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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Section Two: Organizational Processes


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       Overview


Graphic of three men closing a circle

In successful implementation, conceptual change always precedes structural change. This insight is implied in all three foundational models. The Basic School asserts the importance of shared vision and teacher leadership. The Dimensions of Learning presume an implementation that is both pervasive and overt across the organization. The Coherent Curriculum explicitly identifies �change for the sake of change� as a major cause of incoherence. For these reasons, we paid careful attention to building understanding and support through key areas of the organization before attempting structural change.

Section two identifies a number of sequences and strategies that help build conceptual support and assist in translating those concepts into organizational structures.

Resistance to change is normal. Eager, and premature, adoption is equally common. Both can cause problems if they are not addressed in the earliest stages of the innovation. The matrix titled, �The Importance of Complete Adoption� by Dr. Gerald Mansergh is an excellent prompt to stimulate discussion about the necessary scope of any innovation. Though the outcomes seem self-evident, many planners and participants are willing to begin before all the critical pieces are in place. This simple matrix can help preempt premature or incomplete adoption by clarifying the negative ending outcomes that are likely to result.

Complex Change

During any Complex Change, there are five elements that contribute to success. If any one of them is missing, the outcomes described below are likely.

  • If Vision, Skills, Incentives, Resources, and Action Plan are present, there is Effective Change.
  • If there is no Vision, but Skills, Incentives, Resources, and Action Plan are present, there is Confusion.


Notes and Reflections

� Have you experienced any of the negative outcomes of incomplete change?

� What can you do to ensure that innovations in your organization have the necessary elements?

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RPLIM is a model for change and innovation that has an extensive record of clarity and success.

Organizations that pay attention to the sequence of RPLIM are on track for success. Those that do not

experience predictable struggles and can alienate the very people critical to the success of the innovation.

RPLIM puts all our plans and actions together in one unified strategy.

Visioning is an essential part of the readiness phase. In some cases the visioning process focused only on the specific instructional innovation under consideration. In others, it included the entire organization, its purpose for existence and plans for the future. In either case, member schools found it useful to pursue and discover their shared vision.

LIFO is a group formation and strengthening process that becomes especially useful during the transition from planning to learning and implementation. By measuring the communication styles of members, the LIFO model helped us predict and accommodate the productive and counterproductive tendencies of each group.

TrueTeam gave our teams insights and skill sets to help them work at optimal levels of creativity and productivity. By differentiating roles and defining tasks, the TrueTeam approach brings clarity of purpose and confidence in potential to every group.

CBAM is a change model that tracks overall implementation by measuring individual behavior. Because it relies on observable behavior, CBAM is a useful tool to help build and maintain momentum. Because the CBAM model addresses both the range of individual concerns, as well as the levels of personal use, it is both diagnostic as well as strategic.

The Meta-Process: RPLIM

As organizations change and innovate, they experience successes and obstacles that are remarkably consistent from case to case. By studying different examples, observing what works and what fails, the developers of the RPLIM model were able to describe a comprehensive process for strategic implementation. Whether the organization builds bridges or molds minds, the principles of implementation and innovation hold true. The history and application of the model is another important factor that led us to select it as our overall organizational model. RPLIM has been in application and evaluation for over twenty years. As a primary process promulgated through the National Staff Development Council (NSDC), RPLIM is widely used, widely known and strengthened by years of refinement and development. In addition, many leaders in the Tri-Association are familiar with RPLIM through their participation in advanced studies or the NSDC Academy. Each phase of RPLIM has a distinct character of �feel�. Taken together, they cultivate a building sense of consensus, clarity and confidence as an innovation takes hold and is embedded in the ongoing life of an organization.

Readiness: Casting a Vision, Mission and Guiding Principles

Readiness is described as a time of building trust, awareness and commitment to new behaviors. To build trust and establish norms, it is important that the organization make the commitment to consensus decision making. To embed interdisciplinary and thematic approaches as an ongoing disposition, participating schools worked to build consensus, clarity and confidence.

