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U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

IV. Country Narratives - Tier 2


Trafficking in Persons Report
U.S. Department of State
July 2001
Report
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Angola (Tier 2)

Angola is a country of origin for trafficked persons. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) rebel forces are alleged to abduct children, who are used for forced labor and in military service, and women, who are used for forced labor, including as sex slaves.

The Government of Angola does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite limited resources and a continued military campaign against insurgents. The on-going civil war, which has displaced nearly a quarter of the population, has left the Government unable to exercise complete control over a large portion of the country, and government efforts to combat trafficking focus on aid and assistance to victims. The Ministry of Social Reinsertion (MINARS) works with UNICEF and NGO's to provide treatment and housing for freed children. For example, in March 2000, MINARS worked with several NGO's and UNICEF to trace and reunite 42 separated children with their families. The Government established a program for resettlement and reintegration of rebels who put down their arms. A military liaison in each province/military district is responsible for coordinating with NGO's, including groups that assist refugees and trafficking victims. The 1991 Constitution prohibits human bondage; however, no legislation exists to enforce this prohibition. There is neither a senior official nor intra-governmental mechanism to coordinate anti-trafficking measures, and the Government has not conducted a prevention campaign.

Bangladesh (Tier 2)

Bangladesh is a country of origin for internationally trafficked persons, primarily women and children. Several thousand women and girls are trafficked annually from Bangladesh for the purpose of sexual exploitation, primarily to India, Pakistan, and the Middle East. Boys also are trafficked to the Middle East, where they are engaged as camel jockeys.

The Government of Bangladesh does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite severe resource constraints and corruption. The Government has recognized that trafficking in persons is a national problem, has enacted anti-trafficking legislation, and has endeavored to arrest and prosecute traffickers. The law prohibits trafficking, and penalties for trafficking are commensurate with those for rape. Arrests are publicized in the press, and there were three convictions of traffickers in 2000. There is no evidence of government complicity with traffickers, but rampant corruption among police, border, and immigration officials severely undermines law enforcement efforts. The Government is working to address police corruption and abuses by offering human rights training to senior officers, particularly to the chiefs of the various police training centers. This training includes the issue of trafficking in persons. The treatment of victims is generally humane; trafficked persons are not detained, jailed, deported, or prosecuted for violations of immigration or prostitution laws. However, in an effort to combat trafficking, in 1998 the Government placed restrictions on Bangladeshi women traveling abroad to work as domestic servants for non-Bangladeshi employers. Bangladeshi women are permitted to travel abroad for other types of employment, or to work as domestic servants for Bangladeshi expatriates. Active local NGO's, largely funded by foreign donors, combat trafficking through awareness campaigns and provide shelters for some victims. The Government is cooperative with and supportive of the efforts of NGO's and civil society organizations, but resource constraints, lack of interagency coordination, backlogged courts, corruption, and poor training pose obstacles to effective efforts to protect victims and prosecute traffickers.

Benin (Tier 2)

Benin is a source, transit, and destination for trafficked persons, primarily children. Trafficking also occurs within Benin. Beninese children are trafficked to Ghana, Nigeria, and Gabon for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor, and prostitution. Children from Niger, Togo, and Burkina Faso have been trafficked to Benin for indentured or domestic servitude. Internal trafficking of children within Benin takes place in connection with the forced servitude practice called "vidomegon," whereby poor, often rural, families place a child, primarily a daughter, in the home of a more wealthy family to avoid the burden the child represents to the parental family. The children work, but the arrangement is voluntary between the two families.

The Government of Benin does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking. The Government is severely limited by a lack of resources but does recognize that trafficking is a problem. There is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking; however, the Government can prosecute traffickers under other statutes. To prevent trafficking, the Government is working with international organizations to increase literacy rates, diversify the economy, and improve health care. In July 2000, the Government created interministerial bodies under the direction of the Ministry of Justice to coordinate governmental efforts to protect the rights of children. The Government is participating in a two-part ILO trafficking project with eight other countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo). Benin also has bilateral agreements with Togo, Gabon, and Nigeria, which focus on border control and repatriation of trafficking victims. Despite bilateral agreements, porous borders and widespread poverty in the rural areas, from which Beninese child trafficking victims originate, hamper enforcement efforts.

Brazil (Tier 2)

Brazil is a source country for victims of both domestic and international trafficking. The majority of Brazilian trafficking victims are women and girls who are trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation to Europe, Japan, Israel, and the United States. Young men are most often trafficked domestically in the agricultural labor market; however, they also have been trafficked as athletes to Europe. These men are then subjected to humiliating conditions or coerced into other areas of exploitation such as prostitution. Occasionally women are employed as domestic servants in conditions amounting to involuntary servitude. Trafficking for labor purposes of rural Brazilians and, in some cases, immigrant laborers, also occurs in urban areas of Brazil.

The Government of Brazil does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, it is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints and a lack of coordination between the federal and state levels. On the local level, corruption has in some cases hampered enforcement efforts. The Criminal Code prohibits some, but not all, severe forms of trafficking in persons. The penalties for trafficking are roughly commensurate with the penalty for rape or sexual assault. The Government actively investigates and prosecutes cases of trafficking. Between 1996 and 2000, courts convicted 94 individuals or groups of trafficking. As of early 2001, approximately 85 trafficking cases were under investigation. While victims of trafficking are not treated as criminals, access to shelter and to legal, medical and psychological services may as a practical matter be very limited due to a lack of government resources. The Government supports various programs to combat trafficking, including public information campaigns and an inter-ministerial campaign against the sexual exploitation of minors, and it works closely with a number of NGO's on issues of trafficking and forced labor. In November 2000, Brazil hosted the first international conference of the United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention on trafficking in human beings.

Bulgaria (Tier 2)

Bulgaria is a source and transit country for trafficking. Women from Romania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are trafficked for sexual exploitation to Macedonia, Greece, Turkey, Kosovo, Bosnia, Italy, Poland, and Western Europe.

The Government of Bulgaria does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources and low-level corruption. The Government does not have specific trafficking laws but can use other provisions to prosecute trafficking. Penalties are commensurate with those for rape. The Government does investigate trafficking, encourages victims to testify, and has two police units dedicated to the problem. Statistics on prosecutions are unavailable, but it appears that few, if any, traffickers have been prosecuted yet. No government programs exist for prevention or protection of victims; however, the Government provides in-kind assistance to NGO's, and refers victims to NGO's for repatriation. NGO's have noted that Bulgaria's Embassy in the major trafficking destination of Warsaw assists trafficking victims and collaborates closely with NGO's on the issue. The Government cooperates with other governments to combat trafficking through bilateral agreements and information sharing.

Burkina Faso (Tier 2)

Burkina Faso is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons, including children. Burkina Faso is an occasional source country for women who travel to Europe to work as domestics, but, upon their arrival, are exploited sexually. Burkina Faso is a transit country for trafficked children, notably from Mali. Children in transit from Mali are often destined for Cote D'Ivoire. Trafficked Malian children are also destined for Burkina Faso. Destinations for trafficked Burkinabe children include Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. In 1999 there were reports of trafficked Burkinabe children destined for Germany.

