printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Chapter 11: Professional Development - Conclusion and Resources



Professional development is a remarkably accurate barometer of a school's educational health. It also has a profoundly positive effect upon the amorphous beast we call "staff morale". It is hard to imagine a teaching staff which is passionate about its own learning but is disinterested in the learning of its students.

Effectively including diverse learners in the regular classroom unquestionably poses a demanding challenge. But the nature of this challenge makes it relatively impervious to the traditional teacher training session that follows the transmittal model. Instead, inclusive teaching practice is directly supported by school cultures that encourage reflection, where teachers are provided occasions for critical contemplation of their beliefs about content, their observations on instructional practice and their thoughts about learning itself. Inclusive teaching flourishes when professional development is embedded in the daily collaborative interaction of colleagues, when there are continuous and meaningful conversations about learning and teaching; and when the responsibility and leadership for adult learning come from the individuals most concerned - the teachers themselves.


Barth, R.(1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc.

Brooks, J.G. and Brooks, M.G. (1993). The case for constructivist classrooms,. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Caldwell, B.J. (1999). "Education for the Public Good: Strategic Intentions for the 21st Century, in Preparing Our Schools for the 21st Century, ASCD Yearbook 1999, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Costa, A.L., and Garmston, R.J. (1994). Cognitive coaching: A foundation for Renaissance Schools, Norwood MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers.

Covey, S. (1989). The seven habits of highly effective people. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Calhoun, E.F., and C.D. Glickman (1993) "Issues and Dilemmas of Action Research in the League of Professional Schools." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta.

Eisner, E.W., (1998). The kind of schools we need: Personal Essays. Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Heineman.

Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: The Falmer Press.

Fullan, M. (1999). Change forces: The sequel. London: The Falmer Press.

Hill P.W., & Crevola, C.A. (1999). "The Role of Standards in Educational Reform for the 21st Century", in Preparing our schools for the 21st century: ASCD yearbook 1999. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Joyce,B., Wolf, J., and Calhoun, E. (1993). The self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lambert, L. (1998). Building leadership capacity in schools. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Lieberman, A. (1995). "Practices That Support Teacher Development," Phi Delta Kappan 76, 8:591-596.

Little, J.W. (1981) School success and staff development in urban desegregated schools: A summary of recently completed research. Boulder, CO: Center for Action Research, April.

Postman, N., (1996). The end of education: Redefining the value of school. New York, Vintage Press.

Sparks, D. & Hirsh, S. (1997). A new vision for staff development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Back to Top

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.