Vision building almost always requires a definition of terms and intent. One of the most frequently confusing problems addressed by our schools is the preexistence of a philosophical vision not linked to action steps or outcomes. Whether it is called a mission, philosophy, vision statement or purpose statement, this document is frequently an expression of the conceptual ideals of the organization. While ideals and concepts are useful and necessary, without translation into action, they can become stagnant and lose power.

To begin the organizational process, we suggest initiating a discussion in each school among the top administrative staff insuring a total commitment to interdisciplinary thematic planning. Where possible, this should be included in the school's mission statement. A time line will need to be established and the change process will need to be incorporated into all school activities and communicated regularly to all constituents. While this investment of time seems large it will pay off in being articulate and supportive of the total effort later on. Once this commitment has been established through consensus building and discussion, planning sessions for as much of the school community as possible will need to be carried out to create a vision and a mission statement that is site specific.

Notes and Reflections

� Is your organization ready to implement change?

� What activities and strategies can you employ to build trust and consensus?

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To disclaim potentially negative impressions people may have about the visioning process, we found it helpful to define and differentiate the terms vision, mission and principles as operational concepts.

Vision, Mission and Principles for

Peak Productivity


Vision


A description of our ideal future reality

Climbers on top of a mountain


To stand together on top of the world

Mission

The actions we must take to make our vision real

Setting up tents

To make it to the top, we will:

� Climb three hours daily

� Eat nutritious meals to keep our strength

� Train to build skills and strength

� Follow a thoughtful climbing plan

� Use the best equipment and techniques

� Watch the weather

� Check our progress daily

Principles

Shared values we will uphold while we pursue our vision

Camping tents

Our team agrees:

� We have the strength, skills and plan we need

� Our climb is a team effort, not an opportunity for individual glory

� If anyone summits, the whole team succeeds.

Notes and Reflections

� Is your organization ready to implement change?

� How will you build trust and consensus around a shared vision, mission and principles?

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The initial discussion and planning sessions will form the basis of trust and commitment for the entire school. It cannot be over emphasized that clear and regular communication lines will need to be established right from the beginning of the process as more of the staff becomes involved. The initial team will be in a continual process of change, increasing and changing members. Continuity needs to be preserved through good documentation as team members will inevitably come and go. The entire staff will need to be profiled by using LIFO, trained in conflict resolution and effective team building strategies; this information will be used by each of the teams and will be helpful to the total life of the school. More importantly the LIFO process will increase sensitivity to cooperative leadership and development of needed leadership styles.

The school will need to budget for and insure that selected staff members have time to be trained in these areas. We also suggest considering an on-site consultant to be budgeted and used during these initial stages to work with the staff. The scope of the project will need to be determined at this time. The project can be school wide, divisional or grade level or developed as individual pilots models.

This entire process carries a series of implications: school board support, budgetary concerns, common planning time for teachers, in-service and training, consulting, recognition and rewards have implications for the entire school. The administrative team will need to see that these implications are considered and acted upon before the process has begun to avoid frustration and insure trust and commitment among participants and the total school as well.

When considering the implementation of interdisciplinary thematic approach, you need to consider the phases of change that your organization and the individuals will go through. It is important to note that these phases are not completely linear because they are flexible according to your needs.

First, the organization needs to become ready for this change. This would include providing adequate time for staff to learn to work together. Getting ready for change can be difficult and stressful for many. It is usually a slow process that needs to be carefully planned for. School leadership and staff will need to study this manual and obtain more information if they consider it to be necessary.

This learning must be done in an interactive way in order to create ownership among the staff. Study groups could be used for this purpose. Teachers can start experimenting with the new ideas as they learn, this way they will be able to bring their ideas and experiences back to the group. Implications need to be considered before proceeding. It is extremely important to consider how this innovation relates to your existing vision, mission, and beliefs. Staff consensus is a powerful component for buy-in. Strong leadership is also necessary for success. The organization needs to define who will direct this process; this change agent should promote new attitudes, values, and behavior by modeling and directing.

Second, a plan for the implementation of the interdisciplinary thematic approach needs to be developed. This includes a timeline, the consideration of scale of implementation, whether that would be pilot programs and/or full implementation. In service needs to be considered as well as the corresponding budget. A communication plan needs to be developed for the board, parents, staff, and students.