The Government of Burkina Faso does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite severe resource constraints. There is no law that specifically criminalizes the act of trafficking, but a range of other relevant laws may be used to prosecute traffickers. The Constitution specifically prohibits slavery, inhumane treatment, torture, and mistreatment of children and adults. The Penal Code prohibits kidnapping, violence, and mistreatment of children. The Government prosecutes rape, kidnapping, and pandering cases, and the penalties are generally commensurate with those for rape. The Government has established two centers to help with the social reintegration of at-risk children. The Ministry of Social Affairs has on occasion provided short-term assistance to repatriated minors. In addition, the Government works with local and international NGO's. The Government, in cooperation with the ILO, formulated a National Action Plan Against Child Labor that incorporates efforts to sensitize the population to the problem of child labor, including trafficking.

Cambodia (Tier 2)

Cambodia is a source, destination, and transit country for trafficked persons. Trafficking is both domestic and international. Cambodian men, women, and children are trafficked internationally, principally to Thailand for the purpose of sexual exploitation and for various forms of bonded labor, including street begging. Cambodia is a destination country for young women and girls from Vietnam, who are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. Internally, children and adults from the poorer rural areas of Cambodia are trafficked to Phnom Penh and other commercial areas for sexual exploitation and forced labor.

The Royal Cambodian Government (RCG) does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking, despite limited resources. It acknowledges the seriousness of the trafficking problem and has passed a trafficking in persons statute, which has a penalty stiffer than those for rape and sexual assault. However, implementing legislation has not been passed, and lack of prosecutorial resources prevents enforcement. Severe resource limitations hamper all aspects of civil governance. The Government has developed a 5-year plan to stop child sexual exploitation through information campaigns and law enforcement, and the Prime Minister's office also is engaged in the issue. The Government is working with NGO's and donor countries to carry out elements of this plan. With NGO funding, some centers help returning and freed victims with reintegration. However, civil society groups, NGO's, international organizations, and donor countries find that all efforts to combat trafficking are seriously undermined by a combination of weak institutions and pervasive corruption. The Government cooperates with the governments of Thailand, the United States, and Australia on trafficking cases.

Cameroon (Tier 2)

Cameroon is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons; trafficking also occurs within Cameroon. Children are trafficked from and through Cameroon to other West African countries for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor, and sexual exploitation. Women are principally trafficked from Cameroon to Europe for sexual exploitation.

The Government of Cameroon does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite severe resource constraints. The Penal Code prohibits trafficking in persons and slavery; however, enforcement is constrained by the Government's limited resources. The penalties exceed those for forced sexual assault. The Government is participating in a two-part ILO trafficking project with eight other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo). The Government established an interagency committee to combat trafficking and has developed a program to find and return trafficked children. The Ministry of Social Affairs is able to provide rehabilitative assistance to some child victims of trafficking and forced labor, but the facilities are overcrowded and poorly financed. The Government does not have resources to fund NGO's and relies on foreign assistance. The Government works with local and international NGO's that provide temporary shelter and assistance to victims of trafficking.

People's Republic of China (Tier 2)

The People's Republic of China (PRC, China) is both a source and destination country for trafficking in persons. Most trafficking is internal. The vast majority of internal trafficking is for the purpose of providing lower-middle income farmers with brides or sons, but a minority of cases involve trafficking of women into forced prostitution in urban areas, and there are some reports suggesting that some victims, especially children, are sold into coerced labor. Internationally, Chinese citizens are trafficked to Malaysia, Burma, Japan, North America, Australia, the Philippines, and Taiwan for sexual exploitation and indentured servitude in sweatshops and restaurants. China is a destination country for trafficked persons from Burma, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Russia, who are subject to sexual exploitation as prostitutes or in arranged marriages.

The Government does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, it is making significant efforts to combat trafficking, and has undertaken extensive anti-trafficking efforts. The law prohibits trafficking in women. Sentences for trafficking three or more persons are as severe as those for rape. The Government has signed some international protocols related to trafficking but has not yet implemented them. Officials have investigated and prosecuted many acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons taking place wholly or partly in the country. Many domestic victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons are given assistance and returned to their homes. The central Government has provided funds to provincial and local police to house victims and return them to their homes. Government-funded women's federation offices have provided counseling on legal rights for some victims, including the options for legal action against the traffickers. There have been unconfirmed reports of complicity by some local officials in trafficking and there also have been credible reports of involvement by some local officials in the related problems of alien smuggling and prostitution; the Government strongly condemned and severely punished such behavior. The Government has conducted public education campaigns against trafficking as a preventive measure. Government authorities have engaged in cooperative activities with foreign governments in combating trafficking in persons and the related problem of alien smuggling, particularly with bordering countries.

Costa Rica (Tier 2)

Costa Rica is a transit and destination country for trafficked persons. The country serves as a transit point for trafficked persons from Asia to the United States. There also have been reports of girls from the Philippines being trafficked to the country for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Isolated cases of trafficking have involved persons from Africa, Bolivia, China, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and the Middle East.

The Government of Costa Rica does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints. The criminal code prohibits trafficking in women and minors for the purpose of prostitution, but it does not address all severe forms of trafficking. There is a government Inter-Ministerial Group on Trafficking to address the problem in the country. Each participating ministry has reportedly incorporated preventative trafficking measures into their ministerial agendas. The Government supports prevention programs to combat sexual exploitation of minors and trafficking. There are limited formal mechanisms specifically designed to aid trafficked victims; however, the Government does offer indirect assistance to child victims of trafficking. Victims are not granted temporary or permanent residence status, and often are deported immediately to their country of origin.

Cote D'Ivoire (Tier 2)

Cote D'Ivoire is a source and destination for internationally trafficked persons, and trafficking also occurs within the country. Ivoirian women and children are trafficked to African, European, and Middle Eastern countries. Children are trafficked to Cote D'Ivoire from Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Ghana, Benin, and Togo for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor, and sexual exploitation. Women principally are trafficked from Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, and Asian countries to Cote D'Ivoire.

The Government of Cote D'Ivoire does not yet fully comply with the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking in persons. The Government is severely limited by a lack of resources in addressing its trafficking problem, including the monitoring of its borders. There is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons; however, the Government can prosecute traffickers under both the Penal Code and Labor Code. Since 1999 the Government has prosecuted at least 22 traffickers and has repatriated approximately 3,000 foreign trafficked children. Victims are not detained, jailed, or deported; foreign embassies are responsible for repatriating them. The Government cooperates with neighboring countries, international organizations, and NGO's to combat trafficking. The Government is also participating in a two-part ILO trafficking project with eight other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo). In January 2001, the Government completed and validated the National Emergency Action Plan for the Fight Against Cross-Border Trafficking in Children for January-June 2001.

Czech Republic (Tier 2)

The Czech Republic is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficked persons. Czech citizens, primarily women and children, are trafficked within the country and to Western Europe for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Women from Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and the Balkan countries are trafficked to or through the Czech Republic for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

The Government of the Czech Republic does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints. According to unconfirmed NGO reports, local border officials are sometimes complicit in trafficking. The Criminal Code prohibits trafficking in women and children for the purpose of sexual exploitation. There also are other relevant statutes that can be used to prosecute traffickers. The penalties for trafficking are roughly commensurate with those for rape or sexual assault. The Government investigates and prosecutes cases of trafficking in persons, although the conviction rates are low. For example, in 1999 a total of 66 persons were charged with trafficking in women for sexual exploitation purposes. Of those, 27 persons were tried, and 8 were sentenced to 1 to 5 years in prison. The Government cosponsored a national media and educational campaign in 2000 in order to warn women of the dangers of trafficking, and created a program to be used in schools. The Government does not provide direct assistance to victims, but does refer them to NGO's that provide assistance. Some of these NGO's receive government funding. Foreign victims are treated as illegal immigrants and either are detained or asked to leave the country within 30 days; however, foreign victims may be offered temporary residence if they agree to testify against a trafficker. Czech citizens who are trafficked to other countries often cannot receive government assistance upon their return because their identity documents have been stolen or taken by traffickers.

