C-TIP in Critical Challenge and Conflict Countries
• In Afghanistan, USAID funded research, commissioned by IOM, to fill knowledge gaps on human trafficking patterns in Afghanistan. The research, which was conducted in nine provinces and includes interviews with 94 victims and 160 community leaders, examines the causes and determinants of trafficking, its geographic patterns, and means of coercion used by traffickers. The research results will be released in March 2014.
• In the Democratic Republic of Congo, USAID supported UNICEF’s child protection program for the release, rehabilitation, and reintegration of 3,257 children associated with armed groups, of which 202 were girls.
• In Jordan, USAID is supporting activities to combat human trafficking, child labor, early marriage, and sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) through awareness-raising campaigns targeting both Syrian refugees and host community impacted the influx of Syrians into Jordan.
Increasing Local Government Capacity
• In Bosnia and Herzegovina in September 2013, USAID and the Ministry of Security signed the first ever government-to-government agreement to support the Ministry to implement 18 out of 33 strategic goals of its Strategy to Fight Trafficking in Persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
• In Ukraine, USAID assisted the Ministry of Social Policy to introduce and implement the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), a comprehensive protocol for assistance and reintegration of trafficking victims. The NRM is a result of years of local advocacy efforts, which played a role in the 2011 adoption of sweeping anti-trafficking legislation regulating counter-trafficking efforts across the country. In addition, the USAID-supported Ukrainian NGO, Coalition against Human Trafficking, signed a Memorandum of Cooperation with the Government of Ukraine that defines the role of NGOs in the fight against trafficking and enables them to undertake advocacy initiatives and train local Ukrainian Government officials to identify, refer, and assist victims.
• In Senegal, USAID signed an agreement with UNODC to combat forced child begging in Dakar through training and mentoring for the National Trafficking in Persons Task Force and officials in two local municipalities. Additionally, USAID is providing direct funding to the two municipalities to reduce the occurrence of forced child begging by reducing the vulnerability of children to forced begging through improved education and living conditions, and by educating local populations to prevent this form of exploitation.
• In Haiti, USAID’s Protecting the Rights of Children, Women, and Youth Program provided financial and technical assistance to the Government of Haiti’s Office of the Ombudsman in order to support the vote of the anti-trafficking in person’s bill. A working lunch with Haitian lawmakers was held on August 23 to discuss the anti-trafficking law with Parliamentarians. The aim of this meeting was to engage with Parliamentarians and offer support to help identify gaps in human rights protection policies.
• In Ecuador, USAID supported technical assistance and training in seven local jurisdictions with high numbers of trafficking cases to develop and publicly launch local action plans to combat sexual and labor exploitation of young women and indigenous children.
• In Cambodia, USAID supported training for 376 law enforcement personnel to strengthen their capacity to investigate trafficking crimes. USAID continues to support a Ministry of Interior hotline number and a voice-response-based information service to increase access to information on safe migration and trafficking in persons.
• In Moldova, USAID partnered with the Norwegian Mission Experts of Rule of Law Advisers and La Strada, a local NGO, to organize an anti-trafficking capacity building workshop. The goal of the workshop was to improve the knowledge of judges and prosecutors for investigating and identifying trafficking cases; improve their skills in interviewing victims; and provide guidance to the National Institute of Justice on developing an anti-trafficking curriculum for in-service training of judges and prosecutors.
• In Guatemala, USAID supported a civil society organization that provided comprehensive assistance to 41 trafficking victims, served as a joint plaintiff in twelve cases resulting in three prosecutions, and provided follow-up support to 91 penal processes.
• In Southeast Asia, USAID increased trafficking awareness at an increasingly localized level, repositioning its program with MTV EXIT to engage over 20,000 young people in the region’s highest risk areas. Activities included youth workshops, capacity-building training, and subsequent youth-led community outreach activities in the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Burma that informed young people about trafficking. In addition, USAID supported its second annual regional ASEAN youth counter-trafficking forum, which provided participating youth the skills to plan and implement trafficking prevention activities that could reach thousands of youth across the region to commemorate December 2 as International Day for the Abolition of Slavery.