Third, appropriate training needs to be considered. You need to evaluate your staff�s knowledge and comfort level with this innovation. This should include knowing their attitudes, values, and behavior toward the change. You staff will want practical ideas to make connections with their present way of teaching. Since teaming is a core part within this innovation, you need to create an environment to promote interpersonal relationships. Members of a team should complement each other. Using the LIFO survey to learn about the individual orientations of those involved will allow for better possibilities of success. For any training, you need to consider the level of expertise on your staff, if some staff members need to be trained as trainers, or if a consultant should be hired. Ongoing training is necessary.

A fourth consideration in the change process is implementing the interdisciplinary thematic approach. Ongoing observations by peers, supervisors, and trainers need to be considered. Staff needs time to share their successes and failures in a supportive atmosphere. Recognize and reward those staff members who are showing interest in trying pilot projects. Celebrations also need to be planned for collective successes, also consider your resources. During implementation, your staff is learning new skills and your students are learning a new way of learning. Therefore, be aware that an implementation dip can occur before the interdisciplinary thematic approach becomes regular practices in your school.

Once your staff becomes comfortable with the interdisciplinary thematic approach, the practice should become institutionalized. Data is gathered about its effectiveness; new staff members need to be trained and monitored. Discussion groups could provide a form to share ideas. This discussion will then lead to refinements in practice and new ideas generated for the next cycle of change.

In summary, when considering the interdisciplinary thematic approach take into account that change takes time, creates conflict, and must be planned for. This will entail:

1. Developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes.

2. Constructing a plan.

3. Training your staff.

4. Implementing your plan and evaluating your successes and failures, and

5. Allowing time to institutionalize your plan.

Planning: Team-building with LIFO

Teamwork is essential to the culture of most successful organizations. When making a change one needs to involve people in the establishment of the new vision, the strategy for change, and the implementation of the change process. Old habits need to be addressed and new ways of working together need to be established.

Team-building needs to include getting to know oneself, other team members and the working orientations we prefer in dealing with one another. Often surveys of �self� relating to these working orientations are valuable in establishing knowledge of self and how you relate to each others.

In this project, the LIFO training process was used with the established team. Those involved were able to identify their strengths and orientations for working with others. Having knowledge of their own orientations and the orientations of those with whom they worked helped them to work for change in a more effective and affective way.

Once the vision, mission and principles are established, they provide the proper foundation for the formation of working teams. While it is likely that the visioning process itself will be accomplished through teamwork and collaborative effort, it is wise to form teams after the vision is complete. As they are formed, link the charge and charter of each team to specific elements of the operational mission. Since each team now has a clear charge, and is operating under shared principles, the initial hurdles typically described as �storming� can be overcome. Each school needs to conform their teams to the mission statement and the school's organizational chart. Some schools will want to begin with section coordinators, grade level leaders, department heads and then move on to the teachers in each grade level.

Norms must be established as far as timelines, format, curriculum requirements and the reporting process. Meeting times, agendas, responsibilities will need to be set. Each team will need a facilitator and a reporter. The administration must make clear its expectations as far as reporting and accountability.

A simple and widely held model for team function was first described in the 1960�s as the ��Orming� model. It suggests that teams inevitably go through four distinct stages. This description helps teams be self-reflective and decreases their natural anxiety about the uncertainty that often characterizes newly formed teams. However, it is not enough to tell a team that they are forming and expect they will have enough native insight to guarantee success. In fact, the expectation of storming can become a counterproductive self-fulfilling prophecy. Instead of expecting a negative, we employed two important processes to help our teams form, norm and perform with confidence.

  • By shifting the focus of natural group stresses off of the members and onto the task and working conditions, LIFO reinterprets challenges to the group as opportunities to draw on alternative strengths and strategies.