Dominican Republic (Tier 2)

The Dominican Republic is primarily a source country for trafficked women and, less frequently, for minor girls. According to the Center for Integral Orientation and Investigation (COIN), an NGO, women typically between the ages of 18 and 25, and girls as young as age 15, are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation and domestic servitude to Europe (Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Germany, Greece, and Belgium), the Lesser Antilles (Curacao, Saint Martin, Aruba, and Antigua), and, in some cases, to Argentina and Israel.

The Government of the Dominican Republic does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking on several fronts. The Criminal Code prohibits trafficking in persons for the purpose of prostitution, but it does not include other severe forms of trafficking. There is also a migrant smuggling law that can be used to prosecute traffickers. The penalties for trafficking in persons are not commensurate with those penalties for rape, sexual assault, or severe forms of domestic violence. The Government has successfully prosecuted several individuals engaged in trafficking in persons, and sentenced them to prison terms from 3 to 5 years. The Government takes action against government officials who facilitate trafficking. For example, from January to August 2000, the authorities dismissed 42 immigration employees for connections with groups that smuggle or traffic persons. The Government is attempting, through a new social plan, to alleviate some of the extreme poverty that drives Dominican women to migrate in search of employment. There are no governmental services for victims nor does the Government fund local NGO's providing services to victims.

El Salvador (Tier 2)

El Salvador is a source and transit country for trafficking in persons, primarily women and girls, who are trafficked to Guatemala and other Central American countries. Trafficking also occurs within the country. The majority of trafficked victims transiting El Salvador are from Nicaragua, Honduras, and South America.

The Government of El Salvador does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts despite resource constraints. The Criminal Code specifically prohibits trafficking in persons. The penalty for trafficking is comparable to the penalties for rape and forcible sexual assault. The Government has not prosecuted cases against traffickers, in part because the law is new, and also due to a lack of resources. However, the Government has created special units to investigate and prosecute cases of violence against women and children, including trafficking. The Government deports non-Salvadoran victims of trafficking; however, victims can obtain temporary residency or refugee status if they are likely to face political persecution in the country of origin. Victims of trafficking are not treated as criminals. The Government does not provide assistance to its repatriated citizens who are victims of trafficking, nor does it support the NGO's that assist them. The Government maintains a good working relationship with NGO's.

Ethiopia (Tier 2)

Ethiopia is a country of origin for internationally trafficked women. Ethiopian women voluntarily travel to Middle Eastern countries, primarily Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates, to work as domestics; some of these women subsequently report abuse that could be categorized as trafficking. There is also evidence of trafficking in persons within Ethiopia. The abduction of women and girls as a form of marriage is practiced in certain regions.

The Government of Ethiopia does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite severe resource constraints. The Penal Code has sections that criminalize trafficking, enslavement, and abusing the human rights and integrity of an Ethiopian sent abroad. The penalties for trafficking are roughly commensurate with those for rape or sexual assault. The Government does not have the resources to actively investigate and prosecute traffickers and there have been no reported prosecutions of traffickers. The Federal Police's Women's Affairs Bureau in collaboration with the media created a continuous public awareness program on the dangers of migrating to Middle Eastern countries. In March 2000, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs opened a consulate in Beirut to assist women in abusive employment situations. The Government is unable to provide direct assistance to victims, and there is only one Ethiopian NGO that could provide such assistance.

France (Tier 2)

France is a destination and transit country for trafficked victims, primarily women from Africa, South America, Eastern and Southern Europe, and the New Independent States. In general, victims are trafficked into sexual exploitation or domestic slavery.

The Government does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat the problem. There is no specific law against trafficking, but a range of other laws is used to prosecute traffickers. The Government actively investigates and prosecutes traffickers. The courts have convicted several people of enslaving their domestic servants. One case resulted in a year's imprisonment, a fine of approximately $5,000, and payment of damages to victim of approximately $30,000. The Central Office for the Repression of Trafficking in Humans, created in 1958, centralizes information and coordinates operations to combat trafficking. The Government has no articulated protection programs in place for trafficking victims. Those victims located or arrested by the authorities normally are processed as illegal immigrants and may be detained or jailed. Trafficking victims may be granted temporary residency while they apply for asylum. Victims are encouraged to file legal action against traffickers. The Government works closely with other countries and NGO's to combat trafficking. The Government supports anti-trafficking prevention programs, as part of the European Union, including information and media campaigns, seminars, and a trafficking project in West Africa.

Georgia (Tier 2)

Georgia is a source and a transit country for trafficking in both men and women. Georgians are mostly trafficked to Turkey, Greece, Israel, and Western Europe for work in bars, domestic service, and prostitution. Russian and Ukrainian women are trafficked through Georgia to Turkey.

The Government of Georgia does not meet the minimum standards; however, it is taking steps to combat trafficking in persons. Georgia is limited by a lack of resources and its inability to control borders and separatist regimes. Georgia has no specific anti-trafficking law, but it does have laws prohibiting slavery, forced labor, illegal detention, kidnapping, rape, sexual coercion, and fraud, with penalties ranging from 3 to 20 years. Prosecutors have used the fraud statutes in several trafficking cases. The Government is imposing new regulations on travel agencies to strengthen the legal rights of clients. Severe budget constraints prevent the Government from funding prevention and repatriation programs. Georgia cooperates with other governments on trafficking cases through exchanges of intelligence and other information.

Ghana (Tier 2)

Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for internationally trafficked persons, primarily children. Trafficking of children for labor and sexual exploitation also occurs within Ghana. The practice of "Trokosi" is a localized form of slavery or ritual servitude in which girls are forced into slavery for local fetish shrines in repayment for offenses committed by members of the girls' families. Young women are trafficked to Europe and the Middle East for sexual exploitation. Children are trafficked to and from Cote D'Ivoire, Togo, and Nigeria for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor and prostitution. Children trafficked from Burkina Faso transit Ghana on the way to Cote D'Ivoire.

The Government of Ghana does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints. There is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons; however, the Government can prosecute traffickers under laws against slavery, prostitution, and underage labor. The Government does not actively investigate or prosecute traffickers and has difficulties adequately monitoring its borders. Trokosi is illegal in Ghana, but no actions have been undertaken to eliminate Trokosi shrines or prosecute either the fetish priests or parents who have given away their daughters. The Government supports programs to prevent trafficking, including poverty alleviation and access to education. The Government is participating in a two-part ILO trafficking project with eight other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo). The Government works to repatriate trafficked children and reunite them with their parents. Assistance to victims is provided by NGO's.

Guatemala (Tier 2)

Guatemala is a source and transit country for international trafficking of persons. In a few instances, it is also a destination country. Trafficked persons come mainly from other Central American countries and Ecuador. Victims trafficked to Guatemala are usually young women or children who are brought in for sexual exploitation. Those trafficked from Guatemala for sexual exploitation are usually minors, both boys and girls, from poor families.