• In Central Asia, USAID supported the development of software for a C-TIP hotline database in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The database increased the speed and effectiveness of hotline operators in the five republics by providing automated data entry and standardized hotline reporting.
• USAID continued to increase its institutional accountability to combat trafficking through training for personnel on the Agency’s C-TIP Code of Conduct, federal procurement requirements, and C-TIP programming strategies. The Agency continued its mandatory New Employee Orientation C-TIP trainings, and developed an Agency-wide mandatory online training that will be launched in February 2014. In June 2013, USAID conducted a two-day global C-TIP training in Washington for field officers. In September 2013, USAID integrated C-TIP into a global Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment training attended by Agency personnel from missions in Asia, Africa, and Europe and Eurasia. In November 2013, the Agency conducted trainings for field officers at missions in El Salvador and Kosovo and at the Agency’s Regional Asia Mission in Bangkok. USAID also developed a three-day human rights training with an emphasis on C-TIP that will be conducted for Agency personnel at a regional mission in Africa in 2014.
• USAID’s participation in the FAR Council proceedings is helping to implement increased protections called for in E.O. 13627. USAID’s Office of the Inspector General continues to be committed to examining C-TIP clause compliance in its review of USAID contracts and grants implemented in the field. In addition, USAID will update the C-TIP clauses in all grants and cooperative agreements to make them easily understood by recipients, and as a result, more effective in preventing trafficking in persons.
• In September 2013, USAID co-hosted with Humanity United, a C-TIP Donor Dialogue in conjunction with the UN General Assembly. Representatives of 17 major public and private donors of Counter-Trafficking in Persons initiatives came together to discuss C-TIP programming and map a donor agenda for global action that focused on improving data and information sharing, increasing innovative use of technology to combat trafficking and aligning C-TIP efforts with broader movements to enhance human rights and foster economic development, safe migration, and decent work opportunities. In October 2013, USAID participated in a donor dialogue hosted by the U.K.’s Department for International Development (DFID) to discuss safe migration, fair employment practices and recruitment systems, and fair labor standards for migrants. Also in October, the Agency participated in a United National High Level Dialogue on Migration and Development that addressed the vulnerabilities of migrants to trafficking. In November 2013, USAID participated in a donor dialogue in Nepal organized by Humanity United and Open Societies Foundation on the topic of “Addressing Challenges in the Nepal-Middle East Migration Corridor” with a focus on safe migration systems and C-TIP practices.
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Strategic Approach to Combating Human Trafficking
• EEOC’s Strategic Plan for FY 2012 - 2016 (Strategic Plan) establishes the framework for achieving the agency’s mission to stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination, so that the nation might soon realize the Commission’s vision of justice and equality in the workplace. Two of the three objectives adopted in the Strategic Plan directly relate to the EEOC’s work combating trafficking in persons:
• Strategic Objective I - Combating Employment Discrimination through Strategic Law Enforcement
• The EEOC’s Strategic Enforcement Plan, which was adopted pursuant to Objective I of the Strategic Plan, identified the protection of vulnerable workers, including victims of human trafficking, as one of the national priorities that will be the focus of the agency’s integrated enforcement efforts. The EEOC continued its work under this national priority during 2013.
• Strategic Objective II - Preventing Employment Discrimination Through Education and Outreach
• The Strategic Plan identified that the Commission would target outreach to vulnerable workers, including victims of human trafficking, to ensure that members of the public understand and know how to exercise their right to employment free of discrimination. EEOC’s performance under this Strategic Objective is based upon the number of significant partnerships established with vulnerable workers and underserved communities. The partnerships that directly relate to the work of the Commission to combat human trafficking are discussed below.
Related Litigation and Enforcement Activities
• EEOC is altering its charge data systems so it will be able to research and track human trafficking charges throughout the investigative and litigation process.