Human resources available should be strongly considered during the team building and training steps of this process. Building mutual trust and comfort among team members prepares individuals for the shift in planning. The LIFO[1] survey can help team members discover their strengths and those of others, teaching also how to compliment each others� styles. At the American School of Guatemala Middle School, teachers used their LIFO orientations for team building. In addition, people should learn about the conflicts they might encounter when working in groups. While piloting the Interdisciplinary and Thematic Approach, Colegio Decroly American included team-building activities during each planning session and special training on conflict resolution when necessary. This especially helped team members of this school to resolve ownership issues with curriculum.

Training and in-service also play an important role when making a change in the organizational process. It is valuable to take the time to educate teachers on Basic School, Dimensions of Learning, and Coherent Curriculum foundations. Once educators feel comfortable with these theories, discussion on interdisciplinary approaches may begin.

The first process we used as our primary system for forming and informing teams is LIFO. Developed and delivered by Stuart Atkins and Associates, LIFO considers the tendencies and communications styles of group members under optimal and adverse conditions. By shifting the focus of natural group stresses off the members and onto the task and working conditions, LIFO reinterprets challenges to the group as opportunities to draw on alternative strengths and strategies.

LIFO is similar to style and temperament approaches in that it first engages each individual in a self-survey of preferred strategies. The responses are plotted along a set of four scales. Each scale describes one life orientation and indicates the degree of strength that individual has in exercising that style. Everyone has every style, but all of us have preferences and tendencies. Becoming aware of the strengths and excesses of our preferred styles can help us be more effective team members.

Four Life Orientations

Primary

Value

Principle

Goals

Supporting

Giving

Excellence

Prove worth

Be helpful

Controlling

Taking

Action

Be competent

Get results

Conserving

Holding

Reason

Go slow

Be sure

Adapting

Dealing

Harmony

Know people

Get along

Six LIFO Strategies

u Confirming

Appreciate and be proud of your strengths

u Capitalizing

Do what�s best for you

u Moderating

Do less and accomplish more

u Supplementing

Let others augment your strengths

u Extending

Master more strengths for greater versatility

u Bridging

Get through and get action

Forming and Informing Teams through LIFO

Although LIFO is designed to be an individual survey, the results can be compared and shared as teams begin to form. This provides a natural opportunity for team members to get to know each other as work partners. As a useful device, we transferred the data for the members of each team to a line chart. This shows how the strengths of the group are distributed among the members. This also draws on the LIFO distinction between how individuals operate under favorable conditions, and how they function when stress, conflict and change are present. This is especially important given that the shift to interdisciplinary and thematic approaches is likely to cause change, stress and interpersonal conflict.


Once this information is available, the team needs opportunities for getting to know one another on personal bases. As people get to know each other and how they can work together they generally develop the trust that is necessary for effective team work. It is inevitable that disagreements will occur over establishing the mission, goals, strategies, working relationships, etc. among team members. These processes may be internal as well as external. Always keep in mind that these initial conflicts often clear the air so the final mission can be accomplished.

Notes and Reflections

� What structures are already in place to help your organization build strong teams?

� What can you do to evaluate and enhance the capacity of each team for high performance?

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Learning: TrueTeam Performance

Once groups have spent time forming, the traditional model predicts a period of stormy relationships that precede group productivity. As a description of what normally happens, this is accurate, but it is not inevitable. There is another path to elevated performance, which is described in the TrueTeam path.

The TrueTeam description is intuitive, not only because it makes sense, but also because many teams seem to skip the �storming� phase and move quickly to high performance. Their success, predicted by the TrueTeam model, is directly related to their commitment to excellent facilitation and productive team behaviors.

The great advantage of using LIFO during the formation phase is that it naturally begins the conversation about roles and responsibilities. Depending on the specific charge of the team, they may need a facilitator with more controlling-taking characteristics to take charge and direct the process. Other teams may want to emphasize harmony, and so would choose a facilitator with strengths in adapting-dealing. In any case, expert facilitation, customized to the group, can move team into high productivity without the normal stumbles and struggles.

CAUTION! Teams that are aware of the importance of functioning smoothly may suppress their natural conflict and pretend to form a team. While this may seem to be a positive sign, it is actually a step backward. The superficial harmony may mask unspoken tensions about roles and expectations. Only when the facilitator probes carefully and charges the team clearly can early harmony be fully trusted.