The Government of Guatemala does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints and endemic corruption. The law specifically prohibits trafficking and smuggling of persons. The Government investigates trafficking cases; however, there have been no prosecutions of trafficking cases as victims often fail to press charges due to a cumbersome judicial system. The penalty for trafficking is not commensurate with the penalty for rape, and prison sentences for traffickers are commutable. The Government does not assist or protect victims of trafficking, although victims are not treated as criminals. The Government has conducted anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling public awareness campaigns, and it provides limited funding to NGO's dedicated to preventing trafficking.

Haiti (Tier 2)

Trafficking of children occurs primarily within Haiti's borders for purposes of prostitution or labor. The practice of parents sending their children, mainly girls, whom they feel they cannot take care of to work as domestic servants in exchange for that child's room and board has existed in Haiti for centuries. These children are called "restaveks" (derived from the French words 'rester avec' meaning 'to stay with'). While many restaveks are well taken care of and receive adequate care including an education, a significant number are subjected to violence, threats and other forms of physical and mental abuse. Some of the former restaveks end up as prostitutes because they lack the resources to return to their families or other opportunities when their services are no longer needed as restaveks. To a lesser extent, Haiti is a country of origin for trafficked men and women to the United States, Europe (mainly France), Canada, and the Dominican Republic.

The Government of Haiti does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government has acknowledged its internal trafficking problem and is making significant efforts to address it despite severe resource constraints. There is no evidence that the authorities are complicit in trafficking. There is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons, and the Government does not adequately enforce existing labor laws regarding child labor. However, the Government devotes its entire social welfare budget to combat the trafficking of restavek children. For example, the Government ran a media campaign to prevent the mistreatment of children and maintained a hotline for victims. This effort resulted in the removal of 760 restaveks from abusive households. Government officials then placed rescued victims in shelters and in the care of NGO's. The International Labor Organization, at the Government's request, is developing a framework for addressing the gap between practice, national legislation, and international standards with regard to combating child domestic labor.

Honduras (Tier 2)

Honduras is primarily a source country for trafficked children to neighboring countries. According to the NGO Covenant House Honduran children, especially young girls, are trafficked by criminal groups to other Central American countries for purposes of sexual exploitation. Honduran boys reportedly are being trafficked to Canada for the purpose of drug trafficking. There are reports that trafficking in children also occurs within the country's borders.

The Government of Honduras does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government has made significant efforts to combat trafficking. The Criminal Code specifically prohibits trafficking in persons. The penalties for trafficking are generally comparable with the penalties for rape or forcible sexual assault. Corruption, lack of resources, and weak police and judicial institutions undermine effective law enforcement. Although traffickers have been arrested, the Government has not prosecuted any cases. The Government has not developed public information or prevention campaigns. There are no special services for victims of trafficking; however, the Government does assist repatriated Honduran nationals for a period of up to 6 months with job placement assistance, temporary shelter, and basic subsistence. In March 2000, the Government inaugurated two centers for citizens deported from other countries who are relocating to Honduras. In 2000 the Government cooperated with Mexican officials to repatriate approximately 400 Honduran girls trafficked to Mexico for purposes of sexual exploitation.

Hungary (Tier 2)

Hungary is primarily a transit, but also a source and destination country for trafficked persons. Women and children are trafficked for sexual exploitation mostly from Romania, Ukraine, Moldova, Poland, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and China to and through Hungary to Austria, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, Italy, France, and the U.S. Men trafficked for forced labor through Hungary to the EU and the U.S. come from Iraq, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. Trafficking victims from Hungary are typically women from the eastern part of the country where unemployment is high.

The Government of Hungary does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources and endemic, low-level corruption. A trafficking law provides for penalties commensurate with those for rape. There were 13 ongoing trials at the time of this report. The Government has identified trafficking fronts, including modeling, employment, and entertainment agencies, many of which use the same mobile phone numbers and addresses, indicating probable organized crime involvement. Strict data protection legislation, a response to excesses of the old communist regime, prohibits joint investigations by organizations with police powers, so there is no central or coordinated authority on trafficking issues. Under the Organized Crime Task Force, the police are investigating trafficking cases involving organized crime, and the Government is cooperating bilaterally with the U.S. in the law enforcement arena. In theory, assistance with temporary residency status, short-term relief from deportation, and shelter assistance are available to trafficking victims who cooperate with police and prosecutors; however, there are no documented cases in which such assistance was provided. Police and immigration officials allegedly often treat trafficking victims as criminals or refuse to accept reports of kidnapping against young women. The Government is consulting with NGO's to provide anti-trafficking sensitivity training to police. Consular officials are not empowered to provide any legal or financial assistance to Hungarian citizens who are trafficked abroad.

India (Tier 2)

India is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficked persons. Internal trafficking of Indian women and children is widespread. India is a destination country for Nepali and Bangladeshi women and girls for forced labor and prostitution. To a lesser extent, India is a country of origin for women and children trafficked to other countries in Asia, the Middle East, and the West. India serves as a transit point for Bangladeshi girls and women trafficked for sexual exploitation in Pakistan and boys trafficked to the Gulf States to work as camel jockeys. The trafficking of children to India for prostitution from Nepal and Bangladesh is widespread; many are children under 18 years of age.

The Government of India does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking in persons. The central Government recognizes the trafficking problem, but is severely underfunded and typically unable to implement plans and initiatives with which it agrees. The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (ITPA) prohibits trafficking in human beings (including children), encompasses sexual exploitation for commercial purposes of members of both sexes, and provides enhanced penalties for offences involving minors. While there is federal anti-trafficking legislation, almost all cases are tried at the state level, which is outside the jurisdiction of federal laws. The Government is amending the ITPA to increase penalties for traffickers, assist victims and is seeking legislation conferring on the central Government the primary role in efforts to prosecute trafficking. Backlogged courts and local corruption render most prosecutorial efforts ineffective. There has been limited progress toward training, sensitizing and gaining the cooperation of Indian State police. Many victims are arrested and abused by local police. Cooperation with neighboring countries (specifically Bangladesh and Nepal) in fighting trafficking has recently begun, but the Government has not yet prosecuted cross-border trafficking cases. In July 2000, the Government provided assistance to investigators from the United States who were seeking evidence to use to prosecute a trafficker. The NGO community has taken the lead on prevention, protection and prosecution programs and works well with some entities in the central Government; however, NGO's have a mixed record in securing the cooperation of state police and local government. The Government manages approximately 80 protective homes for victims of trafficking, some of which NGO's have criticized as severely lacking in victim assistance. Calcutta-based anti-trafficking NGO's have joined efforts with state agencies to protect and care for victims of trafficking by improving the quality and security at the main remand home for women and by providing counselors.

Japan (Tier 2)

Japan is a destination country for women, primarily from Thailand, the Philippines, and the New Independent States, who are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. There is evidence that trafficking takes place within Japan to the extent that some of these women are recruited and then subsequently forced, through the sale of their "contracts," to work for other employers in Japan. Japan is also a destination point for illegal immigration from China facilitated by Chinese and Japanese organized crime groups who hold illegal immigrants in debt bondage. Japan is also a major alien smuggling transit point for many travelers who are being trafficked from south and east Asia.