• During 2013, the EEOC continued to work on the following lawsuits involving human trafficking issues:
• EEOC v. Global Horizons, Inc. (D. Haw.). This case, filed April 19, 2011, involves a labor contracting company that provided farming businesses with temporary agricultural workers brought from Thailand to work in the United States under H-2A visas. The EEOC’s lawsuit presents a Title VII claim of systemic discrimination by the labor contractor (Global Horizons) and six farming businesses (Captain Cook Coffee Company, Del Monte Fresh Produce, Kauai Coffee Company, Kelena Farms, Mac Farms of Hawaii, and Maui Pineapple Company) that operated as joint employers of a large class of over 250 Thai workers. The complaint alleged that the Thai employees were subjected to harassment, a hostile work environment, discriminatory terms and conditions of employment, and constructive discharge on the bases of national origin, race, and/or retaliation for their opposition to such discrimination. The human trafficking issues in this case involve allegations that the defendants exploited poor, non-English speaking workers by, among many other things, charging exorbitant fees, not paying them on time and for all work, keeping them in isolation from non-Thai employees and outside contacts, providing them with grossly substandard housing and inadequate food, and threatening them with physical violence and deportation for objecting to the defendants’ discriminatory practices. In November 2013, the EEOC entered into a $1.2 million settlement with Del Monte Fresh Produce, one of the defendant farms in this case. In addition to the monetary settlement, Del Monte Fresh Produce also agreed to institute comprehensive protocols and accountability measures to ensure that all farm labor contractors that work with Del Monte Fresh Produce comply with federal laws against discrimination and retaliation.
• EEOC v. Global Horizons, Inc. (E.D. Wash.). This case is a closely related companion to the EEOC’s Global Horizons lawsuit filed in Hawaii, except that the joint-employer defendants in this case are two grower businesses in the State of Washington, Green Acre Farms, Inc. and Valley Fruit Orchards, Inc. The EEOC’s complaint alleges the same or very similar Title VII pattern-or-practice claims of systemic discrimination committed by the defendants against a large class of Thai H-2A temporary agricultural workers on the bases of their national origin and/or race, as well as retaliation against class members who opposed the defendant’s unlawful employment practices. This case is currently pending before the district court following an order which granted in part and denied in part the grower defendants’ motions to dismiss EEOC’s first amended complaint.
• EEOC v. Signal Int’l (E.D. La.). The EEOC’s lawsuit alleges that defendant, a large fabrication company headquartered in Pascagoula, Mississippi, had violated Title VII by discriminating against a large class of East Indian employees working in the United States under H-2B Visas. Specifically, the complaint alleges that the defendant subjected these employees to adverse terms and conditions of employment and a hostile work environment because of their national origin and/or race, and forcibly detained and subsequently discharged two employees because they opposed defendant’s discriminatory practices. The human trafficking issues in this case involve requiring the Indian employees to live in company-owned work camps and deducting exorbitant fees from the workers’ pay checks for housing, regardless of whether individual workers resided in the camps. The defendant also provided substandard housing and meals, deprived employees of their personal privacy, and subjected them to unwarranted discipline, unsafe living conditions, threats of deportation, criminal prosecution, forcible physical imprisonment, insults, travel restrictions, and other restrictions of their freedom.
• EEOC v. Hill Country Farms, d/b/a, Henry’s Turkey Service (Iowa). In April 2011, the EEOC filed suit in federal district court in Iowa (No. 3:11-cv-00041) charging that Henry’s Turkey Service subjected a class of intellectually disabled workers to substandard working conditions, disparate treatment, and harassment in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act, as amended (ADA). More specifically, the EEOC alleged that the company paid the workers with disabilities $15 per week for working on an evisceration line at a turkey processing plant in Iowa, while non-disabled workers were paid $11-$12 per hour for the same or similar work. The workers with disabilities were also subjected to abusive conduct, physical and verbal harassment, undue restrictions on their freedom, and harsh punishments and other adverse terms and conditions of employment, such as requiring them to live in unsafe and inadequate housing and failing to provide proper health care. In September 2012, a federal district court judge found Henry’s Turkey liable for $1.37 million in lost wages. In a May 2013 jury trial on the remaining claims involving the disability-based abuse of the workers, the EEOC obtained a $240 million jury verdict on behalf of 32 employees with intellectual disabilities, who were subjected to egregious discrimination in violation of the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). This verdict is the highest obtained in the history of the EEOC. It is also the highest ADA verdict ever and the second highest under federal employment discrimination laws. The verdict was subsequently reduced to $1.6 million to comply with the federal statutory caps.