Characteristics of Group and Team Stages

Group

� A collection of individuals

� Concern about the clarity of the task

� Conflicting loyalties

� Jockeying for position

PseudoTeam

� Individuals become familiar with each other

� The group appears to function smoothly

� Members are overly willing to compromise

Overt commitment to the group

Covert emphasis on individual priorities

� Fragmentation of group purpose

� Developing resentment over teaming time requirements

� Passive sabotage via tardiness, negativity, and planned distractions

� Emergence of �Heroes�, �Villains� and �Peacemakers�

� Persistent questioning of the validity of the �team�s� existence

TrueTeam

� Interdependence

� Creativity

� High productivity

� Cohesiveness

� Shared and shifting leadership

� High performance and satisfaction

Notes and Reflections

� How intentional is your organization about forming teams?

� Have you worked on teams with low performance? What prevented them from working effectively?

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Group or Team?

In any organization, there are times and places where each are necessary. Part of optimizing the organization, lies in knowing when each is viable.

GROUP

TEAM

� Works with a focus to a particular task

� Works with a focus to the team and its comprehensive talents/ effectiveness

� Usually together for shorter periods of time to accomplish its goal(s)

� Together over long period of time with comprehensive goals

� Can be organized and processed by a leader

� Requires high level facilitation

� Typically organizes work around a singular function

� Work is organized to be multifunctional

� Usually organized with members of more narrowly focused perspectives

� Organized with members who can contribute multiple perspectives

� Narrower understanding of all the functions in a process

� Straddles all the functions contributing to a process

� Members tend to be stakeholders in accomplishing a particular task

� Members are stakeholders in the team�s success

� Shared knowledge leading to shared decision

� Shared knowledge leading to shared leadership

� Increased knowledge focused on accomplishing the goal(s)

� Increased knowledge leading to continuous improvement

� Have you been a member of a productive group?

� What makes working as part of an effective team satisfying?

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Symptoms of Dysfunctional Groups

Anti-Mission

Anti-Team

Anti-Process

� Expected outcomes are unknown or secret

� The team has no charge, or crafts its own

� Processes used do not consider the team�s talents

� The mission description is unrelated to outcomes

� The team includes unnecessary members and omits needed insight

� The process exposes the limited capacity of team members

� Necessary resources are not available

� An elite subgroup of members exercises team ownership

� Decision-making creates winners and losers

� Parameters are fluid throughout the life of the team

� Team members disrespect each other in and out of the group

� The team avoids reflection and evaluation

� Accountability is not established

� Team members adopt dysfunctional roles

� The process is either rigid or chaotic

� The mission is limited and leads to stagnation

� The team�s capacity is fixed and does not grow

� Teams exhibit erratic and dysfunctional behaviors

Behavior Sets for Productive and Dysfunctional Teams

Highly Productive Behaviors

Anti-Productive Behaviors

� Initiating

� Information/Opinion giving

� Summarizing

� Information/Opinion seeking

� Clarifying/Elaborating

� Setting objectives

� Harmonizing

� Blocking

� Attacking

� Being playful

� Seeking recognition

� Deserting

� Pleading special interest

� Dominating


Notes and Reflections

� Is your organization ready to implement change?

� How will you build trust and consensus around a shared vision, mission and principles?

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Prescriptions for Optimal Productivity

Mission

Team

Process

� Expected outcomes for the work are clear and public

� The charge to the team is explicit

� Processes used apply the talents of the team to accomplish its mission

� The mission description is focused on expected outcomes

� The team is composed of members necessary to accomplish the mission

� The process enhances the capacity of team members

� Necessary resources are identified and provided

� All members share responsibility for the team�s success

� Decision-making includes a consensus model

� Final timeframe and product parameters are established at the outset

� Team members respect each other in and out of the group

� The team engages in reflective evaluation

� Accountability relationships are established

� Team members are empowered by purposeful roles

� The process is neither rigid nor chaotic, it exemplifies purposeful flexibility

� The mission is sufficiently challenging to stimulate team growth

� Teams build their capacity through skill training

� Teams practice an effective skill set

Row of men and women working

Notes and Reflections

� How does your team rate in each of these areas?