The Government of Japan does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking.  There are no specific laws that prohibit trafficking in persons; however, in 1999 the Diet enacted two new pieces of legislation which target persons who produce child pornography and those who hold individuals in debt bondage. Traffickers also can be prosecuted for violations of employment laws and Penal Code offenses such as abduction and kidnapping. According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, law enforcement agencies have increased operations within Japan to expose broker organizations and establishments in the country that employ trafficking victims. However, there are allegations that some law enforcement units have been reluctant to investigate reports of trafficking and that the Government has not been aggressive in arresting and prosecuting suspected traffickers. Except for the Tokyo metropolitan government, which funds one Tokyo-based NGO assisting victims of trafficking, there is no government support for NGO's working with trafficked persons in Japan. Victims are often treated as criminals (prostitutes or illegal aliens) by the legal system because the Government does not consider people who willingly enter for illegal work to be trafficking victims. There is no formal "task force," or interagency working group, to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts among various ministries. However, in practice the Government focuses its prevention efforts in Asian source countries by funding public information campaigns targeted at potential victims and providing equipment and training to police and customs officials in those countries. The Government works cooperatively with other countries, but the immigration service has been slow to respond to illicit activities associated with transit passengers at Japan's international airports.

Kyrgyzstan (Tier 2)

Kyrgyzstan is a country of origin and transit for trafficking in persons. Kyrgyz men, women, and children are trafficked to Russia, Turkey, Germany, and the United Arab Emirates, mostly for prostitution. Men are also trafficked to Kazakhstan for forced labor.

The Government of Kyrgyzstan does not meet the minimum standards and is limited by lack of resources and low-level corruption. The Government developed a 13-step plan to combat trafficking in response to the IOM 2000 trafficking report and is beginning to implement the plan. Kyrgyzstan does not have specific trafficking laws, but prosecutors can use laws against kidnapping, exploitation, rape, and deprivation of freedom. In 1999, 18 people were convicted of trafficking and sentenced to five years imprisonment, and 4 people were sentenced to under two years imprisonment in 2000. Prosecution of 3 of 11 law enforcement officers accused of preparing fraudulent documentation for trafficked women is underway. The Government reports firing several officials involved in trafficking. Kyrgyzstan's stay-in-school program, which assists low-income children, serves as a prevention measure, and the State Agency for Migration is urging Kyrgyz laborers to obtain signed contracts. The Government provides no assistance to victims, but it cooperates with NGO's that are assisting victims and supports research on migration. Many victims reportedly are forced to pay bribes to law enforcement officials to avoid being prosecuted themselves, usually for traveling with false documents. High-level government officials are participating in IOM-sponsored anti-trafficking roundtables that include tourist agencies, and Kyrgystan has signed the Trafficking in Persons Protocol.

Laos (Tier 2)

Laos is a source country for trafficking in persons, primarily young women, although some young men also are victims. Nearly all are trafficked to Thailand, although a small number of persons are trafficked to China. An estimated 20,000 Lao enter Thailand annually, willingly crossing the border seeking employment based on deceptive claims of recruiters, but many are held in indentured and coercive work situations, primarily for sexual exploitation or in sweat shops, once they arrive.

The Government of Laos does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government has taken some steps to stop trafficking despite significant resource constraints. The Government devotes resources to protection of children and has established a team in the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare to attempt to prevent trafficking. There is no law that specifically prohibits trafficking although there are laws against procuring, kidnapping, and slavery. Enforcement as with most laws in Laos is uneven due to poor training. At times repatriated trafficked victims are given re-education in their localities when they return; however, at other times, the government prosecutes them for illegal departures.

Lithuania (Tier 2)

Lithuania is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking in persons, primarily women who are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation. Lithuanian women are trafficked to Western Europe (including Germany, the Netherlands, Denmark, France, and Austria) and the Middle East (including Israel and the United Arab Emirates). Trafficking also occurs within Lithuania.

The Government of Lithuania does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to address the problem despite resource constraints and reports of corruption among customs and border guards. The Criminal Code specifically prohibits trafficking in persons. The penalty for trafficking is commensurate with the penalties for rape or sexual assault. The Government investigates cases of trafficking; however, there have not yet been any prosecutions. The Government provides limited funding for trafficking prevention and victim's rehabilitation programs; however, some NGO's report that government cooperation is marginal, and the NGO's receive little assistance from local welfare services to assist trafficked victims. Trafficked victims do have access to free medical care. There is no established practice of providing temporary residence for trafficked victims, although it occasionally is granted. Government agencies encourage victims to seek legal action against the traffickers. Government officials respect the rights of trafficked victims.

Macedonia (Tier 2)

Macedonia is a transit and destination country for trafficking. Most victims are women who are trafficked for sexual exploitation from Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, and Bulgaria. Victims transit Macedonia to Italy, Albania, and Kosovo.

The Government of Macedonia does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government has taken significant steps to combat trafficking despite scarce resources and low-level corruption. The law does not specifically prohibit trafficking; however, traffickers can be tried under laws prohibiting slavery, kidnapping, illegal entry, and alien smuggling. The Government investigates and prosecutes trafficking, and courts have convicted at least three traffickers. A recently opened government shelter offers limited medical and psychological assistance to victims. Previously officials had typically treated all victims as criminals, but attitudes are changing due to sensitivity training. Rather than deporting victims, officials now send them to the shelter and to International Organization of Migration for repatriation assistance.

Mali (Tier 2)

Mali is a source and destination country for trafficked persons, primarily children. Children from Mali are trafficked to Cote D'Ivoire to work on cotton and cocoa plantations or for domestic servitude. Women from Nigeria are trafficked to Mali for sexual exploitation.

The Government of Mali does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a severe lack of resources. Laws prohibit the contractual use of persons without their consent. The Government has not prosecuted any cases against traffickers, but there have been prosecutions of traffickers of Malian children in Cote D'Ivoire. In 2000 the Government formulated a comprehensive action plan to combat the trafficking of children through prevention, protection, and prosecution programs; however, due to limited resources, the Government has been unable to implement the plan. The Government signed an accord in 2000 with the Government of Cote D'Ivoire to cooperate against trafficking in children. The Government is participating in a two-part ILO anti-trafficking project with eight other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo). Victims of trafficking are not detained, jailed, or prosecuted for other crimes. The Government relies on the donor community to fund assistance programs, such as repatriation centers.

Mexico (Tier 2)

Mexico is a source country for trafficked persons to the United States, Canada, and Japan, and a transit country for persons from various countries, especially Central America and China. There are an increasing number of persons from Brazil and Eastern Europe transiting through Mexico, some of whom are trafficked Salvadorans and Guatemalans, especially children, are trafficked into Mexico for prostitution, particularly on the southern border. Internal trafficking is also a problem.

The Government of Mexico does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints and corruption, especially at the lower levels of government. There are no specific laws that prohibit the trafficking of persons, but there are other relevant laws that may be used to prosecute traffickers. The Government devotes law enforcement and social development resources to prevent illegal transit of persons for any purpose. The Government actively investigates and prosecutes cases of trafficking and smuggling. At the time of this report there were no statistics available on conviction and sentencing rates of traffickers. The Government is implementing anti-corruption measures as part of its larger effort to restructure Mexico's law enforcement institutions. The Government supports general prevention campaigns for children and women, and administers assistance programs for children repatriated to Mexico. The legal framework exists to protect victims of trafficking, and provide social services to these victims. However, in practice persons illegally in Mexico usually are deported.

Moldova (Tier 2)

Moldova is both a source and a transit country for women and girls trafficked primarily to Turkey, Italy, Greece, and the Balkan region.