Immigrant Worker Team
• In 2013, the EEOC continued its efforts to strengthen enforcement of Title VII's prohibitions against national origin discrimination and to implement coordinated efforts to combat discriminatory employment practices affecting immigrant workers, including human trafficking. The Immigrant Worker Team (IWT), which has been at the forefront of the EEOC’s efforts in this area, is led by EEOC General Counsel P. David Lopez. The IWT is assessing the Commission's outreach to immigrant workers and related training, data collection, and enforcement activities. The IWT is using a collaborative model to bring together staff with expertise in these issues to enhance EEOC’s enforcement, litigation, and outreach related to national origin discrimination, including human trafficking.
Increased Training of EEOC Staff
• During 2013, EEOC continued to focus increased attention on training staff on combating human trafficking. For example:
• As part of a broader training effort, EEOC delivered training on human trafficking to staff across the country. The training, which was designed and piloted in four offices, in FY 2012 was delivered to staff in 49 field offices in FY 2013. The training provided an overview of the issue, including what constitutes human trafficking, recognizing the signs of it, understanding the trafficking victim, identifying the employer, and theories of employment discrimination applicable in trafficking cases. Staff from local offices of other federal agencies, including DOL’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs and Wage and Hour Division, as well as local Fair Employment Practice Agencies, participated in this training.
• EEOC employees from the Indianapolis District participated in a training session sponsored by the Indiana Protection for Abused & Trafficking Humans Task Force (IPATH). The EEOC also became a member organization of this taskforce.
Public Education, Outreach, and Training
• The Commission conducted a total of 314 outreach events that addressed the issue of human trafficking and reached more than 18,659 people. Efforts included media interviews, oral presentations, stakeholder input meetings, and training sessions. For example:
• On November 18, 2013, a press conference was held to announce the settlement of $1.2 million dollars against Del Monte Fresh Produce, on behalf of over 150 Thai workers who were discriminated against due to their national origin. This settlement is related to the Global Horizons human trafficking case that was filed by the EEOC in 2011. Several media outlets were present in person, as well as remotely via telephone-conference. This settlement was covered by over 80 news media outlets across the nation, including the Los Angeles Times, Honolulu Star-Advertiser, Washington Post (AP story), and many others. The Thai Community Development Center (Thai CDC) also assisted with translating the release and disseminating to their Thai media contacts. Thai Town Newspaper, Thailand Newspaper, Siam Media, and Asian Pacific all covered the story.
• EEOC General Counsel P. David Lopez, in conjunction with Denver Field Office staff, convened a meeting with non-profit organizations, including the Laboratory to Combat Human Trafficking (LCHT), Praxus, Rocky Mountain Immigrant Advocacy Network (RMIAN), and Colorado Legal Services, to discuss labor trafficking issues and explore ways to collaborate in reaching out to victims of trafficking.
• EEOC General Counsel P. David Lopez was a panelist in a workshop, “Causes of Action of Workplace Abuse of Immigrant Workers,” where he discussed the anti-discrimination laws in the context of labor trafficking. He also described remedies available to immigrant workers, including victims of human trafficking, in civil litigation. This workshop was part of the “7th Annual Labor and Employment Law Conference.”
• Regional Attorney Robert Canino was a panelist in a workshop, “The Real Cost of Human Trafficking: How Can Employers and Worker Advocates Prevent Labor Trafficking and Protect Trafficking Victims,” where he discussed the EEOC’s recent litigation involving labor trafficking, including the Henry’s Turkey case. He discussed the application of anti-discrimination laws in the context of labor trafficking. This workshop was part of the ABA Annual conference.
• The Program Analyst and the Regional Attorney for the Birmingham District participated in a two-day “Hate Crimes Law Enforcement Conference” sponsored by the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute and the FBI. The Regional Attorney served as a panelist during a session on “Human Trafficking – 21st Century Slavery,” and discussed EEOC’s involvement in human trafficking investigations and litigation.