� What ideas from this grid can help you boost productivity?

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Differentiating Leadership, Management and Facilitation


Leader

Manager

Facilitator

Emphasizes the organizational vision and values

Provides logistics support as directed by the leader and requested by the facilitator

Creates principled processes to align teamwork to the vision and mission

Sets high expectations and inspires others to achieve them

Identifies resource needs and limitations related to the tasks

Establishes action plan to employ resources in support of team productivity

Sets specific tasks/outcomes

Tracks the application of resources to the tasks

Designs a process to accomplish tasks

Set parameters for the task

Sets parameters for resources

Sets parameters for the process

Gives �expert� information

Provides reference information about organizational resources

Provides expert guidance through the process

Sets the timeline

Supports the timeline

Manages the timeline

Acts as a participant

Acts to support the participants

Acts as a guide


Graphic of people discussing


Notes and Reflections

� What strengths do you have to play each critical team role?

� Does your organization differentiate these roles, or are they typically exercised by a single individual?

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Facilitator:

A person who helps a group free itself from internal obstacles so that it may more efficiently and effectively pursue its goals.


Facilitator is the most important role to emerge in the modern workplace. The workplace is changing as never before, and mastering the role of facilitator has helped leaders and managers respond successfully to these changes. Effective facilitators are able to help individuals, groups, and entire organizations get their work done in the face of such changes. Skilled facilitators help groups improve the quality and quantity of their work by getting members to work together more effectively.

Richard Weaver and John Farrell, Managers as Facilitators

Facilitation Acceleration

The facilitator�s role is implied by the priority of the vision and the importance of the ongoing mission. An effective facilitator will Graphic of men discovering a city far awayhelp an organization enhance productivity by focusing on three key areas. To make certain the mission is properly aligned to the vision, the facilitator must apply the vision to task clarification, team formation and process guidance. Through their role, the facilitator must respect and affirm the organization�s principles of purpose.

Notes and Reflections

� How and when do your meetings get bogged down?

� Who guides the work process for your team?


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Levels of Facilitator Intervention

Statement:

Strategy:

Level One

Observer

(unexpressed)

�I perceive an internal obstacle.�

Say and do nothing, but note the obstacle for possible future reference.

Level Two

Reporter

�The team has encountered an internal obstacle�

Identify the obstacle to the team informally, during the normal course of the work.

Level Three

Analyst

�The obstacle is diminishing the group�s capacity in this way.�

During a natural Process break, identify the limitations imposed by the obstacle. Return to the work at hand. (Do not discuss solutions; it is likely they will emerge without direction.)

Level Four

Catalyst

�To maintain optimal productivity, the team needs to free itself from the obstacle.�

Break the work process. Make resumption of the work conditional on overcoming the internal obstacle. Leave the area while the team strategizes solutions. If possible, provide the team leader a process report.

Level Five

Teacher

�As permitted, I will help the group discover how to overcome the obstacle�

Identify the obstacle. Express that the team strategy has not overcome the obstacle. Introduce new group norms or processes to overcome the obstacle.

Affects of Interventions

The levels are increasingly intrusive to the work of the team. By the time a facilitator considers levels 4 or 5, there is a possibility the work will stop.


Notes and Reflections

� How can you intervene when your team needs to self-facilitate?

� What kinds of obstacles do your teams encounter?

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Implementation: Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)

As working teams are formed and the specifics of the innovation are addressed, a perceptive change leader will observe a range of responses from individual members of the organization. Though the collective organization has expressed a commitment through strategic planning and visioning, individuals will not have a uniform reaction to the organizational initiative. This is why the implementation phase of RPLIM must include a focus on individual attitudes and behaviors. In our project, we used the Concerns-Based Adoption Model (CBAM)[1] to describe and manage the concerns of individuals.

Used as a lens, CBAM provides a wide view of individual concerns and behaviors that is analogous to the large view of organizational concerns provided by RPLIM. The logical progression through the levels of use sequence echoes the organizational phases described through RPLIM. It is wise to introduce these two models as complementary, rather than redundant.