The Government of Moldova does not meet the minimum standards and is limited by a lack of resources, low-level border guard corruption, and inadequate legislation; however, it is taking significant steps to combat trafficking in persons. Moldova established an anti-trafficking section within the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2000. The Government aired a documentary about trafficking in women in 1999, and Moldova has a working group on trafficking to coordinate anti-trafficking activities, which submits quarterly reports on the Government's activities to combat trafficking. Moldovan law does not prohibit trafficking. An amendment to Moldova's Criminal Code, still in draft form, addresses the crime. In 2000, Moldovan law enforcement investigated 12 cases that dealt with trafficking persons abroad under the law against pimping. Most of those found guilty received probation, one received a fine of $4,500, and one was placed under parental supervision. To date, no traffickers have been sentenced to jail, although there are cases in the courts. Moldova has cooperated with Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia in investigating trafficking cases. No government-operated or government-funded programs exist to assist victims.

Morocco (Tier 2)

Morocco is a source and transit country for trafficked persons. Moroccan women are trafficked abroad to the Middle East and Europe under the guise of legitimate job offers and then sexually exploited. There is also internal trafficking of women and children; girls are trafficked primarily for domestic servitude and women are trafficked for sexual exploitation. There are unsubstantiated reports that Sub-Saharan Africans are trafficked through Morocco on the way to Europe.

The Government of Morocco does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite resource constraints. The law does not specifically prohibit trafficking in persons; however, there are several statutes under which traffickers can be prosecuted. The Government has prosecuted individuals who coerced or forced women into sexual exploitation. The penalties are roughly commensurate with rape. The Government supports anti-trafficking prevention programs through its emphasis on education. The Government together with UNICEF and royal patronage launched a nationwide campaign against child maids. The Government established a hotline through which cases of physical and emotional abuse of child maids may be reported. Although prostitution is illegal, the Government does not prosecute women who have been coerced into sexual exploitation. Although NGO's provide assistance to victims of trafficking, the Government does not have the resources to support NGO's.

Nepal (Tier 2)

Nepal is a source country for internationally trafficked women and children. Poor, uneducated young women from Nepal's rural regions are trafficked to India to work as prostitutes and for bonded labor. Nepalese citizens also are trafficked to Hong Kong, Thailand, and countries in the Middle East. Government officials suspect that organized crime groups and "marriage brokers" are the primary traffickers in Nepal and state that parents and other relatives of trafficking victims are sometimes complicit.

The Government of Nepal does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite severe resource constraints. The Human Trafficking Control Act of 1986 prohibits selling persons in Nepal or abroad and provides for penalties of up to 20 years' imprisonment for traffickers. However, this legislation does not criminalize the separation of minors from their legal guardians with the intent of trafficking them. As a result, no crime occurs until the victim and perpetrators are outside Nepalese jurisdiction. No laws cover receiving trafficked persons. The open border with India does not allow for stringent border monitoring. Low-level corruption among border guards and law enforcement allows trafficked women to be brought out of the country. The Government actively investigates and prosecutes trafficking and has created an anti-trafficking unit within the police. The Government, together with NGO's and international organizations, has implemented local, regional and national public awareness campaigns about trafficking in persons. The Government provides limited funding to NGO's to provide assistance to victims through rehabilitation, medical care, and legal services. The Government protects the rights of victims and does not detain, jail, or prosecute them for violations of other laws. The Government has imposed restrictions on women's travel to some countries to work as domestic servants, in response to past cases of abuse of such women. Women's rights groups have protested the ban as discriminatory.

Nigeria (Tier 2)

Nigeria is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficked persons. The majority of trafficking from Nigeria involves females destined for Europe; Italian authorities estimate that 10,000 Nigerian prostitutes work in Italy, many of them the victims of traffickers. Nigerians, primarily women and children, also are trafficked to work on plantations in other African countries, including Gabon, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Benin. Other significant destination countries for trafficked Nigerians include the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Spain, France, and countries in the Middle East. Nigeria also serves as a transit hub for trafficking in West Africa and to a lesser extent, a destination point for young children from nearby West African countries. There is also evidence of trafficking of children and women within Nigeria.

The Government of Nigeria does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources and widespread corruption among law enforcement officials. There is no federal statute that prohibits trafficking in persons. Under the criminal code, penalties for trafficking of children include fines and imprisonment from 2 to 7 years. The penal code provides for a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison for anyone convicted of encouraging the prostitution of women or children. The Government is revising the Criminal and Penal Code as well as State Laws. In 1999 the Government funded the establishment of a 10-member police anti-trafficking task force that has facilitated the repatriation of over 400 women and girls in the past 2 years. Task force members regularly use personal funds to feed and care for victims deported back to Nigeria. However, victims also have alleged that Nigerian immigration officials are actively complicit with or may operate as part of trafficking syndicates. The Governments of Italy and Nigeria have cooperated to repatriate over 900 victims of trafficking. NGO's provide some assistance to victims, conduct public awareness campaigns, and lobby for stronger legislation. These activities have had some success on the state/local level. In 2001 Edo State passed a law specifically aimed against traffickers of women and children, with provisions beyond those found in the national criminal code.

Philippines (Tier 2)

The Philippines is a source, transit, and, to a lesser degree, destination country for trafficked persons. Young Filipina women and girls are trafficked to Japan and many other countries for the purposes of sexual exploitation. Many Filipino overseas contract workers are forced to work in substandard conditions or are subjected to abuse. Mainland Chinese nationals are trafficked through the Philippines to worldwide destinations. A significant number of adults and children also are trafficked domestically from poorer areas to urban centers for the commercial sex industry and domestic work.

The Government of the Philippines does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking. There is no law that specifically prohibits trafficking in persons; however, there are other laws such as the Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act that could be used to prosecute traffickers. Prosecutions are rare, since the pace of justice is slow and the Government faces serious financial constraints. Corruption is pervasive. Anti-trafficking efforts focus mainly on prevention, the protection of overseas Filipino workers, and assistance to victims. The Government provides assistance such as medical aid, shelter, and financial help to repatriated victims. It also provides extensive training on assisting victims to its diplomatic and consular staffs in destination countries. Persons trafficked to the Philippines are treated as victims and are not prosecuted or immediately deported. The Government enjoys a good relationship with the many domestic NGO's that work on human trafficking issues and is an active participant in regional anti-trafficking initiatives. For example, the Philippines coordinates with governments in the region on trafficking issues in a number of settings, including the Asia-Pacific Consultations on Refugees, Displaced Persons, and Migrants and the Manila Process on trafficking and irregular migration in east and southeast Asia.

Poland (Tier 2)

Poland is a source, transit, and destination country for trafficking victims. Polish women and girls are trafficked to western European countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland, for sexual exploitation. Victims from Eastern European countries, including Bulgaria, Ukraine, Romania, Belarus, and Russia, are trafficked to Poland.

The Government of Poland does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government has made significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources. The Government implemented revised anti-trafficking criminal statutes in 1998, with penalties of up to 10 years of imprisonment, roughly commensurate with the penalty for rape. From 1995 to 1999, the authorities investigated 148 trafficking cases, most of which were initiated by the German police. The Government prosecuted 95 of the cases, resulting in 151 convictions and 5 acquittals. Penalties of those convicted ranged up to 10 years' imprisonment; however, the courts suspended 53 of the sentences. The Government provides small grants to NGO's for victim assistance programs. Victims usually are deported as soon as possible in order to avoid any expenses connected with keeping them in detention. Polish victims are eligible for welfare services. Foreign victims in Poland have no legal status or public resources available to them. There is no provision to allow victims to remain in Poland long enough to pursue legal action against their traffickers.

