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Diplomacy in Action

IV. Maps (with Regional Law Enforcement Statistics); and the Link Between HIV/AIDS and Trafficking in Persons (TIP)


Trafficking in Persons Report
Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
June 3, 2005
Report
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Map of Africa

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

50

10

3

2004

134

29

7

Map of East Asia and Pacific

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

1,727

583

1

2004

438

348

3

Map of Europe and Eurasia

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

2,437

1,561

14

2004

3,329

1,274

20

Map of Near East

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

1,004

279

4

2004

134

59

1

Map of South Asia

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

2,599

355

0

2004

2,705

1,260

1

Map of Western Hemisphere

YEAR

PROSECUTIONS

CONVICTIONS

NEW OR AMENDED LEGISLATION

2003

175

27

2

2004

145

56

7

THE LINK BETWEEN HIV/AIDS AND TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (TIP)

Public Health Implications of Trafficking

Besides being a criminal and human rights issue, human trafficking has serious public health effects. Victims of trafficking often endure brutal conditions that result in physical, sexual, and psychological trauma. The health risks and consequences include sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, hepatitis, tuberculosis and other communicable diseases; unwanted pregnancy, forced abortion, and abortion-related complications; rape and other physical assault; a host of mental and emotional health problems including nightmares, insomnia, and suicidal tendencies; alcohol and drug abuse and addiction; and even suicide and murder. The health implications of sex trafficking extend not only to its victims, but also to the general public, as well as those who frequent brothels and who can become carriers and/or core transmitters of serious diseases.

The Link Between HIV/AIDS and TIP

Approximately 42 million people are living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. This global epidemic affects women and children who are trafficked for purposes of prostitution. Globally, women in prostitution and those who have been trafficked for prostitution have a high prevalence of HIV another STDs. For example:

  • In Nepal, HIV prevalence among women in prostitution is 20 percent.
  • In South Africa it is 70.4 percent.
  • In Cambodia, 28.8 percent of women in prostitution are HIV infected.
  • In Zambia, where there is a thriving sex trade, there is a 31 percent HIV prevalence in red light areas
  • In India, scientists have noted high levels of prostitution along trade routes in the Northeast, with associated high levels of HIV in those areas.

In addition, the HIV/AIDS epidemic may be spread by human trafficking. Some experts have linked sex trafficking to the spread and mutation of the AIDS virus. They believe that sex trafficking is aiding the global dispersion of HIV subtypes.

What Is the United States Doing?

Because the U.S. Government believes there is a link between trafficking in persons and HIV/AIDS as well as other serious communicable diseases, it has developed programs to address both TIP and HIV/AIDS. These include:

  • Cooperative efforts with the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief. This strategy focuses on prevention, treatment, and care for those infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. We have worked to add rescue and rehabilitation efforts for victims of sex trafficking to the overall strategy.
  • Participation in trainings of health workers and health professionals at national and international HIV/AIDS events to insure that sex trafficking is discussed.
  • Hosting the first conference on the public health implications of trafficking in persons, to bring together over 100 doctors, nurses, and medical practitioners to discuss prevention, treatment, and services.
  • Meeting with representatives from the American Medical Association, the Christian Medical Association, and other health professional associations to plan programs and curricula to educate health professionals about the health implications of trafficking in persons.

For the Future: Prevention

Both HIV/AIDS experts and anti-trafficking advocates agree on one thing: rehabilitative treatment of a trafficking victim and/or palliative treatment for HIV/AIDS, while desirable, does not allow us to get ahead of the problem. In addressing the link between human trafficking and HIV/AIDS, it is clear that we will need to step up preventive programs, for only when we prevent trafficking, and prevent the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, will we truly be successful.



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