[1] From Taking Charge of Change by Shirley M. Hord, William L. Rutherford, Leslie Huling-Austin, and Gene E. Hall,


Assumptions of CBAM

� Change is a PROCESS, not an event.

� Change is made by INDIVIDUALS first, then organizations.

� Change is a highly PERSONAL experience.

� Change entails DEVELOPMENTAL growth in feelings and skills.

Notes and Reflections

� When you first hear about a new idea, what is your reaction?

� What other responses are common in your organization?

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CBAM STAGES OF CONCERN

Stage of Concern

Expression of Concern

0. Awareness

I am not concerned about it.

1. Informational

I would like to know more about it.

2. Personal

How will using it affect me?

3. Management

I seem to be spending all my time getting materials ready.

4. Consequence

How is my use affecting learners? How can I refine it to have more impact?

5. Collaboration

How can I relate what I am doing to what others are doing?

6. Refocusing

I have some ideas about something that would work even better.

CBAM LEVELS OF USE

Level of Use

Behavioral Indicators of Level

0. Non-Use

The user has no interest, is taking no action.

1. Orientation

The user is taking the initiative to learn more about the innovation.

2. Preparation

The user has definite plans to begin using the innovation

3. Mechanical

The user is making changes to better organize use of the innovation.

4A. Routine

The user is making few or no changes and has an established pattern of use.

4B. Refinement

The user is making changes to increase outcomes

5. Integration

The user is making deliberate efforts to coordinate with others in using the innovation.

6. Renewal

The user is seeking more effective alternatives to the established use of the innovation.


Notes and Reflections

� During change, what concerns are being voiced as by individuals in your organization?

� What behaviors can you observe around the organization?

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During the initial phases of actual implementation, it is common for the individuals and the organization to experience a drop in performance. This is a normal part of the transition between systems.

STRATEGIES TO NAVIGATE THE IMPLEMENTATION DIP

Targeting Organizational Support

� Overtly dedicating organizational resources

� Establishing universal principles

� Developing policies to support innovation

Prepare for implementation

� Building trust and confidence

� Learning about the innovation

� Practicing implementation skills

Engage in Professional Practice

� Promote innovation in front-line settings

� Assisting individuals as they solve problems

� Provide personalized technical assistance

� Reinforce individual change

Monitor

� Gather information from observation, dialogue and work products

� Analyze for evidence of the level of use

� Assess the impact of innovation on the final outcome

Evaluate and Adjust

� Draw conclusions about the benefits of the innovation

� Identify strengths and limitations of both preparation and practice

� Adjust preparation accordingly

� Report to all constituents the success of the innovation and plans for further refinement

Notes and Reflections

� What are the greatest needs when your school implements change?

� Which of these strategies are most likely to bring success?

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Maintaining Momentum: Pulling it All Together

Time is obviously an issue that affects this organizational process. The best option is to build the time for in-service, training and planning into the schedule. Prioritize in-service time to develop the Interdisciplinary and Thematic Approach. Schools selected for the pilot study applied this approach with a combination of teacher release-time and block scheduling. Several of the schools had weekly and monthly times during which students were dismissed either early in the day or came to school at a later hour so that teachers could prepare their units of study together as a team. Other schools used block scheduling to give a core team of teachers opportunities to plan together while their students attended classes such as music, art, physical education, or computers. It is necessary to remember that if you want a positive response, you must be willing to invest professional in-service and extra time.

Another issue that can affect the organizational process is communication. It is necessary that this communication be open and available to all people involved � board members, administration, teachers, students, parents and others in the learning community. Language must be easily understood by all individuals involved.

Once teams begin planning, the issue of marketing becomes essential. Marketing strategies may include public service announcements at PTA meetings, university for parents, display ads in the newspaper and teasers around the campus. The curiosity of sixth grade students at the American School of Guatemala peaked when teachers posted teasers on lockers with statements such as �They�re coming�are you ready yet? � In preparation for an interdisciplinary assessment. Strategies like this immediately capture the curiosity, attention and interest of all members of the learning community and, as a result, enhance the overall experience of an interdisciplinary thematic unit



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