• The Milwaukee Area Office Program Analyst conducted a workshop at the “2nd Annual Hmong Human Rights Conference,” held at the University of WI-Milwaukee. The workshop covered issues related to national origin including human trafficking. The conference was sponsored by the Hmong Student Association and drew approximately 200 participants, mostly Hmong college students, but also including Hmong faculty and community representatives.
• The Milwaukee Area Office Program Analyst provided an EEOC update at a farmworker stakeholder meeting held in Milwaukee, WI. The “Southeast Wisconsin Post-Season Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker” meeting was co-sponsored by the United Migrant Opportunities Services (UMOS) and the Wisconsin Bureau of Program Management & Special Populations, Migrant Law Enforcement. The event drew participants statewide, from governmental agencies, educational institutions, and various advocacy and nonprofit organizations that provide services to farmworkers and migrant workers, and/or to the businesses that employ them. EEOC topics included human trafficking and an update on related outreach activities.
• EEOC also continued its efforts to reach underserved populations and communities by conducting off-site intake and counseling expanded presence sessions, where staff visited targeted locations to provide information, conduct counseling, and receive charges from potential charging parties. During FY 2013, EEOC interviewed and counseled approximately 720 individuals at various expanded presence sessions and informed them of their rights in the workplace. Further examples of EEOC’s expanded outreach to human trafficking victims include:
• The Los Angeles Program Analyst conducted EEOC overview training for eight human trafficking victims via the Coalition to Abolish Slavery and Trafficking (CAST), one of our significant partners through the Los Angeles Metro Human Trafficking Task Force. CAST provides services to and assists victims of human trafficking, and provided translations into different languages for the group. CAST staff members also attended the presentation. The training was intended to assist the trafficking victims who are either re-entering the workforce or have plans to do so.
• Regional Attorney, William Tamayo, was a panelist at a community meeting, “Modern-Day Slavery in the Workplace: The Explosion of Labor Trafficking in the United States,” where he discussed EEOC’s recent efforts in litigating cases involving immigrant workers, including victims of trafficking. This panel was sponsored by the Jewish Coalition to End Human Trafficking.
• EEOC continues its efforts to increase public awareness about human trafficking and equal employment opportunity law, by providing resources on the EEOC’s website for victims of human trafficking and information on how the laws enforced by the EEOC are an integral part of the fight against human trafficking. See http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/interagency/trafficking.cfm.
• Through its efforts to help bring awareness to the issue of human trafficking, educate vulnerable communities, and reach victims, the Commission has partnered with several organizations across the country. During 2013, EEOC continued its regional, state, and local partnerships with organizations whose mission includes combating human trafficking, including the South Texas Coalition against Human Trafficking, L.A. Metro Human Trafficking Task Force, the Bay Area Equal Pay Collaborative, the Human Trafficking Focus Group of Catholic Charities in Arkansas, Human Trafficking Joint Taskforce for Metro New Orleans, Northern Virginia Human Taskforce, DC Human Trafficking Taskforce, Polaris Project, and other organizations throughout the country.
• In addition, during 2013, new partnerships were formed with groups such as the Michigan Human Trafficking Taskforce, the New York City Anti-Human Trafficking Taskforce, the Indiana Protection for Abused & Trafficking Humans Task Force, and the Hampton Roads Coalition against Trafficking.
• The EEOC continues to work collaboratively with representatives from sister federal agencies, such as DOS, DOL, and DOJ on issues affecting immigrant workers, including victims of human trafficking. For example:
• The EEOC worked closely with other agencies, including HHS, DOJ, and DHS, on drafting the Federal Strategic Action Plan on Services for Victims of Human Trafficking in the United States.
• Chicago Trial Attorney, Laura Feldman, participated in a meeting with staff from DHS ICE to explore possible collaborative efforts, including developing trafficking cases and reaching out to immigrant workers.
• Commissioner Jenny R. Yang, along with EEOC staff, hosted the “Immigrant Worker Roundtable” meeting where representatives from several federal agencies (i.e. DOJ-OSC, DOL, NLRB, ICE, and EEOC) discussed recent efforts to reach out to immigrant workers, including issues involving national origin discrimination and human trafficking. Regional Attorney Robert Canino provided a brief overview of the Henry’s Turkey case and its implications with respect to labor trafficking issues.