Sierra Leone (Tier 2)

Internal trafficking in persons takes place in Sierra Leone. The Revolutionary United Front (RUF) rebels abduct and hold men, women, and children against their will for the purpose of forced labor, forced military conscription, and sexual servitude.

The Government of Sierra Leone does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking in persons despite severe resource constraints and the civil conflict with the RUF. The RUF controls approximately 60 percent of the country, and the Government is unable to investigate or prosecute traffickers in these areas. There are no reports of trafficking in persons in areas of Sierra Leone that are under the control of the Government. The Government hosts the largest UN peacekeeping mission in the world, which has a mandate to assist the Government to extend its authority. The Government cooperates with the international community in the investigation of trafficking in persons carried out by the RUF. The Government and the UN have reached agreement on the creation of a Special Court that is expected to vigorously investigate and prosecute those persons bearing the greatest responsibility for atrocities and violations of international humanitarian law. A number of RUF leaders are in detention and may be brought before the Special Court on charges that may potentially include trafficking in persons. The Government and NGO's interview victims of RUF abuses who manage to reach government-held areas and maintain records of cases that can be used for future prosecutions of perpetrators. The Government works closely with bilateral donors, NGO's, and UN agencies on programs to assist victims of RUF abuses. The Government and NGO's reintegrate ex-combatants into society, including victims of trafficking. Approximately 25,000 young adults have been through an educational and training program. The Government also works with international donors on media campaigns in support of this program. There are no reported cases in which trafficking victims have been detained, jailed, or deported by the Government, nor are there cases in which they were prosecuted for violations of other laws such as prostitution or illegal immigration.

Singapore (Tier 2)

Singapore is a destination country for women who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, principally from India but also from Thailand, China, Sri Lanka, and Indonesia. Indian, Bangladeshi, and Filipino men and women often face coercive employment situations in indentured servitude due to contracts entered into abroad.

The Government of Singapore meets the minimum standards. There is no omnibus law against trafficking in persons; however, such acts are punishable under laws which prohibit the trafficking of women or girls into the country for purposes of prostitution, unlawful custody or control of children, wrongful confinement, and trafficking of illegal immigrants. While none of these laws prescribe punishments commensurate with those for rape, punishments for offenses are substantial. Convicted traffickers would typically be found guilty of violating more than one law, which in the aggregate could provide commensurate punishment. There is no evidence that government officials are complicit in trafficking, and the country has no corruption. Prostitution is not illegal, although profiting from it by other persons does violate the law, and the use of fraud or coercion to induce women into prostitution is illegal. In practice, the authorities usually tolerate prostitution, which largely involves foreign women, some of whom are trafficked. There is no specific campaign to combat or prevent the use of fraud or coercion to recruit foreign women as prostitutes, although some persons have been prosecuted and punished for crimes involving such acts. Immigration laws are enforced strictly, which sharply reduces the flow of persons potentially vulnerable to trafficking, and adds to the legal jeopardy faced by would-be traffickers. The Ministry of Manpower investigates complaints by foreign workers, and prevents employers from terminating workers while an investigation is ongoing; the Ministry is not known to have received such complaints. The Government substantially strengthened penalties against employers who abuse domestics in 1998, and prosecutes the now greatly reduced cases of abuse; however, victims testifying in cases are required to remain in the country and often are not permitted to work. There are no known NGO's that assist sex trafficking victims and the Government does not provide assistance.

Slovenia (Tier 2)

Slovenia is a transit and destination country for trafficking; most victims are women trafficked into sexual exploitation from Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Moldova, Russia, Romania, and Bulgaria through Slovenia to Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands.

The Government of Slovenia does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources. There are no specific trafficking laws, but prosecutors can use other provisions against traffickers that carry penalties of 6 months to 10 years' imprisonment. In 1999 there were 46 criminal indictment for trafficking. A total of 16 cases went to trial; the courts sentenced one person to 6 months and another to 1 year in prison. In 2000 the Government apprehended a suspected organized-crime boss whose alleged crimes included trafficking in persons. Regional police directorates have organized crime departments that investigate trafficking. The Government does not have prevention programs nor does it assist trafficking victims. Victims usually are deported either immediately or following their testimony in court. The Government provides funding to NGO's that assist only Slovenian citizens.

South Africa (Tier 2)

South Africa is a destination country for trafficked persons. Women are trafficked within South Africa and from other African countries (specifically Angola, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zambia, Cameroon, Malawi, and Rwanda), Asia (specifically Thailand and Taiwan), Eastern Europe, Russia, and the New Independent States. South Africa is also a transit point for trafficking operations between developing countries and Europe, the United States, and Canada.

The Government of South Africa does not yet fully comply with the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking. The Government is limited by a lack of resources, and corruption is a problem in some localities. The law does not prohibit specifically the act of trafficking, but there is a range of other relevant laws that may be used to prosecute traffickers. There have been some successful investigations, including one that was being prosecuted at the time of this report. The perpetrator usually is liable for a fine between $1,300 to $9,300 and usually is responsible for the cost of tracking, locating, detaining, and repatriating victims of trafficking. Government officials acknowledge that trafficking is a problem; however, the problem of trafficking usually is categorized under the larger issues of violence against women or illegal migration. For the first time, the Border Police included the principle of protecting women and children against trafficking in their strategic plan for 2001. There are few programs to assist victims of trafficking, and most of these have been established by NGO's. Victims who fall into police custody usually are deported soon thereafter.

Sri Lanka (Tier 2)

Sri Lanka is a country of origin and destination for trafficked persons, primarily women and children. Sri Lankan women travel to Middle Eastern countries to work as domestics and some have reported being forced into domestic servitude and sexual exploitation. Women from Thailand, China, and Russia have been trafficked to Sri Lanka for sexual exploitation. Some Sri Lankan children are trafficked internally both for sexual exploitation and as domestics. Boys are trafficked to the Middle East (primarily Qatar and the United Arab Emirates) as camel jockeys, but not in significant numbers. Internal trafficking in persons takes place within Sri Lanka. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) abduct and hold children against their will for the purpose of forced labor and forced military conscription.

The Government of Sri Lanka does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking, despite resource constraints and the civil conflict with the LTTE. The LTTE controls territory in the north and east of the country and the Government is unable to investigate or prosecute traffickers in these areas. The Penal Code specifically prohibits trafficking in persons; the penalties are commensurate with those for rape. The Government created a National Child Protection Authority to encourage school attendance and fight crimes against children, including trafficking. The National Child Protection Authority provides medical and psychological assistance to victims of trafficking and child soldiers. The Government, together with NGO's, has conducted public awareness campaigns regarding child labor, and there are hotlines available for reporting child labor abuses. The Government's Overseas Employment Bureau works with Sri Lankan embassies to resolve problems that domestic workers encounter in foreign countries.

Sweden (Tier 2)

Sweden is a destination country for trafficked women from the Baltic states and Central and Eastern Europe, with a few cases from Cuba and Colombia, for purposes of sexual exploitation. Police officials estimate that approximately 200 to 500 women were trafficked into Sweden, primarily from neighboring countries, during 2000.

The Government of Sweden does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking. The law does not prohibit specifically the act of trafficking, but there are a range of other relevant laws that are being used to prosecute traffickers. Under related laws, the penalty for trafficking is roughly commensurate with those for rape or sexual assault. The Government has successfully prosecuted seven trafficking cases since 1998. The sentences for the traffickers ranged from 1 to 6 years' imprisonment. Victims do not receive temporary residence, and most are deported immediately; however, they rarely are detained and never jailed. Local social service offices give emergency help to victims when needed. The Government funds NGO's that are combating violence against women through education and shelters. The Government also provides funding to NGO's and international organizations that combat trafficking worldwide. The Government is providing specialized anti-trafficking training to its peacekeepers in the Balkans.

Thailand (Tier 2)

Thailand is a destination, source, and transit country for trafficked persons. Victims are primarily young women and girls who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, although a significant number of men and women are trafficked for farm, industrial and domestic labor. The trafficking is both international and domestic. Persons from Burma, Cambodia, and Laos are the primary trafficked persons to Thailand. Within the country, trafficking is chiefly from the poor North and Northeast regions to Bangkok. Women are trafficked internationally to Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Europe, and the United States, chiefly for sexual exploitation and, to a lesser degree, sweatshop labor. Persons from China are trafficked through Thailand to a number of developed countries and more prosperous neighboring countries.

The Government of Thailand does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government openly admits that Thailand has a trafficking problem and is making significant efforts to combat the problem despite resource constraints. A trafficking in persons law provides for penalties similar to those for rape. In addition, there are other laws that could be used against traffickers. However, enforcement of both sets of laws has been weak. There is little training for officials in law enforcement or in providing assistance to trafficking victims. Corruption is pervasive, and in 2000 there was broad and blunt public discussion of the corrosive effect of corruption on Thai society. The Government works with NGO's. Among other efforts, it has a National Committee on Trafficking in Women and Children with representatives of government agencies, and both Thai and international NGO's. It cooperates with other governments through a Mekong Sub-regional Project Committee and has established some prevention programs and provides assistance to victims. However, these efforts are restricted due to the lack of funding. Victims from neighboring countries usually are deported quickly, but efforts are made to assist underage victims.

Togo (Tier 2)

Togo is a source and transit country for trafficked persons, primarily children. Togolese citizens are trafficked to Cote D'Ivoire, Gabon, Nigeria, the Middle East (specifically Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), and Europe (primarily France and Germany) for indentured or domestic servitude, farm labor, and sexual exploitation. Children trafficked from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Cote D'Ivoire, and Nigeria transit Togo.

The Government of Togo does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking despite a lack of resources. There is no law specifically prohibiting trafficking in persons; however, the Government can prosecute traffickers under statutes that prohibit exploitation, transfer of children, and forced labor. The penalties are commensurate with rape. The Government actively investigates and prosecutes traffickers. The Government has prosecuted 50 cases against traffickers resulting in 31 convictions. The Government cooperates with the Governments of Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria under a Quadripartite Law allowing for expedited extradition among those countries. The Government participates in a two-part ILO anti-trafficking project with eight other countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote D'Ivoire, Nigeria, and Senegal). The Government works with NGO's to assist victims of trafficking by providing shelter and access to legal, medical, and psychological services and attempting to find victims' families and reunite them. The Government does not have resources to fund NGO's and relies on foreign assistance. Victims are not detained, jailed, deported, or prosecuted for violations of other laws.

Uganda (Tier 2)

Uganda is a source country for trafficked persons, primarily women and children. During the past 10 years, the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has kidnapped an estimated 5,100 Ugandan, Congolese, and Sudanese children, taken them to southern Sudan, and forced them to become soldiers, labor and sex slaves.

The Government of Uganda does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat trafficking in persons despite severe resource constraints and the civil conflict with the LRA. The Criminal Code prohibits slavery with penalties of up to 10 years imprisonment. Improved civil-military relations in northern Uganda have helped the Ugandan People's Defense Force (UPDF) assist victims of the LRA. Between November 2000 and January 2001, the UPDF rescued and repatriated 121 child abductees who had escaped from the LRA. A 1999 Agreement with Sudan provides for the repatriation of abductees, although abductee returns so far have been as a result of escapes or UPDF rescue rather than the assistance of Sudan. The Government supports universal primary education programs as a preventative measure against trafficking. The Government has established protected camps garrisoned by the UPDF to prevent abductions; while security has increased enough that villages are now returning to their previous home areas, the parents leave the children in the camps to ensure their education and safety. The Government is unable to offer financial assistance to the to NGO's providing assistance to victims of trafficking but does cooperate with these NGO's. The UPDF escorts rescued abductees to NGO facilities which then give physical assistance and counseling to the children and their families so that the children can be reintegrated into society.

Ukraine (Tier 2)

Ukraine is a major source and transit country for women and girls trafficked abroad for the purposes of sexual exploitation. The women primarily are trafficked into Central and Western Europe, the United States, and the Middle East.

The Government of Ukraine does not meet the minimum standards and is limited by lack of financial resources and low-level corruption; however, Ukraine has increased efforts to combat trafficking over the past 3 years, and has partially implemented its anti-trafficking action plan. In 1998 Parliament amended the criminal code to make trafficking in human beings a crime punishable by imprisonment for 8 years and confiscation of property. Since then the Government has brought 37 criminal cases against suspected traffickers. The court sentenced a Greek man to 7 years and two Ukrainian women to 5 years in prison for trafficking. However, most of the cases ended in acquittals, and those convicted received only small fines. Ukraine relies on special police units trained by both the Government and NGO's to investigate trafficking cases, but they have had limited impact thus far. The Government established three business centers to assist unemployed women in Ukraine, and works with Ukrainian diplomatic missions to improve responses to Ukrainian trafficking victims abroad. The Government does not support any other prevention or protection programs. Ukraine cooperates in international investigations of trafficking.

Vietnam (Tier 2)

Vietnam is both a country of origin and transit for cross-border trafficking of Vietnamese women to Cambodia and China for sexual exploitation and arranged marriages, as well as for women from third countries transiting to various destinations within and outside Asia. Some Vietnamese women have also been trafficked to other Asian and western countries, including the United States. Women and children are also trafficked within Vietnam, usually from rural to urban areas.

The Government of Vietnam does not yet fully meet the minimum standards; however, the Government is making significant efforts to combat the problem. While the Government has taken some steps to combat trafficking, resources are limited. Corruption is a serious problem at all levels in Vietnam and some officials may be involved in the flow of overseas workers. Trafficking in women and children is prohibited in various statutes, with penalties of up to a maximum of 20 years in prison. These penalties are stiffer than for rape convictions. There is no law that specifically prohibits trafficking in men; however, existing laws could be used to prosecute traffickers who recruit or send men abroad to work for "illegitimate profits" or illegal purposes. Statistics on prosecutions under the various statutes are not readily available, but estimates from various sources indicate over 200 prosecutions, with a high rate of conviction. One analysis of the court system in general found that more than 95 percent of the persons who are charged with a crime are convicted. Prevention efforts are focused on educating at-risk populations, including mass media campaigns, vocational training, and alleviation of poverty. Vietnamese authorities focus on protecting and providing services to Vietnamese citizens in danger of being trafficked. Vietnamese police have vigorously pursued such cases when drawn to their attention. Some returnees are housed in rehabilitation centers before returning to their villages. Vietnam is cooperating with NGO's and other governments. For example, Vietnam has signed an agreement with Australia stating their mutual commitment to combating trafficking in women and children.



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