List of Acronyms
DOS – Department of State
CA – Bureau of Consular Affairs
DRL – Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
DS – Bureau of Diplomatic Security
ECA – Bureau of Education and Cultural Affairs
FSI – Foreign Service Institute
ILEA – International Law Enforcement Academies
INL – Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
IVLP – International Visitor Leadership Program
LEWG – Law Enforcement Working Groups
TIP Office – Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
DOD – Department of Defense
AAFES – Army and Air Force Exchange Service
CTIP – Combatting Trafficking in Persons
DFARS – Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement
DODEA – Department of Defense Education Activity
JKO – Joint Knowledge Online
OCONUS – Outside the Continental United States
OUSD(AT&L) – Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Technology & Logistics
DOJ – Department of Justice
BJA – Bureau of Justice Assistance
CEOS – Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section
FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation
HTPU – Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit
ICITAP – International Criminal Investigative Training Assistance Program
OJJDP – Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
OPDAT – Office of Overseas Prosecutorial Development, Assistance, and Training
OVA – Office for Vitim Assistance
OVW – Office on Violence Against Women
OVC – Office for Victims of Crime
USAO – United States Attorneys’ Office
VS – Victim Specialists
DOI – Department of the Interior
BIA – Bureau of Indian Affairs
OJS – Office of Justice Services
DDE – Division of Drug Enforcement
NVAP – National Victim Assistance Program
DOL – Department of Labor
FLC – Foreign Labor Certification
ILAB – Bureau of International Labor Affairs
OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration
TEGL – Training and Employment Guidance Letter
WHD – Wage and Hour Division
HHS – Department of Health and Human Services
ACF – Administration for Children and Families
ANA – Administration for Native Americans
ATIP – Division of Anti-Trafficking in Persons
CB – Children’s Bureau
FYSB – Family and Youth Services Bureau
NHTVAP – National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program
OPRE – Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation
ORR – Office of Refugee Resettlement
RHYTTAC – Runaway and Homeless Youth Training & Technical Assistance Center
UAC – Unaccompanied Alien Children
ED – Department of Education
OSHS – Office of Safe and Healthy Students
DHS – Department of Homeland Security
CBP – U.S. Customs and Border Protection
CG – Coast Guard
HSI – Homeland Security Investigations
ICE – Immigration and Customs Enforcement
NHTVAP – National Human Trafficking Victim Assistance Program
OHA – Office of Health Affairs
RAIO – Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations
SAC – Special Agent in Charge
TSA – Transportation Security Administration
USCIS – U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
USAID – United States Agency for International Development
C-TIP – Counter-Trafficking in Persons
NRM – National Referral Mechanism
EEOC – United States Equal Opportunity Commission
IWT – Immigrant Worker Team
Other Government Agencies
DOT – Department of Transportation
FinCEN – Financial Crimes Enforcement Network
ODNI – Office of the Director of National Intelligence
OFPP – Office of Federal Procurement Policy
OGC – Office of the General Counsel
OIG – Office of the Inspector General
ABA –American Bar Association
ACTeams – Anti-Trafficking Coordination Teams
ASEAN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations
APEC – Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
CGI – Clinton Global Initiative
CSEC – Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
FAR – Federal Acquisition Regulation
FLETC – Federal Law Enforcement Training Center
FY – Fiscal Year
GEMS – Girls Educational and Mentoring Services
HRC – Human Rights Council
HSTC – Human Smuggling and Trafficking Center
ILO – International Labour Organization
IOM – International Organization for Migration
MTV-EXIT – Music Television End Exploitation and Trafficking
NAP –National Action Plan
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCMEC – National Center for Missing and Exploited Children
NGO – Non-Governmental Organization
NHTRC – National Human Trafficking Resource Center
OSCE – Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
PITF – President’s Interagency Task Force
SPOG – Senior Policy Operation Group
TIP –Trafficking in Persons
TVPA – Trafficking Victims Protection Act
TVPRA – Trafficking Victims Protection Act Reauthorization Act
UN – United Nations
UNODC – United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime