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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Political Violence Against Americans: 1999


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Released by the Bureau of Diplomatic Security
December 2000

Report cover, Political Violence Against Americans: 1999

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INTRODUCTION

Political Violence Against Americans, formerly Significant Incidents of Political Violence Against Americans, is produced by the Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Office of Intelligence and Threat Analysis (DS/DSS/ITA) to provide readers with a comprehensive picture of the broad spectrum of political violence that American citizens and interests have encountered abroad on an annual basis.

This publication encompasses anti-U.S. incidents; however, some incidents have been omitted due to the sensitive information associated with them.

Incidents for this study were based upon lethality, substantial damage to property, use of unusual tactics or weapons, and perceptibility of targets as U.S. or representative of U.S. interests.

Special Report

The "year of anti-U.S. demonstrations" may best describe 1999. During 1999, there were 921 demonstrations directed against U.S. interests worldwide. Approximately 97 percent of the demonstrations were directed against the U.S. Government or diplomatic facilities. Forty-four of the demonstrations were violent. Anti-U.S. demonstrations were held in response to various world events were the U.S. Government's involvement was perceived to be pivotal. These events include the NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia (Operation Allied Force), the rendition of Kurdistan Worker's Party founder and leader Abdullah Ocalan, the East Timor referendum vote for independence, and the U.S. Supreme Court's upheld conviction of Mumia Abu-Jamal sentence for the murder of a Philadelphia police officer.

No Double Standard

The policy of the U.S. Government is that no double standard will exist regarding the dissemination of threat information that may affect U.S. citizens. U.S. Government employees may not benefit from possession of information that may apply equally to the American public, but is not available to them. The U.S. Government maintains information on threats to Americans overseas--from terrorism, crime, or health hazards--and makes this information available to all those affected.

STATISTICAL OVERVIEW


Statistical Overview of Anti-U.S. Incidents by Region

AMERICANS KILLED IN TERRORIST/POLITICALLY MOTIVATED VIOLENCE

WESTERN HEMISPHERE

Three U.S. citizens were kidnaped near the Colombia-Venezuela border and later murdered by guerrillas belonging to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

A U.N. plane was shot down by anti-aircraft fire in Huambo, Angola. All on board were killed. One American was among the nine passengers killed. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) is suspected, although UNITA officials deny shooting down the plane.

An American journalist from the Associated Press (AP) was shot and killed during a firefight in Freetown, Sierra Leone, between rebels and troops from the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG).

Rwanda Hutu rebels overran the Bwindi Impenetrable Game Reserve Camp in southwest Uganda and took 14 foreign tourists hostage. On the trek back to the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC) the rebels killed eight of the tourists. Two of the victims were Americans.

AMERICANS INJURED IN TERRORIST/POLITICALLY MOTIVATED VIOLENCE

EUROPE

Four U.S. contract employees of the Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission (KDOM) were assaulted by a group of Serbs outside a restaurant in Pristina, Serbia-Montenegro. Two of the four Americans were slightly injured in the attack.

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Ikweri youth stormed the Willbros compound in Choba, Nigeria. During the occupation of the compound, four Americans were injured.

Rock-throwing youths attacked the car of an American Embassy member during a protest march sponsored by the Government of Chad to condemn the reported pullout of Shell and ELF from the pipeline consortium. The American was slightly injured during the incident. In another incident, two U.S. Embassy guards were injured when the home of a U.S. Embassy officer was attacked by demonstrators throwing rocks.

A bomb exploded at a restaurant in Kampala, Uganda, killing seven people, and wounding 35, including one American. The American was on temporary duty in Kampala as a contractor with USAID. Rebels from the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) are suspected.

EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

A U.S. citizen working for the United Nations was shot and wounded by an Indonesian soldier when the soldier mistook the American to be an Australian.

Western Hemisphere

Chart showing Western Hemispheric areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack

*January -­ December 1999

The seven kidnaping incidents resulted in 14 kidnap victims. Three of the victims were killed by their captors and another is still being held captive.

** April 12, 1999 • Bucaramanga, Colombia
National Liberation Army (ELN) rebels skyjacked Avianca Airlines Flight 9463. A U.S. citizen was among the 46 passengers. Hostages were released sporadically throughout the year, including the American who was released by his ELN captors on October 2, 1999.

January 1­-December 31, 1999 • Colombia

Over the course of 1999, Colombian Marxist guerrillas belonging to the National Liberation Army (ELN) and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) carried out 79 attacks against the Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline, bringing the total number of attacks to 660 since 1986. Many of these attacks caused breaks in the pipeline structure, resulting in serious oil spills and the halting of production. Since 1986, these attacks have spilled the approximate equivalent of ten Exxon Valdez disasters into the greater Amazon basin. Repair costs over the past 13 years have been estimated at $238 million dollars and the value of lost output is put at more than $1.5 billion. The 772-kilometer Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline is a multinational venture between Ecopetrol of Colombia, U.S. Occidental Petroleum and other foreign oil firms. Guerrilla forces are vehemently opposed to multinational involvement in Colombia's oil industry, charging that foreign interests are violating the country's sovereignty and exploiting its natural resources.

February 25, 1999 • Arauca Department, Colombia

Three U.S. citizens were kidnaped near the Colombia-Venezuela border and later murdered by guerrillas belonging to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). The Americans, of the Pacific Cultural Conservation group, were abducted by guerrillas on a road between the towns of Cubara and Saravena in the department of Arauca. The victims were associated with nongovernment organizations working with the indigenous U'wa tribe in Colombia. On March 4, 1999, the three Americans were found murdered execution-style in a remote area of southeastern Venezuela, near the Arauca River.

March 7, 1999 • Cali, Colombia

Four bombs exploded in Cali, including two dynamite charges at Mormon churches located in the eastern part of the city. Police authorities blamed the drug traffickers group known as the "Extraditables" for the violence, which resulted in eleven deaths. No U.S. citizens were reported injured or killed.

March 23, 1999 • Boyaca, Colombia

ELN guerrillas kidnaped a U.S. citizen who was visiting relatives in the Boyaca Province. The American was released unharmed by his ELN captors on July 20, 1999, following the payment of a ransom.

March 24, 1999 • La Paz, Bolivia

At 8:45 p.m., a bomb exploded approximately 300 meters from the Radisson Hotel, where Bolivian President Hugo Banzer was attending a reception. At approximately 9 p.m., police defused a second explosive device found inside the hotel. A previously unknown group called the Commando Carlos Bairon claimed responsibility. No injuries were reported.

March 24­-25, 1999 • Toronto, Canada

Demonstrations in front of the U.S. Consulate General by crowds of about 1,500­-2,000 Serbian sympathizers protesting NATO actions in Kosovo erupted into major violence on two consecutive evenings. On March 24, 1999, small crowd of peaceful demonstrators had been in front of the consulate all afternoon. After dark, the number of protesters increased rapidly and the group became violent. Intermixed with children carrying candles and their parents, an element of younger demonstrators bombarded the consulate with rocks, eggs, and burning flares--breaking nearly every window on the front of the building and covering much of the working spaces inside with glass, rotten eggs, and debris. Some of the burning flares landed on the roof, but no fires resulted. Off-guard police arrested eight demonstrators, but were not present in sufficient numbers to prevent the building from being pelted with eggs at close range and windows from being broken by fist-sized rocks.

The demonstration continued until about 11:00 p.m. when it was dispersed by police reinforcements. The pattern was repeated on March 25, 1999, with another day-long peaceful protest evolving into violence. At approximately 10 p.m., part of the crowd of over 2,000 began tossing paint and eggs at the consulate. Shortly thereafter, numerous protesters surged past police and tossed two Molotov cocktails. One burned against the facade of the consulate and the other went through a broken window causing limited fire damage to a consulate office. The crowd then dispersed, although several hundred continued throwing garbage and knocking over newspaper vending machines on nearby streets.

March 26, 1999 • Belem, Brazil

At approximately 5:30 p.m., over 400 demonstrators marched in front of a U.S. Government-owned building that housed the U.S. Consular Agency and a binational center to protest unemployment and land reform. After about 30 minutes, between 20-­30 demonstrators scaled the wall surrounding the consular agency and broke two windows, smashed a light fixture, and vandalized the garden. The protesters also hoisted a Cuban flag up the flagpole before dispersing at approximately 6 p.m. No injuries were reported.

April 12, 1999 • Bucaramanga, Colombia

ELN rebels skyjacked Avianca Airlines Flight 9463, carrying one U.S. citizen, an Italian missionary, an Ecuadorian nun, one Venezuelan citizen, and 42 Colombian nationals. The airplane was hijacked shortly after takeoff by several ELN guerrillas dressed in business suits. The plane was forced to land at a clandestine airstrip, where armed ELN rebels were waiting to ferry away the passengers. Hostages were released sporadically throughout the year, including the American who was let go by his ELN captors on October 2, 1999.

April 16, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

At approximately 3:30 a.m., a small bomb packed with pamphlets stating "Assassin NATO out of Yugoslavia" exploded outside a branch of the Bank of Boston in downtown Buenos Aires, in the vicinity of the building that houses the American Club. No injuries were reported and damage was limited to the front entrance area and some broken windows in an office building across the street. A group called the "Anti-Imperialist Commando" claimed responsibility.

April 26, 1999 • Bogota, Colombia

An improvised explosive device detonated in front of the Colombian-American Institute, a language school at the U.S. Binational Center in Bogota, causing minor property damage and no injuries. Anti-American slogans such as "Fuera Gringos" (Gringos Out) were scrawled on the U.S. Binational Center as well. No group claimed responsibility for the attack.

May 13, 1999 • Yopal, Colombia

A U.S. citizen employed as a helicopter mechanic was kidnaped by four heavily armed gunmen in Yopal, approximately 150 miles northeast of Bogota. The victim was abducted at approximately 8:30 p.m., shortly after catching a taxi outside a Yopal hotel. The American was released August 5, 2000.

May 30, 1999 • Cali, Colombia

Approximately 45 heavily armed ELN guerrillas attacked a Roman Catholic church in the Cali suburb of Ciudad Jardin and kidnaped over 180 persons, including six U.S. citizens. The guerrillas, dressed in army fatigues and posing as soldiers, ordered the worshippers to leave the building because of a bomb threat. The parishioners were then loaded onto trucks, ostensibly to be driven to safety. The rebels shot and killed a civilian bodyguard outside the church and at least three guerrillas died in shootouts as police and soldiers moved to track down the kidnapers. The ELN guerrillas released approximately 80 persons, including three U.S. citizens, later that day. The rebels continued to release hostages sporadically throughout the year. On June 15, 1999, ELN guerrillas released 33 hostages, including two U.S. citizens, and the last American was released on October 13, 1999.

June 6, 1999 • Cienaga el Torno, Colombia

ELN rebels kidnaped nine persons, including one U.S. citizen, in Cienaga el Torno (located 15 kilometers from Barranquilla). The American was released unharmed by the guerrillas on September 24, 1999, near Barranquilla.

June 29, 1999 • Antioquia Department, Colombia

Six members of the FARC kidnaped a U.S. citizen from his home in the Antioquia Department near Medellin. The guerrillas gained access to the American's residence by pretending to be Colombian army soldiers. The U.S. citizen was released unharmed by the FARC on July 26, 1999, in an area 80 miles west of Medellin.

August 31, 1999 • Anchicaya, Colombia

FARC rebels stormed the Pacific Energy Enterprise (EPSA) hydroelectric plant in Anchicaya, detaining 164 persons and four journalists. No one was injured in the attack and a number of hostages were released unharmed later that day. No ransom was demanded of the plant, which is jointly run by U.S., Colombian, and Venezuelan companies. Instead, the FARC insisted that the firms reduce their power rates by 30-­40 percent. Fifty-eight hostages were released on September 4, 1999, and the remainder were let go the following day on September 5, 1999.

September 10, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

A low-level explosive device detonated outside a McDonald's restaurant, causing minor property damage but no injuries. No group claimed responsibility for the bombing, but police officials suspect that remnants of the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front/Dissident Faction were behind the attack. This incident coincided with the anniversary of the 1973 military coup.

September 11, 1999 • Sucumbios Province, Ecuador

A U.S. citizen was among 12 Westerners kidnaped by approximately 25 heavily armed, uniformed rebels near a highway between Tarapoa and Lago Agrio. The other hostages included three Spanish nationals, one Belgian citizen, and seven Canadian nationals, who along with the American, were employed with a Canadian oil firm. The unidentified rebels also killed a solider in the process. One Spanish hostage was released on September 26, 1999, and the two other Spaniards and the Belgian were let go on October 9, 1999. The U.S. citizen and the seven Canadian nationals were released unharmed on December 19, 1999.

September 30, 1999 • Quito, Ecuador

At approximately 2 p.m., a propaganda bomb detonated in the parking lot of a McDonald's restaurant located two blocks away from the U.S. Embassy, causing no reported property damage or injuries. An organization calling itself the "People's Combatant Groups (GCP) claimed responsibility for the attack. Anti-U.S. leaflets dispersed by the bomb decried U.S. military use of the Ecuadorian base in Manta for counternarcotics operations.

November 23, 1999 • Guayaquil, Ecuador

At approximately 8:10 a.m., members of GCP detonated an explosive device across the street from the U.S. Consulate General. The device appeared to have been black powder wrapped tightly in paper and detonated by a short fuse. U.S. Consulate guards reported that the bomb was tossed from a small pickup truck that was seen speeding through a red light at the intersection near the consulate. The package that contained the device also contained anti-American flyers protesting a recent agreement allowing the U.S. military to use the Manta airport for counternarcotics operations.

December 14, 1999 • Mexico City, Mexico

At approximately 4 p.m., a demonstration by 400 striking students from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in front of the U.S. Embassy erupted into violence. Students pelted the embassy with rocks, sticks, and paint, breaking nearly 20 windows. Once police reinforcements arrived, the police rapidly forced the demonstrators away from the embassy and broke up the protest. Three police officers and six students suffered minor injuries and 98 protesters were arrested.

December 19-­20, 1999 • Panama City, Panama

Vandalism and violence broke out on consecutive evenings during protests in front of the U.S. Embassy by demonstrators protesting against the tenth anniversary of Operation Just Cause, which ousted Manuel Noriega from power in Panama. On December 19, 1999, the U.S. Embassy was the target of a boisterous demonstration in which protesters left graffiti and paint-balloon damage on the chancery building facade and the perimeter fencing. The more serious incident occurred the next evening when over 500 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy at approximately 4:50 p.m. Once on the scene, the majority of the protesters demonstrated peacefully and followed a route that encircled the chancery. A handful of demonstrators opted for violence, however, and began pelting the embassy with rocks, glass paint bottles, and paint balloons. Security and motorpool personnel in the chancery compound became deliberate targets of opportunity for the rock throwers, as well as embassy windows and vehicles. The chancery facade was again covered in paint and an embassy security camera was damaged. The protest ended at approximately 5:15 p.m. and no injuries or arrests were reported.

December 24, 1999 • Cali, Colombia

Bombs were detonated in front of the Colombo-American Binational Center and a McDonald's restaurant. The explosion at the Binational Center caused extensive damage to the facility and reportedly five injuries. A group calling itself the Colombian Patriotic Resistance (CPR) claimed responsibility for the attacks via a pamphlet that decried the extradition of Colombians to the United States, "Yankee" intervention in Colombia, and the hand over of Colombian sovereignty to the "Gringos." Police officials suspect that the real culprits of the bombings may be elements of the ELN.

Europe

Chart showing European areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack

January 3, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 6 p.m., an improvised explosive device (IED) detonated outside the front door of the New York College. The college is privately owned by Greek citizens but is affiliated with and recognized by the State University of New York (SUNY). The college also facilitates a graduate degree program taught by the University of Louisville, Kentucky. The school was closed for the holidays and no one was hurt, but there was moderate damage to the building. An anonymous caller to Sky television station stated that the Anti-Sovereign Struggle claimed responsibility for the attack. The group was protesting the Greek Government's plans to restructure the national education system.

January 26, 1999 • Pristina, Serbia-Montenegro

At approximately 11:15 p.m., four U.S. contract employees of the Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission (KDOM) were assaulted by a group of ethnic Serbs in front of a restaurant in Pristina, capital of Kosovo province. The assault was triggered when one of the Serbs claimed that an Operation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) vehicle, painted the same color as U.S. KDOM vehicles, had damaged his vehicle. The KDOM personnel did not recall the vehicle being parked when they arrived in front of the restaurant. An argument ensued, and escalated when the Americans were assaulted with a baseball bat and a 9mm handgun. Two of the four Americans were slightly injured in the attack. While it is not known if the damage to the Serb's vehicle was real or contrived, the dispute quickly got out of hand because of the strained relations between ethnic Serbs and the KDOM mission.

January 30, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 6 p.m., an improvised explosive device (IED) exploded outside the entrance of the New York College. No one was hurt, but the explosion caused significant damage. The IED consisted of five small gas canisters and a plastic container filled with inflammable liquid. Following the attack, an anonymous male telephoned the Sky radio and television station and claimed the attack on behalf of the Anti-Sovereignty Struggle. The caller further stated that the attack was carried out to protest the Greek Government's plan to restructure the national education system.

(Editor's note: What may have prompted the attack on the school was the school's display of the American flag outside and above the exterior doors. Although the school is Greek owned, it is affiliated with the State University of New York (SUNY) campuses at New Paltz and the Empire State College in Saratoga Springs. Additionally, the school offers programs sponsored by the University of Louisville, Kentucky.)

February 17, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

A demonstration by Kurds from downtown Oslo to the Turkish Embassy passed by the U.S. Embassy. Some 150 protestors bearing signs and banners shouted in front of the U.S. Embassy for 30 minutes. Demonstrators threw rocks at the embassy and broke two windows. The group eventually went to the Turkish Embassy. However, on their return from the Turkish Embassy, a smaller group--about 60 people--again stopped at the U.S. Embassy. This group was more violent than the first. They threw rocks at the U.S. Embassy and broke two more windows and clashed with an augmented police presence at the embassy. After 30 minutes, they moved towards downtown Oslo.

February 18, 1999 • Athens, Greece

During a major demonstration, sponsored by the General Confederation of Greek Laborers (GSEE) and various political youth parties, to show solidarity with Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leader Abdullah Ocalan and the Kurdish people, a group of demonstrators (approximately 200) gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy and burned three or four U.S. and Israeli flags. They departed after 15 minutes. A short time later, a second group of demonstrators approached the U.S. Embassy and threw various objects (rocks, eggs, bottles) at the embassy. No one was hurt, but four windows on the ground floor of the U.S. Consulate were broken.

February 22, 1999 • Librazhid, Albania

A bomb (placed in the chimney) exploded at a Bible Center run by American missionaries. The explosion caused minor damage, but no one was hurt.

February 25, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Some 3,000 pro-Kurdish demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy, presented a proclamation, and hurled assorted objects at the embassy. Seven windows and a door glazing of the front entrance were broken. The protestors also burned part of an American flag and desecrated the remaining fragments. The crowd dispersed after 40 minutes.

March 14, 1999 • Istanbul, Turkey

An employee at a Burger King restaurant found a bomb in the restaurant. Police safely defused the device. No one claimed responsibility.

March 22, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 12:20 a.m., an explosion occurred at a branch bank of Citibank in the Athens suburb of Kallithea. No one was hurt, but the office suffered moderate damage. Another bomb was found at a second Citibank office in Paleo Faliro. The second bomb malfunctioned and failed to detonate. No group claimed credit for the attacks, but approximately 1 hour before the bombing, an anonymous caller to a local newspaper Eleftherotypia and STAR television station called to warn of two impending explosions at Citibank offices in Kallithea and Paleo Faliro.

March 22, 1999 • Piraeus, Greece

Police discovered and deactivated a bomb outside a Citibank branch office. A telephone caller to the local media warned of the bomb.

March 24, 1999 • Istanbul, Turkey

At approximately 1 p.m., a bomb exploded in the bathroom of a McDonald's restaurant in the Beyazit area of the city. There was no claim of responsibility, and no one was hurt in the blast.

March 25, 1999 • Bologna, Italy

At approximately 3 a.m., rocks and bottles containing flammable liquid were thrown at John Hopkins University. Some windows were broken and the flammable liquid seeped underneath the front doors, igniting and starting a small fire inside the entrance which was quickly extinguished. Of the 150 students attending the Johns Hopkins Bologna branch, about one-third are American. The school, like other university branches in this region, was closed for spring break.

March 25, 1999 •Skopje, Macedonia

Approximately 1,000 demonstrators were protesting outside the U.S. Embassy. Some of the demonstrators were able to breach the outer perimeter of the U.S. Embassy. They destroyed the perimeter fence and all the vehicles on the U.S. Embassy compound were damaged. The police responded and ejected the demonstrators from embassy property. No U.S. diplomatic personnel were hurt in the incident.

March 25, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 500-­600 demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO airstrikes in Yugoslavia. The group consisted of Serbs, Russian nationalists, and Skin heads. Bottles, eggs, and other objects were thrown at the U.S. Embassy. Several visa applicants were injured.

March 25, 1999 • Banju Luka, Republika Srpska

The U.S. Embassy branch office was stoned by approximately 100 demonstrators. One of the U.S. Embassy branch office local guards was badly beaten by the demonstrators and many of the branch office windows were broken and official vehicles damaged.

March 26, 1999 • Pristina, Serbia

Serbian demonstrators burned down the U.S. Information Service (USIS) American Center.

March 27, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

A group of approximately 100-­130 people staged a demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group threw eggs and rocks at the embassy, breaking two windows. The demonstrators then went to the German Embassy, before coming back the U.S. Embassy where they held a brief protest before departing.

March 27, 1999 • Copenhagen, Denmark

Approximately 1,000 people staged a violent demonstration on the thoroughfare outside the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators threw eggs, road flares, rocks, and one Molotov cocktail at the embassy. Over 40 windows were broken. The demonstration lasted 2 hours.

March 27, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was hurt in the attack.

March 28, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Police detonated a bomb that had been placed next to the automated teller machine (ATM) of a branch office of Citibank. The police received a telephone call warning them that an explosion would occur at the bank in 1 hour. No one claimed responsibility for the incident.

March 28, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

At approximately 1:30 p.m., a white Opel Fortuna sport utility vehicle (SUV) containing two terrorists stopped in the center of Novinskiy Bulvar, the street in front of the building temporarily serving as the U.S. Embassy. The SUV was used by the police to patrol the area around the embassy and at first did not draw suspicion from the militia protecting the embassy. A man dressed in green army fatigues exited the rear of the SUV with a RPG rocket launcher on his shoulder and pointed it at the embassy. Several dozen Russian militia personnel who were guarding the embassy against continuous demonstrations noticed the man and started moving towards the vehicle. The terrorist dropped the RPG and got another one from the back seat of the SUV and again pointed it at the embassy. Neither RPG fired. The terrorists also fired 11 rounds from automatic weapons at the embassy before fleeing the scene. The terrorists escaped and the SUV was later found abandoned three-quarters of a mile away. Eyewitnesses said that two men in military fatigues exited the vehicle. The two RPGs and two automatic weapons used by the gunmen were recovered by the police. The SUV used by the terrorists was reportedly carjacked with the militiaman shortly before the attack. The two terrorists forced the militiaman to drive them to the embassy. After the attack, the terrorists forced the militiaman to drive away. The militiaman was released unharmed a shot time later. The two terrorists continued driving a short distance further before abandoning the SUV.

March 29, 1999 • Paris, France

In the early morning hours protesters broke the windows of the United Airlines office. The incident occurred during Operation Allied Force.

March 31, 1999 • Kumanova, Macedonia

At approximately 2:30 p.m., three U.S. soldiers who are part of the U.S. First Infantry Division came under fire while patrolling the border with Serbia. They were captured by Serb forces. According to a Pentagon spokesman, the three U.S. servicemen came under fire and split off in their Humvee from the rest of the patrol along the road near Kumanova. They reported over their radio that they were surrounded. The three U.S. servicemen were released unharmed on May 2, 1999.

April 1, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 6:20 p.m. a woman placed a bag containing 16 small butane or propane canisters against the main entrance of the U.S. Consulate General, lit it, and ran away. The consulate guards monitoring the entrance notified another guard who was outside the building at the time. The guard was able to apprehend the woman as she was running away. He handed her over to the police who were guarding the consulate. The guard then grabbed the bag and threw it away from the consulate entrance. Moments later, four of the canisters exploded. No one was hurt nor was the building damaged.

The woman, later identified as Kalianthi Aggelioglou, was found guilty on February 8, 2001, of illegally obtaining and possessing explosive material. She was cleared of more serious charges, including causing an explosion. Aggelioglou received a 5-month suspended sentence.

April 2, 1999 • Naples, Italy

At 12:30 p.m. a group of masked individuals entered a McDonald's restaurant and broke windows, threw paint, and harassed customers and employees. The demonstrators returned at 11 p.m. that evening and again threw paint and harassed customers.

April 3, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Unidentified individuals firebombed a vehicle belonging to a civilian employee of the U.S. Air Force. The car bore Allied Forces Italy license plates. No one was hurt, but the car was destroyed. On April 9, 1999, the Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei (NTA) in a letter to a local newspaper claimed responsibility for the attack as a protest to NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia.

April 3, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

A Molotov cocktail was placed under the car of a U.S. service man. No one was hurt, but the car was destroyed. It is believed that the attack was in response to NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia.

April 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 3 a.m., a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was injured and there was minor damage. No one claimed responsibility for the attack. The attack took place after 7,000 demonstrators protested NATO's military action on Yugoslavia.

April 6-­7, 1999 • Frankfurt, Germany

During the evening hours, an employee of the State of California's Office of Trade and Investment parked her car at a gas station near the U.S. Consulate. (The gas station was the scene of nightly vigils protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.) On the morning of April 7, the passenger side window of the car was smashed out. Copies of a local Serbian newspaper Novosti was found in the front seat of the car. The victim stated that she had a decal of her U.S. university on the rear window of the car. No other vehicles in the area were damaged.

April 6, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was hurt in the attack. The attack was to protest NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia.

April 12, 1999 • Cordenons, Italy

At approximately 12 a.m., a vehicle belonging to a U.S. serviceman was set on fire. A leaflet from the Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei was found near the vehicle. The car was parked near the victim's residence at the time of the attack. No one was hurt, but the vehicle was severely damaged.

April 13, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

Sometime during the evening hours, after the U.S. Secretary of State's visit to Oslo ended, a large rock was thrown over the second floor portico of the U.S. Embassy. A window in the USIS section was shattered, but no one was hurt.

April 15, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at a General Motors-Detroit Motors car dealership in the Athens suburb of Filothei. One IED consisted of five small gas (propane) canisters placed under a parked vehicle on the property of the dealership. The second IED consisted of 14 small gas (propane) canisters placed between two parked cars on the property of the dealership. The building was also spray painted with the slogan: "The bombings in Kosovo are a polite offer of the favorite company Detroit Motors." No one was hurt in the blasts, but there was significant material damage. On April 17, 1999, a group called Enraged Anarchists claimed responsibility in a call to a local newspaper. The dealership was the site of a similar bombing in February 1998.

April 20, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw rocks and firebombs at three Blockbuster Video stores causing minor damage, but no injuries. No one claimed responsibility.

April 21, 1999 • Milan, Italy

During the evening hours, four Blockbuster Video stores were damaged by stones and had anti-NATO graffiti spray painted on them. Some of the slogans stated, "NATO killers," "Out of NATO, Out of War," and "Blockbastards." No one has claimed responsibility for the attacks.

April 23, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Arsonists protesting NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant causing damage, but no injuries.

April 24, 1999 • Yekaterinburg, Russia

A bomb exploded in a parking lot adjacent to the U.S. and British Consulates General, and a Russia militia office, causing no injuries and minor damage. Local militia personnel moved one of their vehicles after discovering a bag emitting a ticking sound from under it. The explosion destroyed the vehicle. No one claimed responsibility. The incident may have been criminal, but since it occurred during Operation Allied Force, it could have been a protest against NATO airstrikes on Yugoslavia.

April 26, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 6:40 p.m., an unidentified male called two local newspapers to warn of an explosive device placed at the building housing the Fullbright Foundation in Thessaloniki. The caller claimed to represent a previously unknown group called Regas Feraios. When police Explosive Ordance Device (EOD) personnel arrived, they found the explosive device, which had been placed in a cylindrical cardboard box used for the sale of bottled whisky, outside the third floor Fullbright office. As the police went back downstairs to get their disposal equipment, the building janitor saw the device and decided that he wanted the cardboard cylinder. He opened it, dumped its contents into the black garbage bag he was carrying, and headed down the stairs. The police were surprised to see the janitor emerge from the building carrying the bomb. He told the police not to worry since the cardboard container was empty. When asked, he told the police that the contents were in the garbage bag he was carrying. Police carefully relieved the janitor of his burden.

(Editor's note: Regas Feraios or Velestinlis was a 18th century activist who worked for the liberation of all the Balkans from under the occupation of the Ottoman Turks. His activities worried the Austrian Empire. Feraios and seven others were arrested by the Austrian police and handed over to the Ottoman governor of Belgrade to be executed.)

April 27, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Shortly before midnight, a bomb exploded outside the Inter-Continental Hotel. The explosion brought down a fa�ade of the hotel and hurled broken glass that killed one person and injured another. Both were Greek citizens attending a conference at the hotel. Approximately 20 minutes prior to the blast, an unidentified caller placed separate calls to Sky television network, the Greek daily Eleftherotypia, and the Flash radio station warning that a bomb had been planted. Although police had notified the hotel, hotel management decided not to evacuate the area prior to detonation. The cafeteria and ground floor lobby were full of people. Police rushed to the scene but had located the bomb by the time it detonated. Following the attack, the Greek terrorist group Revolutionary Nuclei sent a five-page communique to the Athens daily Athinaiki, which published it on April 28. In summary, the communique complains about Western policy in Kosovo and Ocalan. The communique attacks the United States, NATO, the "New World Order," and other alleged imperialist centers. It attacks the Simitis Government's association with NATO, and speaks approvingly of sabotage in Greece and elsewhere against NATO. It attacks the U.S. ambassador to Greece, R. Nicholas Burns; the Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC); the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); and other U.S. institutions.

(Editor's note: Abdullah Ocalan, leader and founder of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK),was captured by the Turkish Government in Nairobi, Kenya, on February 15, 1999, while en route to the airport after leaving the Greek Embassy.

May 5, 1999 • Rome, Italy

In the early morning hours, a Molotov cocktail was thrown into a McDonald's restaurant. No one was injured and damage was minimal. The Armed Revolutionary Nuclei claimed responsibility.

May 5, 1999 • Vincenza, Italy

Two vehicles belonging to U.S. servicemen were set on fire outside the Vincenza Air Base.

May 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 11:30 p.m., terrorists fired three 2.36-inch rockets at three unoccupied banks located on the same street in the Athens port suburb of Piraeus. There were no injuries and moderate-to-light damage to the banks' buildings. The first rocket was fired at a building with "representative offices" of U.S.-affiliated Chase Manhattan Bank. (The building also houses the French-affiliated bank, Credit Lyonnais, and the Greek-shipping company, Chandris, which owns the Celebrity cruise lines.) The ground-floor main lobby of the building sustained significant material damage. The bank's offices are located on the building's second level and were not damaged. The second rocket was fired at British-affiliated Midland Bank located two blocks from Chase Manhattan Bank. In the second attack, the rocket did not explode but shattered the front glass panels of the bank, landing inside. Seconds after the second attack, a rocket was fired at the French-affiliated Banque National de Paris located in the same area. Again, the rocket did not explode but shattered front glass and landed inside the facility.

May 6, 1999 • Fiume Veneto, Italy

A privately owned car bearing Allied Forces Italy license plates was set on fire. The vehicle was parked in the driveway of a home occupied by two USAF members. The house is located approximately 15 minutes from Aviano Air Base.

May 9, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 10:30 a.m., two helmeted individuals on a motorcycle fired a number of rounds from a 9mm into the office of American Express and then drove off. At 11:50 a.m., a similar incident occurred at the Greek-owned Inter-American Insurance Company. Since it was the weekend, no one was hurt and damage was minimal. Following the attack, an unidentified caller to Sky television claimed responsibility for both attacks in the name of Red Line (Kokkini Grammi).

May 15, 1999 • Sint Niklaas, Belgium

The Animal Liberation Front (ALF) carried out an arson attack against a McDonald's restaurant. No one was hurt in the attack, and damage was minimal. The perpetrators painted the letters ALF in black letters on the outside of the building. (Sint Niklaas is located between Antwerp and Gent in northern Belgium.)

May 27, 1999 • Zurich, Switzerland

At approximately 9:10 a.m., an unidentified female approached the office of American Airlines, used a lighter to light something in a shopping bag, threw the bag into the office, and ran away. There was a lot of smoke but very little damage. The office was evacuated and no one was hurt. A partially burned note written in German was found in the bag. The note alluded to the war in the Balkans and a "war against imperialism." The perpetrators, who were not clearly identified by the note, claimed solidarity with the downtrodden of whatever nationality in resistance to imperialist war.

May 31, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 4:30 a.m., an improvised incendiary device (IID) exploded outside a McDonald's restaurant in Zografos, a suburb of Athens. The IID consisted of two small gas canisters and a plastic container with inflammable liquid. The explosion caused minor damage and no injuries. At 4:40 a.m., an unidentified caller to the Greek newspaper Elefterotypia stated "the attack was an act of solidarity towards all imprisoned."

June 4, 1999 • Istanbul, Turkey

At approximately 6:30 a.m., Turkish police stopped two men entering a building under construction located 100 meters south from the back of the U.S. Consulate General. A firefight ensued and the two men were killed. The two men were armed with two pistols and a light antitank weapoon (LAW) rocket. The men were members of the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party Front (DHKP/C (formerly Dev-Sol)) and it is believed that they planned to enter the construction site and fire the rocket at the U.S. Consulate. This is the third time that the group fired or attempted to fire a rocket at the U.S. Consulate. On April 6, 1992, and July 11, 1992, DHPK/C (then known as Dev-Sol) terrorists fired a rocket at the rear of the U.S Consulate at 9:15 p.m., and again at 9:40 p.m. Both attacks caused minor damage but no injuries. The group subsequently issued a Bulletin (No. 87), which stated in part, "On June 4, 1999, at around 6 a.m., we attempted an attack with a LAW weapon against the United States of America's Istanbul Consulate General in order to protest America's attack on Yugoslavia and to promote the brotherhood between our peoples and the Yugoslav peoples."

June 5, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

Approximately 500 demonstrators converged on Prague's Old Town Square. Fringe groups numbering several hundred peeled away from the main demonstration later in the day and attacked several sites around town, including McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants. The group, about 450 people, also stopped at the U.S. Embassy and hurled bottles and rocks at the embassy breaking 29 windows on the first two floors. The protestors chanted anti-NATO/anti-capitalism slogans. One demonstrator and nine policemen were injured--three seriously--in the demonstration at the embassy. The demonstrators were part of a larger demonstration called the Global Street Party, a loose association of anarchists and radical environmentalists against capitalism, war, social inequality, and globalization.

June 5, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Approximately 15,000 demonstrators representing various Italian political parties marched to Aviano Air Base carrying anti-NATO/anti-U.S. placards. Approximately 250­-300 of the demonstrators started throwing rocks and firecrackers at the airbase. The group also started to pull down the sniper screen from the perimeter fence, and set fire to the grass at the base of the fence line. The fire did not spread and was quickly extinguished by U.S. Air Force personnel. Two of the demonstrators were slightly injured and there was only minor damage to property.

July 7, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

At 12:21 a.m., two Molotov cocktails were thrown at the U.S. Embassy from the Kiev International School grounds by three masked men. One bottle hit a light pole and broke before reaching the building and the other hit a second floor rear window of the embassy. It caused a small fire on the window and was extinguished by the Marine security guard. No one was hurt in the incident and damage was minimal. There was no claim of responsibility.

August 12, 1999 • Antwerp, Belgium

A McDonald's restaurant located in the Merksel suburb of Antwerp was destroyed by fire. Animal rights protestors are believed to be responsible. No one was hurt in the incident.

August 12, 1999 • Millau, France

Farmers in this southern French town ransacked the building site of a new McDonald's restaurant to protest the imposition of U.S. duties on luxury European goods. The building was seriously damaged, but no one was hurt.

August 21, 1999 • Millau, France

Farmers dumped 6 tons of manure outside another McDonald's restaurant to protest U.S. tariffs of French luxury goods.

August 25, 1999 • Cavaillon, France

Farmers dumped 8 tons of rotten fruit outside a McDonald's restaurant, a tax office, and a shopping center. They also dumped 5 tons of fruit outside a Hypermarket. The farmers accused the supermarket of pushing down producer prices. They also are angry at U.S. tariffs imposed on luxury French foods after the European Union (EU) banned imports of hormone-treated American beef.

August 26, 1999 • Montpellier, France

Approximately 100 farmers demonstrated in front of a McDonald's restaurant. They were demanding the release from police custody of Jose Bove, who is accused of leading the August 12 demonstration in Millau and the vandalizing of the construction site of another McDonald's restaurant (see above). The demonstration was peaceful.

September 8-­9, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

At approximately 3:30 p.m., demonstrators gathered at the front of the U.S. Embassy for the fourth day in a row to urge American intervention in East Timor, Indonesia. An estimated 10,000 people gathered at the embassy and by 6 p.m., a human chain at the embassy extended approximately 6 miles to the other five embassies that are permanent members of the United Nations in Lisbon. At 1 a.m., on Thursday, September 9, 1999, a Timorese youth scaled the front fence of the embassy, and the crowd began chanting anti-American insults and pelted the local guards with stones, bottles, and sticks.

September 10-­11, 1999 • Foix, Ariege Department, France

Unidentified individuals attacked a McDonald's restaurant during the late evening to early morning hours. The windows of the restaurant were smashed and the words, "Stinking McDonald's" were written on the outside wall. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack.

October 4, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 4:15 a.m., unknown individuals broke the glass out of a McDonald's restaurant front door in the Athens suburb of Aghia Varvara and threw three Molotov cocktails inside the restaurant. There was extensive damage to the lobby, the front counter, and other equipment. No one was hurt in the attack. After the attack, an unknown male called both the Mega television station, and the Greek newspaper Eleftherotypia and stated that the group Filiki Eteria (The Society of Friends) claimed responsibility for the attack. According to the caller, the attack was to protest President Bill Clinton's upcoming visit to Greece.

(Editor's note: Filili Eteria was a resistance group active during the Ottoman occupation of Greece and was credited in part with sparking the struggle that ultimately won Greece's independence.)

November 2, 1999 • Vicenza, Italy

Unidentified individuals firebombed two cars belonging to U.S. servicemen. The vehicles bore Allied Forces Italy license plates. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.

November 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Police deactivated an explosive device outside a Nike retail shop. No group claimed responsibility.

November 7, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Unidentified individuals bombed a Levi Strauss retail shop causing minor damage, but no injuries. A telephone caller claimed responsibility for the attack on behalf of Anti-State Action.

November 18, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Unidentified individuals set fire to a van belonging to DHL courier service. The fire caused minor damage but no injuries. No one has claimed responsibility for the attack.

December 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

A firebomb exploded at a Nike retail store. There was extensive damage, but no one was hurt. A group called Friendly Society claimed responsibility for the explosion.

December 19, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 11:40 p.m., an improvised explosive device (IED) exploded outside the Texaco gasoline station located in the Athens suburb of Psychiko (approximately four blocks from the deputy chief of mission's residence). The IED was placed next to an off-street window (basement area) located at the rear of the building. There was material damage, but no one was hurt. Prior to the attack, at 11:15 p.m., an anonymous caller to the Greek newspaper Eleftherotypia warned of the bomb. Five minutes later, at 11:20 p.m., another telephone warning was made to the Flash radio station. Both callers claimed responsibility for the attack on behalf of the Revolutionary Nuclei.

Sub-Saharan Africa

Chart showing African areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack


*February 14, 1999 • Kampala, Uganda
An American is killed when a bomb explodes in a restaurant. The Allied Democratic Front (ADF) is suspected.

**January 10, 1999 • Freetown, Sierra Leone
A
n American journalist from Associated Press (AP) was killed during a firefight in the capital between rebels and ECOMOG troops.

***March 1, 1999 • Bwindi, southwest Uganda
Hutu rebels overrun the Bwindi Inpenetrable Game Reserve Camp and seize 30 Western hostages. The rebels took 14 hostages with them on the trek back to the border with the DROC. En route, the rebels kill eight of the tourists. Among the victims were two Americans.

****January 2, 1999 • Huambo, Angola
A U.N. plane was shot down by antiaircraft fire. All on board the aircraft were killed. Among the victims was a U.S. citizen. UNITA is suspected.

January 2, 1999 • Huambo, Angola

A U.N. plane was shot down by anti-aircraft fire after takeoff. A U.S. citizen, four Angolans, two Philippine nationals, one Namibian, and one Spanish World Food Program (WFP) volunteer were aboard the aircraft. No one survived the crash. The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) is suspected, but UNITA officials deny shooting down the plane.

January 8, 1999 • Cape Town, South Africa

At approximately 2 a.m., five males in a white pickup truck drove up to a Kentucky Fried Chicken store-front restaurant located in the Athlone section of the city, which is predominately Muslim. They chased away several pedestrians in the area and then threw three or four bricks through the plate glass windows of the store, followed by two to three Molotov cocktails. No one was injured in the attack, but the interior of the store was badly damaged.

January 10, 1999 • Cape Town, South Africa

Two unidentified individuals threw bricks and then Molotov cocktails through the window of a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant. The attack caused several thousand dollars in damage, but no one was hurt in the attack, and no one claimed responsibility.

January 10, 1999 • Freetown, Sierra Leone

An American journalist from the news organization Associated Press (AP) was killed and another AP journalist (a Canadian) was wounded during a firefight in the capital between rebels and the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group (ECOMOG), a Nigerian-led West-African intervention force. The American was identified as Myles Tierney and the wounded journalist as Ian Stewart.

January 27, 1999 • Jijiga, Ethiopia

An American who worked for a nongovernmental organization (NGO), the U.N. High Commission for Refugees (UNHYCR) World Food Program) in the Somalia region was hijacked and held hostage by Somali rebels. The American was in a restaurant with other NGO members. The group left the restaurant together, but as the victim got into his Toyota Land Cruiser--he had given his driver the night off--he was approached by two armed men who took his vehicle and held him hostage. They drove to Galcaio, Somalia, arriving the next day. The victim was sure that if he was not a Moslem, his captures would have killed him.

February 14, 1999 • Kampala, Uganda

At 9:45 p.m., a bomb exploded at the Telex Bar in the Kabalagala suburb of the capital. Five minutes later a second bomb exploded at the Afianex Restaurant/Family Shop. Seven people were killed and 35 were wounded, including an American temporary-duty contractor with USAID and two Swiss nationals. Rebels from the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) are suspected.

February 24, 1999 • Warri, Nigeria

An American citizen working for Bristow Helicopter was kidnaped by a group of unidentified armed men. The American was released unharmed on March 4, 1999, after a ransom was paid.

March 1, 1999 • Bwindi, southwest Uganda

At approximately 6:30 a.m., some 100 plus ethnic Rwandan Hutu rebels overran the Bwindi Impenetrable Game Reserve Camp and seized 30 Western tourists. The tourists were in Uganda to track rare mountain gorillas. The rebels attempted to ascertain the tourists' nationality. They appeared to be looking for English speakers. Before leaving the camp on their trek back towards the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), the rebels took 14 hostages with them--mainly Britons and Americans. Along the 15-kilometer trek back to the border with the DROC, the rebels killed eight of the tourists, and ultimately released the remaining six tourists with a message that warned the West to stop supporting the Rwandan Government. The foreign victims included two Americans, four Britons, and two New Zealanders. Those released included one citizen each from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and Switzerland. The rebels are believed to be members of the Interahamwe militia, which played an instrumental role in the 1994 genocide of over 500,000 people in Rwanda.

If you have information, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or consulate, or write:

Rewards For Justice
P.O. Box 96781
Washington, DC 20090-6781
USA
email:
mail@dssrewards.net
www.dssrewards.net
1-800-437-6371 (U.S.A. only)

March 9, 1999 • Warri Region, Nigeria

An American citizen working for Dickson Nigeria, Ltd., was kidnaped from his office by unidentified gunmen. He was released on March 9, 1999.

April 12, 1999 • Conakry, Guinea

At approximately 6:45 a.m., the U.S. Embassy's guard force discovered a package attached to the front of the pedestrian gate of the USIS Cultural Center. The U.S. Embassy's regional security officer (RSO) responded to the scene and found what appeared to be an improvised explosive device (IED) made of brown wrapping paper and tape, approximately 10 inches x 6 inches in dimensions. Two batteries and three loosely hanging wires with frayed ends could be seen. At 9 a.m. the bomb squad, led by a French military advisor, arrived on the scene. Before destroying the device, the French advisor examined the device and indicated that the device did not contain explosive material but would not rule out the possibility that the IED was capable of detonating. The French advisor discussed disarming the device rather that destroying it but was overruled by government officials who decided to destroy the device. At 11 a.m., the device was placed in a 5-gallon bucket filled with sand and taken to the beach where it was destroyed with explosives.

April 14, 1999 • Cuanza Sul, Angola

Six staff members of Save the Children, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), were killed in an attack on their vehicle as they traveled to attend a World Food Program meeting. The victims were in a marked Save the Children vehicle and included two employees of the U.S. branch of Save the Children and four representatives from other NGOs. No Americans were involved. The Save the Children vehicle was the lead car traveling 100 meters ahead of an informal convoy that included at least one private car, a passenger bus, and a commercial truck carrying produce. At around 8 a.m., approximately 25 kilometers west of Gabela, the other cars in the convoy saw the Save the Children vehicle swerve and go off the road. They immediately turned around and returned to the town of Gabela. It appears that the Save the Children vehicle was caught in an ambush of two other vehicles, an Angolan army (FAA) truck carrying 30-40 troops, and a private vehicle with four passengers traveling in the opposite direction. The FAA troops dismounted and may have fought back. In addition to the six NGO staff, the four passengers in the private car were all killed. It is not known how many FAA troops were killed in the initial ambush on the truck or in the fighting after the arrival of reinforcements. It is believed that rebels from the UNITA were responsible for the ambush.

April 15, 1999 • Port Harcourt, Nigeria

An American contracting as a employee with Chevron Oil was taken hostage along with a Nigerian contractor with Modant Marine.They were kidnaped by unidentified individuals from a small boat while in close proximity to the Robert Kiri facility, in the Port Harcourt region. The Nigerian contractor was released unharmed on April 17, at a Shell flow station in the area of Nembe, Bayelsa State. He reached Chevron's Port Harcourt office on April 19. The American was released unharmed on April 22, 1999.

June 6, 1999 • Kolauma Village, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Ijaw youth stormed a Texaco oil platform and kidnaped 48 Texaco employees. Among the hostages were two Americans. The youth were upset about an ongoing dispute over the spill of 12 barrels of crude oil last July. Texaco refused to pay ransom and the hostages were released unharmed on June 13, 1999, with the understanding that Texaco officials would meet with Bayelsa State authorities and Ijaw leaders to settle compensation issues.

June 27, 1999 • Port Harcourt, Nigeria

At approximately 11 a.m., five armed Ijaw youth reportedly stormed the Shell oil platform Enwhe and commandeered a Bristow helicopter to fly west towards Warri. The two pilots aboard the helicopter were an Australian and an American. The captain (the American) of the helicopter contacted another aircraft by radio to reveal that the captors identified themselves as a group called Enough is Enough in the Delta and to relay the group's wish to speak with Shell officials. At approximately 3:20 p.m., the helicopter was located in a village south-southeast of Warri. Shell managers were dispatched to the village where they spoke with the two hostages and a representative of the group. The hostages were released unharmed on July 16, 1999.

July 1, 1999 • Warri Region, Nigeria

An American citizen, a contract employee with Shell, was kidnaped along with a British citizen and five Nigerian staff. The kidnapers are members of the Oboro community. The staff boarded a boat to inspect an oil spill near Aleibiri. When the inspection team was in the vicinity of Bomadi, several Aleibiris warned the crew of Oboro plans to kidnap the expatriate members of the crew. The vessel instead headed for Kpakaiama. However, armed Oboros caught up with the vessel and took the seven men captive. Four contractors were released the following day. The Oboros requested approximately $80,000 for the release of the two expatriates and the Nigerian staff employee. On July 11, 1999, the American captive was released unharmed by his captives. Shell maintains that the company did not pay a ransom. The hostage release is reportedly the result of negotiations between the Governor of Bayelsa State and the hostage takers. The British and Nigerian hostages were released on July 12, 1999.

August 4, 1999 • Okra Hill, Sierra Leone

Thirty-three members of a U.N. Observer Mission team in Sierra Leone were kidnaped by a faction of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). The team included five British military personnel, one Canadian, one Russian, and one American. The incident took place at Okra Hills, about 40 miles east of the capital Freetown. The rebels demanded the release of imprisoned AFRC leader John Paul Karoma. On August 5, 1999, the rebels released one U.S. citizen and one Sierra Leone journalist. On August 10, 1999, U.N. officials reported the release of all the remaining hostages.

August 10, 1999 • Niger-Delta Region, Nigeria

Armed youths kidnaped three British nationals from a U.S.-operated platform. No one was hurt in the attack, and no one claimed responsibility. On August 11, 1999, the hostages were released unharmed.

August 18, 1999 • Warri, Nigeria

More than 1,000 youths from the Ekpan community attacked the offices of Texaco by smashing windows and glass doors. No one was hurt in the attack. The demonstrators were protesting the lack of employment opportunities by Texaco in the oil rich Niger River delta.

October 2, 1999 • Soyo, Angola

Suspected guerrillas from the UNITA attacked an oil security convoy, injuring two people and causing minor damage. The vehicles belonged to U.S.-, French/Belgian-, and South African-based companies. No group has claimed responsibility for the attack.

October 8, 1999 • Choba, Nigeria

At approximately 6:30 a.m. Ikweri youth armed with small arms, machetes, and hammers stormed the Willbros compound in Choba, outside Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Eighty-five expatriate employees, including approximately 50 American employees, were on the compound. As of 11:45 a.m., four Nigerian employees had been seriously injured, and two Americans were slightly injured. A few hours later (1:15 p.m.), two additional Americans were also slightly injured. The students destroyed all the communications and power facilities inside the compound. The youths also bulldozed an office building, destroyed 11 vehicles and three boats and attempted to ignite the fuel tank. The employees were held hostage inside the compound. Willbros management met with Ikweri leadership and the Commissioner of the Environment for Rivers State. The Ikweri leaders demanded that Willbros replace their current Nigerian staff of 600 (including Ikweris) with members of their group. The Ikweri leaders threatened to burn down the entire camp and possibly harm additional individuals inside the compound.

By midday on October 10, 1999, the occupation of the Willbros compound had been resolved with no loss of life and little permanent damage to property. The efforts of the Abuja-based National Security officials, the Rivers State Governor, and the U.S. Embassy's regional security officer (RSO) were instrumental in bringing the situation to a peaceful conclusion. Although four Nigerians were hurt in the initial assault, their assailants did not interfere with their transport to local hospitals. Injuries to the Americans was limited to cuts, bumps, and scrapes.

November 1, 1999 • Bonny Island, Nigeria

At approximately 9:30 a.m. local youth armed with axes and small arms boarded a vessel displaying an American flag. The youths proceeded to axe through the sealed doors of the main cabin that the staff was using as a safe haven. The American captain, an employee of Tidewater Marine International, was kidnaped along with a Polish engineer and 12 Nigerian crew members. None of the crew were injured. The youths did not voice any demands. Instead of commencing negotiations, Tidewater management successfully sought a court injunction against this and future acts of piracy, as well as a judicial order to release the boat. Tidewater officials received a promise of assistance from the Port Harcourt naval commander. The vessel and its crew were released unharmed on November 3, 1999. This was the third seizure of Tidewater vessels in a week. Tidewater officials believe that the same group held all three vessels.

November 4, 1999 • Eket, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

At approximately 6:30 a.m., a roadblock was set up on the road between Eket and the Mobil Oil terminal. In the process, a local youth was shot and killed. It is not clear who built the barricade or who shot the youth. Riots broke out immediately, moving along the road towards the Mobil residential compound. Shortly after 8 a.m. several hundred demonstrators stormed the compound, damaging residential facilities as well as power and water supply equipment.

November 8, 1999 • Delta State, Nigeria

An American captain of an oil industry support boat, was taken hostage by members of the Erunna-Ero community. The American, an employee of Tidewater Marine International, was kidnaped along with a Nigerian crew member. According to Tidewater officials and crew members aboard the vessel, 14 youths boarded the vessel Explorer Seahorse armed with machetes. The youths boarded the vessel with the intention of using it as a means of reaching the Lloyd Noble rig, located off-shore near Escravos, Delta State. The youths were demanding payment for the commencing of the rig's operations on October 22, 1999. Upon learning that an American captain was on board, they abandoned their initial plan and instead, took the American and Nigerian hostage. The kidnapers released the vessel and other crew members unharmed and took the two hostages into the Erunna-Ero village. The two remaining hostages were released unharmed on November 12, 1999.

November 16, 1999 • N'djamena, Chad

The Government of Chad sponsored a protest march condemning the reported pullout of Shell and ELF from the pipeline consortium. The number of people participating in the march was estimated to be about 10,000. The U.S. Embassy received reports of isolated rock-throwing incidents in which foreigners were targeted. A number of French installations, including the French school, were attacked by rock-throwing demonstrators. Although the demonstration ended by 10:30 a.m., security-related incidents continued into the early afternoon. At around 12 p.m., rock-throwing youth attacked the car of an American Embassy member who was slightly injured. Another U.S. Embassy member's house was attacked by rock throwers and two embassy guards were injured. Americans were not singled out for attack, but demonstrators did not differentiate between French and American citizens, and all foreigners were at risk at certain locations.

Near East

Chart showing Near Eastern areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack
*January 24, 1999 • Dubai, United Arab Emirates

A bomb was found and deactivated in a supermarket frequented by Americans and Europeans.

**The three incidents resulted in four victims. On January 9, 1999, in Marib Province, Yemen, one of the victims, a British oil worker was abducted from an oil field operated by the United States.

***The two incidents resulted in four victims.

January 9, 1999 • Marib Province, Yemen

Armed assailants abducted a British oil worker from an oil field operated by the United States. The kidnapers released the hostage unharmed on January 13. (Violence in Yemen, a tribal society, often is the result of personal grievances and has no political, anti-foreigner, nor anti-business impetus. Damage to property is usually minimal.)

January 17, 1999 • Sanaa, Yemen

Four tribesmen attempted to kidnap two U.S. Embassy employees as the employees drove to work. The tribesmen's vehicle rammed into and pulled in front of the employee's vehicle in an attempt to stop their intended victims. The victims managed to drive around their attackers and escape.

January 24, 1999 • Dubai, United Arab Emirates

A bomb was found and dismantled in a supermarket frequented by Americans and Europeans. Prior to the discovery of the bomb, a caller warned that a bomb was set to explode in an unidentified supermarket where Europeans shop.

May 24, 1999 • al Aaroush, Yemen

Tribesmen bombed a section of the Marib pipeline operated by Hunt Oil and Exxon Corporation.

May 27, 1999 • Sanaa, Yemen

Armed tribesmen attempted to kidnap a U.S. Embassy employee on her way to work.

July 3, 1999 • Sanaa, Yemen

An explosion occurred on the Marib pipeline owned by Hunt Oil and Exxon Corporation. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.

September 12, 1999 • Marib Province, Yemen

Unidentified tribesmen bombed a section of the U.S. Hunt Oil and Exxon Corporation oil pipeline, causing minor damage. No one claimed responsibility.

October 23, 1999 • Marib Province, Yemen

Tribesmen caused minor damage to the Hunt Oil and Exxon Corporation pipeline when they bombed a section of the pipeline.

October 26, 1999 • Dhammar, Yemen

Armed tribesmen kidnaped three U.S. citizens. The kidnapers demanded the release of five fellow tribesmen. On October 28 the hostages were released unharmed.

November 1, 1999 • Sanaa, Yemen

Armed tribesmen set up a false roadblock and attempted to kidnap a U.S. Embassy employee. The employee managed to talk his way out of the situation.

November 12, 1999 • Sirwa Region, Yemen

Militants bombed a section of the oil pipeline owned by Hunt Oil. No one accepted responsibility for the attack.

South Asia

Chart showing South Asian areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack

*December 24, 1999 • Kathmandu, Nepal
Five armed men skyjacked an Indian Airlines Airbus carrying 189 passengers, including one American, and 11 crew members. After the aircraft made a brief stop in Dubai, the skyjackers released 27 hostages and the body of an Indian hostage they had murdered. The skyjackers then ordered the plane to fly to Kandahar, Afghanistan, where they stated their demands: release of 36 militants, $200 million, and return of the body of another militant. On December 31, 1999, the skyjackers released the remaining hostages, including the American, in exchange for the Indian Government's release of three imprisoned militants.

March 29, 1999 • Gadhi, Makwanput District, Nepal

About 10:00 p.m., approximately 22 Maoist rebels vandalized and looted the office of PLAN International, causing major damage but no injuries. No Americans were assigned or present at the site. PLAN International is a U.S. nongovernmental organization (NGO) that conducts health and nutrition programs for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). After evacuating the building, the attackers destroyed files and furniture and removed a television, a VCR, and several pieces of office equipment. Eyewitnesses stated that the attackers had brought several cans of gasoline to the building's entrance and were about to set fire to the building but stopped when neighbors told them a Nepalese landlord owned the building, not PLAN International. The group departed after hanging banners with Maoist slogans.

April 7, 1999 • Banepa, Kabhre District, Nepal

At 1:15 a.m., a bomb exploded outside an Adventist Development Relief Agency (ADRA) hospital. There were no injuries and minimal damage to the facility apart from broken windows. A note left on the scene stated that the Maoists were responsible and that "American colonialism" was the motive for the attack. ADRA runs mobile clinics and other health programs with 42 percent of its funding provided by USAID.

April 28, 1999 • Calcutta, India

About 600 supporters of the Student Federation of India and the Democratic Youth Federation of India held a demonstration at the U.S. Information Service (USIS) building to protest the NATO attack on Yugoslavia. Although a stage was built opposite the USIS building for speakers addressing the gathering, participants gradually moved to the middle of the street and started hurling bricks, tomatoes, and rotten eggs at the USIS building. The demonstrators pelted the building, breaking close to 30 windows on three floors. Demonstrators burned an effigy of President Bill Clinton and shouted slogans such as "Down with U.S. imperialism" and "Stop imperialist aggression on Yugoslavia." The abundance of tomatoes and other projectiles suggested that the violence of the demonstration had been planned in advance.

May 12, 1999 • Banepa, Kabhre District, Nepal

At approximately 15 minutes past midnight, a pipe bomb exploded outside a U.S.-India agricultural complex, causing minor damage but no injuries. The complex is a joint venture owned by Dabur Nepal, a subsidiary of the Indian Food and Agricultural Conglomerate, and operated in partnership with a Montana-based agricultural products company. Five days earlier, the U.S. representative of the complex reported that he had received a letter from Maoist insurgents asking for $14,700 to support the armed struggle. Such notes have been sent to NGOs prior to Maoist attacks.

September 22, 1999 • Mabu, Dolakha District, Nepal

A group of 20­-30 Maoists set fire to the residence of an American expatriate residing in Mabu. The attack occurred during daylight, while the American and his family were away from home. The attack was the result of a dispute between a local Maoist and the Nepalese in-laws of the American.

November 12, 1999 • Islamabad, Pakistan

At approximately 11:20 a.m., unidentified assailants fired seven rockets from three vehicles parked at various locations over a 5-minute period, injuring six persons and causing minor damage. The location of the vehicles indicated that the obvious targets were the American Embassy, the American Center, and the Saudi-Pak Tower building, which houses U.N. offices.

Each vehicle was equipped with a homemade, nonmilitary dual launcher that had been affixed to the vehicle floor. Each fired two rockets at their respective targets. Either a timer or some other remote control means was used to initiate the rockets, which were initially identified as 107mm Chinese artillery rockets, pending further investigation. It was also determined that two types of rockets were used. One was an incendiary type with a white phosphorous filler and the other was a highly explosive fragmentation type.

The rockets, hidden in the vehicles, missed their intended targets. The rockets targeting the embassy and the tower building impacted in other areas of the city and the rockets targeting the American Center building detonated prematurely when one impacted at an American Center fence, critically injuring a local guard, and the other struck a tree in the American Center courtyard.

At the embassy, the vehicle, a late model Toyota Land Cruiser, was positioned on a road approximately 400-­450 meters from the chancery. One rocket landed in a covered market, causing no casualties, and the other detonated in a tree near the National Data Center (NDC), where the rocket's white phosphorous damaged some vehicles. The second rocket's motor hit a window of the NDC, causing damage to the window and an attached bathroom.

At the American Center, the launch vehicle, a late model Honda Accord, was positioned approximately 70 meters from the building in an adjacent parking lot belonging to a private enterprise. The first rocket impacted and detonated on a perimeter fence 31 meters from the launch vehicle and 38 meters from the building. Fragments from the rocket struck a guard in the leg, stomach, and head, critically injuring him. Some fragments also damaged windows, but Mylar coating caused the windows to remain intact. One particularly large fragment, however, penetrated the window of the cultural section, missing a Foreign Service national employee by inches. The fragment then penetrated another desk, impacted a chair, and came to rest on the floor. Had the rocket not struck the fence, it probably would have impacted against the window of the cultural section. At the time of the attack, three Americans and four local employees occupied the area. The second rocket struck a tree in the center's courtyard, causing fragments to damage two vehicles in the yard, including one lightly armored vehicle (LAV) whose armor was penetrated. At the Saudi-Pak Tower, the launch vehicle used was a late-model Land Cruiser II and was parked on a secondary road approximately 300 meters from the building. Both rockets missed the building and landed in an uninhabited area approximately 5.5 kilometers north of the launch site.

After the rockets were fired, the vehicles, packed with explosives, detonated and burned, causing considerable damage to the vehicles and launch systems and hampering investigation of the incident. No one claimed responsibility for the attack but several different groups and factions came under suspicion.

December 24, 1999 • Kathmandu, Nepal

Five armed men hijacked an Indian Airlines Airbus carrying 189 persons, including one American and 11 crew members, and threatened to kill all on board. The plane was traveling from Kathmandu to New Delhi, India. During the first few hours of the incident, the hijackers diverted the aircraft to brief stops in Amritsar (India), Lahore (Pakistan), and Dubai (United Arab Emirates). In Dubai, the hijackers released 27 hostages and the body of an Indian hostage they had murdered. The hijackers then ordered the flight crew to fly the plane to Kandahar, Afghanistan, where the hijackers stated their demands. The demands included the release of 36 militants, $200 million, and the exhumation and return of the body of another militant. On December 31, the hijackers released the remaining hostages, including the American, in exchange for the Indian Government's release of three imprisoned militants.

East Asia and the Pacific

Chart showing East Asia and the Pacific areas of anti-U.S. incidents, targets of attack, and types of attack

*September 8, 1999 • Liquica, East Timor
A U.S. citizen working for the United Nations was shot and wounded by an Indonesian soldier who mistook the American for an Australian.

March 28, 1999 • Melbourne, Australia

A demonstration of about 4,000 Serbs in front of the U.S. Consulate General in Melbourne swelled to over 5,000 with the arrival of members of the local Greek and Russian Orthodox communities. After the bulk of the crowd peacefully dispersed at about 4:00 p.m., a group of 500 boisterous young men lingered to vent their anger. They tossed two Molotov cocktails at the building and broke about a dozen windows on the first few floors with bricks and metal bolts (perhaps propelled by slingshots). Police quickly put out the two firebombs, but made no attempt to deter, disperse, or arrest the vandals. No consulate personnel were in the building at the time of the demonstration.

March 28, 1999 • Perth, Australia

A crowd of some 1,000 people marched through the central business district and gathered at the building housing the U.S. Consulate General. During the protest, demonstrators hurled eggs, fruit, bottles, and rocks at the lower level of the office building, breaking one large pane of glass.

March 28, 1999 • Sydney, Australia

Five-to-six thousand ethnic Greek, Serb, Italian, Albanian, Pole, and Macedonian demonstrators gathered outside the building housing the U.S. Consulate General. A demonstrator pulled down the U.S. flag, which was burned, and demonstrators threw eggs, rocks, and firecrackers at the building. One set of glass doors leading into the building were broken. Police prevented the crowd from entering the building.

April 3­-4, 1999 • Melbourne, Australia

Demonstrations continued against the U.S. Consulate General in Melbourne in protest of the NATO air campaign in Yugoslavia against Serbia. The crowds, while much smaller, doused the U.S. Consulate with eggs and broke a few of the building's windows with slingshots.

April 20, 1999 • Riau, Indonesia

Indonesian security forces fired warning shots when hundreds of students from the local Riau University and the Institute of Islamic Studies demanded a 10 percent share of oil earnings and stormed a Caltex Indonesia Housing Complex on Sumatra Island, smashing office windows and wrecking 30 cars. Caltex is a high profile, American company in Southeast Asia, producing half of Indonesia's 1.5 million barrels of crude oil a day.

May 8­-10, 1999 • People's Republic of China

On May 7, 1999, NATO jets mistakenly fired laser-guided bombs at the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, killing three individuals and injuring 27. Reaction by the people of China resulted in large and at times violent demonstrations in front of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing and the U.S. Consulate Generals in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang. Waves of demonstrators ebbed and swelled over a 3-day period. At most, the U.S. Embassy in Beijing and the U.S. Consulate General in Chengdu were granted a few hours rest in the middle of the night, with demonstrations beginning again full force the next morning. The demonstrators numbered as many as tens of thousands in places such as Beijing.

In Beijing, the four main embassy buildings, including the ambassador's residence and the Foreign Commercial Service building were assaulted with a hailstorm of rocks, paint, ink, eggs, tomatoes, and other debris by thousands of demonstrators over a period of 3 days.

Demonstrators burned the U.S. flag in protest. Heavy damage was inflicted upon the U.S. Chancery and most of the embassy's windows were shattered. Official and private vehicles on the embassy grounds were badly damaged, many completely totaled. In spite of the strength of the protests, the security perimeter of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing was not breached.

Similar demonstrations occurred in other cities, with Chengdu and Shenyang witnessing the worst violence. In Chengdu, angry demonstrators stormed the U.S. Consulate General compound on May 9. They used a bicycle rack as a battering ram against the ballistic glass main front door. The demonstrators were unable, however, to break through and enter the consulate office building. The demonstrators did succeed in breaking into the Consul General's residence and looting the house and then setting it ablaze. The fire was extinguished, but not before the residence was seriously damaged. One guard was injured.

Shenyang was also hit hard by demonstrations. The U.S. Consulate suffered significant external damage from rocks, paint, and ink. Many of the U.S. Consulate's windows were broken and the building's fa�ade was badly damaged; however, the demonstrators did not succeed in breaching the perimeter. Demonstrators also broke windows at the U.S. Consulate General staff apartments and the Consul General's residence and totaled or seriously damaged a number of U.S. official vehicles.

Guangzhou and Shanghai Consulates General were the least affected by demonstrations. Both the U.S. Consulates General in Guangzhou and Shanghai sustained broken windows.

The U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong witnessed smaller, less violent demonstrations, and sustained no physical damage. While several foreigners reported being harassed during the time of demonstrations, no deaths or serious injuries to U.S. Government officials or private U.S. citizens occurred in China as a result of the demonstrations.

NOTE: For statistical purposes, there were 27 demonstrations against U.S. diplomatic interests in China over the 3-day period. All but three of the demonstrations (all in Hong Kong) were violent.

May 8, 1999 • Melbourne, Australia

An estimated 2,500 Serbian-Australians took part in a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General organized by the Serbian National Council. On Sunday, May 9, about 225 Serbian-Australians demonstrated at the U.S. Consulate during the afternoon. On Monday morning, it was discovered that the building the U.S. Consulate is located in had in fact suffered more broken windows. This time, a small metal pipe joint had been hurled through one of the windows by the weekend protestors.

July 28, 1999 • Jakarta, Indonesia

An activated hand grenade was found in the compound of the U.S. Embassy on Tuesday at 9:50 p.m. according to local police. An embassy employee first found the live grenade under a tree in front of the embassy's entrance gate. The police were immediately notified, who in turn sent a bomb squad to defuse the explosive device. The bomb squad also searched the whole embassy area for more explosives but found nothing. During the search, the road in front of the embassy building was closed to traffic and was not reopened until after the bomb squad team left the site.

September 8, 1999 • Liquica, East Timor

A U.N. worker of U.S. citizenship was shot but not fatally wounded in East Timor on Wednesday, September 8, by an Indonesian soldier. Apparently, the Indonesian soldier was looking for an Australian who strongly resembled the American and ended up shooting the wrong target. The victim was sent to a hospital in the Australian city of Darwin for treatment of a gunshot wound to the abdomen. Following the incident, the United Nations withdrew its staff from Liquica.

September 8, 1999 • Aceh, Indonesia

A bus carrying six Mobil Oil employees, including two American citizens and a British national, was hit by gunfire as it traveled on a remote road in Aceh between a residential compound and work sites. Although no injuries were sustained, the incident is probably the most serious threat to date against the security of Mobil Oil employees in Aceh. The intent was clearly to disable or kill the driver and to do harm to the bus' passengers. No recent warning or threat preceded the attack.

September 30, 1999 • Aceh, Indonesia

A Mobil Oil-operated community health clinic in Aceh was destroyed by fire in an incident of confirmed arson in the early morning hours of September 30. This was the second serious security incident involving Mobil in 1 week. According to Mobil Oil company personnel in Jakarta, the fire was started using a crude but effective time-delayed incendiary device that gutted the building, destroying approximately $200,000 in medical equipment, all medical files, and the building itself.

Americans In Captivity

AMERICANS CAPTURED DURING 1999

Western Hemisphere

February 25, 1999 • Arauca Department, Colombia

Three U.S. citizens were kidnaped by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) near the Colombia-Venezuela border. On March 4, 1999, the three Americans were found murdered in a remote area of southeastern Venezuela, near the Arauca River.

March 23, 1999 • Boyaca, Colombia

National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrillas kidnaped a U.S. citizen who was visiting relatives in the Boyaca province. He was released unharmed on July 20, 1999, following the payment of a ransom.

April 12, 1999 • Bucaramanga, Colombia

ELN rebels hijacked an Avianca Airlines domestic passenger airline flight from Bucaramanga to Bogota and forced it to land in southern Bolivar Department, taking all 41 passengers, including one U.S. citizen, hostage. The hostages were released in small groups over several months. The U.S. citizen was released unharmed on October 2, 1999.

May 13, 1999 • Yopal, Colombia

A U.S. citizen employed as a helicopter mechanic was kidnaped by four heavily armed men in Yopal, approximately 150 miles northeast of Bogota. The American was released on August 5, 2000.

May 30, 1999 • Cali, Colombia

Heavily armed guerrillas from the ELN attacked a Roman Catholic church and kidnaped over 180 persons, including six U.S. citizens. The ELN released approximately 80 persons, including three U.S. citizens that same day. The rebels continued to release hostages sporadically throughout the year. On June 15, 1999, the rebels released 33 hostages, including two U.S. citizens. The final U.S. citizen was released on October 13, 1999.

June 6, 1999  • Cienaga el Torno, Colombia

ELN rebels kidnaped nine persons, including a U.S. citizen. The U.S. citizen was released unharmed on September 24, 1999.

June 29, 1999  • Antioquia Department, Colombia

Guerrillas from the FARC kidnaped a U.S. citizen from his home. The U.S. citizen was released unharmed on July 26, 1999.

September 11, 1999  • Sucumbios Province, Ecuador

A U.S. citizen was among 12 Westerners kidnaped by armed rebels near a highway between Tarapoa and Lago Agrio. On September 26, 1999, the unidentified kidnapers started releasing the hostages. The U.S. citizen and seven Canadian nationals were released unharmed on December 19, 1999.

Europe

March 31, 1999  • Kumanova, Macedonia

Three U.S. soldiers who are part of the U.S. First Infantry Division came under fire while patrolling the border with Serbia. The three servicemen were captured by Serbian forces. They were released unharmed on May 2, 1999.

Sub-Saharan Africa

January 27, 1999  • Jijiga, Ethiopia

An American, who worked for UNHCR was kidnaped as he left a restaurant in Jijiga, Ethiopia, by two armed men. The American was released unharmed in Galcaio, Somalia, the next day.

February 24, 1999  • Warri, Nigeria

An American working for Bristol Helicopter was kidnaped by a group of unidentified men. He was released unharmed on March 4, 1999.

March 9, 1999  • Warri Region, Nigeria

An American citizen working for Dickson Nigeria, Ltd., was kidnaped from his office by unidentified gunmen. He was released on March 26, 1999.

April 15, 1999 • Port Harcourt, Nigeria

An American contract employee with Chevron Oil was kidnaped along with a Nigerian contractor with Modant Marine by unidentified individuals. The Nigerian was released on April 17, 1999, and the American was released on April 22, 1999.

June 6, 1999 • Kolauma Village, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Ijaw youth stormed a Texaco Oil platform and kidnaped 48 people including two Americans. The youths were upset over an ongoing dispute over an oil spill last July. The hostages were released unharmed on June 13, 1999.

June 27, 1999 •  Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Five armed Ijaw youth stormed a Shell Oil platform and commandeered a Bristol helicopter to fly to Warri. The two pilots aboard the helicopter were an Australian and an American. The two hostages were released unharmed on July 16, 1999.

July 1, 1999  • Warri Region, Nigeria

An American contract employee with Shell Oil was kidnaped along with a British citizen and five Nigerian staff. The kidnapers are members of the Oboro community. The American was released unharmed on July 11, 1999. The British and Nigerian hostages were released unharmed on July 12, 1999.

August 4, 1999  • Okra Hill, Sierra Leone

Thirty-seven members of a United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) team was kidnaped by members of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC). The UNOMSIL team consisted of five British military personnel, one Canadian, one Russian, and one American. The American was released unharmed on August 5, 1999. The remaining hostages were released unharmed on August 10, 1999.

October 8, 1999  • Choba, Nigeria

At 6:30 a.m., approximately 600 Ikweri youth armed with small arms, machetes, and hammers stormed the Willbros Compound in Choba, outside Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Eighty-five expatriate employees, including approximately 50 American employees, were held captive on the compound. Eight employees were seriously injured, including four Americans. On October 29, 1999, the police dislodged the youth from the compound.

November 1, 1999 • Bonny Island, Nigeria

Local youth boarded an American vessel and kidnaped the American captain, a Polish engineer, and 12 Nigerian crew members. The ship and its crew were released unharmed on November 3, 1999.

November 8, 1999  • Delta State, Nigeria

An American captain of an oil industry support boat and a Nigerian crew member were kidnaped by members of the Erunna-Ero community. The two hostages were released unharmed on November 12, 1999.

Near East Asia

October 26, 1999 • Dhammar, Yemen

Armed tribesmen kidnaped three U.S. citizens. The kidnapers demanded the release of five fellow tribesmen. On October 28, the hostages were released unharmed.

AMERICANS PREVIOUSLY CAPTURED

Western Hemisphere

January 31, 1993 • Pucuro, Panama

Three America missionaries were kidnaped by FARC. Efforts to determine the fate of the missionaries continues. Several foreign governments have committed to pressing the FARC for a full accounting of the men's whereabouts.

South Asia

July 4, 1995 • Kashmir, India

Two American tourists were kidnaped while trekking in Kashmir, near Srinagar, India. The kidnaping was committed by the al-Faran, an Islamic militant group. One of the Americans escaped on July 8, 1995. There has been no contact with the group since November 1995 and reports have been received that claim that the other American tourist and other foreign hostages have been killed. These reports have not been confirmed, so their whereabouts remain unknown.

SPECIAL REPORT

OPERATION ALLIED FORCE

March 24, 1999 -  June 20, 1999*

On March 24, 1999, NATO forces under the command of [U.S.] General Wesley Clark, NATO's Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, and under authority given by NATO's Secretary General Javier Solana, President Clinton, and NATO Allied leaders commenced air strikes against Serbian air defenses and other military targets in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). This air campaign against the FRY was code named Operation Allied Force.

NATO's military action was taken only after extensive and repeated diplomatic efforts failed to achieve a peaceful solution to the Kosovo crisis. Yugoslavia's protracted campaign of military repression and "ethnic cleansing" of the Kosovar Albanians was creating a humanitarian disaster in the border region, and endangering stability in a key part of Europe.

NATO military forces were tasked by NATO to bring a swift end to the campaign of violence and intimidation committed by the FRY against ethnic Albanians in the province of Kosovo. Other goals of NATO's military action included:

  • stopping Serb military actions in Kosovo, 
  • bringing about a withdrawal of Serb forces from Kosovo, 
  • establishing civil society in Kosovo, 
  • allowing a NATO-led international security presence to establish an international civil presence in Kosovo, and 
  • allowing the safe return of refugees to Kosovo.

Over the next 11 weeks, we witnessed a dramatic worldwide increase in anti-U.S. activity in response to NATO's military action. Though the overwhelming number of anti-U.S. incidents were demonstrations directed against U.S. diplomatic facilities, there were also a number of terrorist attacks against U.S. diplomatic and private interests. The attacks ranged from low-level bombings and arson attacks to the attempted rocket attack of the U.S. Consulate in Istanbul, Turkey, and the bombing of an American hotel in Athens, Greece, that killed one person and injured another (neither were Americans). Following is a worldwide chronology and statistical overview of anti-U.S. incidents in response to Operation Allied Force.

*On June 10, 1999, NATO Secretary-General Solana suspended air strikes against FRY forces after receiving definite evidence that Serb forces were withdrawing from Kosovo. The timetable for the pullout of Serb forces from Kosovo was part of a Military Technical Agreement signed by senior NATO and Yugoslav officers on June 9, 1999.

Operation Allied Force was officially terminated on June 20, 1999, after the NATO Secretary-General declared that all Serb military and police forces had left Kosovo in compliance with the June 9, 1999, Military Technical Agreement.

OPERATION ALLIED FORCE AT A GLANCE
Chart showing Operation Allied Force at a Glance: Anti-U.S. Incidents and Demonstrations

* Violent demonstration is defined as causing property damage, i.e., broken window.

Chart showing Operation Allied Force at a Glance: Targets

** Includes U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), U.S. Information Service (USIS), and American and Binational cultural centers.

WESTERN HEMISPHERE

Chart showing Targets of Attack: Western Hemisphere

March 24, 1999 - June 20, 1999 • Canada

During Operation Allied Force, 205 demonstrations were held at U.S. diplomatic missions in Canada. The demonstrations occurred at the U.S. Embassy in Ottawa (74), the Consulate General in Montreal (21), the Consulate General in Quebec (1), the Consulate General in Toronto (74), and the Consulate General in Vancouver (35). Two of the demonstrations were violent (March 24­-25, 1999, Toronto, Canada).

March 26, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

Approximately 24 people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO actions in Kosovo.

March 29, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

Demonstrators staged a peaceful protest in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO air strikes.

March 30, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

Demonstrators peacefully protested in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO air strikes.

March 31, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

Approximately 50 demonstrators staged a peaceful demonstration in a park in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's action in Serbia/Kosovo. The demonstrators presented two letters to an U.S. Embassy officer explaining the situation from the Serbian perspective.

March 31, 1999 • Brasilia, Brazil

Approximately 40 people staged a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Some of the demonstrators spray-painted the embassy street sign with the statement "Out of Yugoslavia."

March 31, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

A peaceful demonstration against NATO air strikes was held in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 8, 1999 • Matamoros, Mexico

Approximately ten people staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Consulate.

April 15, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

Approximately 25 people conducted a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration lasted 2 hours and ended after the demonstration organizers spoke to the consulate spokesman to express their concern about the NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 16, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

At 3:27 a.m., a small explosive detonated in front of a Bank of Boston branch office. No one was hurt, and damage was minimal. A note left at the crime scene demanded the cessation of the bombing of Yugoslavia.

April 16, 1999 • Brasilia, Brazil

Approximately 40 demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The demonstration was generally peaceful, though two mock American flags were burned, some tomatoes were thrown at an Eagle emblem on the embassy perimeter wall, and the embassy sign was spray-painted with swastikas.

April 20, 1999 • Panama City, Panama

Approximately 25 members of the leftist student group FER-29 staged a peaceful 1-hour demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military actions against Yugoslavia. At the conclusion of the demonstration, the protestors burned a U.S. military aircraft in effigy. Founded in the aftermath of Panama's 1968 military coup, FER-29 is one of Panama's most prominent leftist student organizations.

April 20, 1999 • Panama City, Panama

Approximately 23 members of FER-29 staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting American involvement in the NATO air strikes campaign on Yugoslavia and continuing "occupation" of Panama by the American "Yanquis."

April 22, 1999 • Panama City, Panama

Twenty-five members of PAT (Thinking-Action-Transforming, a leftist group headquartered at the University of Panama) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The students were protesting against American involvement in the NATO air strike campaign in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the continuing "occupation" of Panama by the American "Yanquis."

April 23, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

While 60 people were conducting a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to free death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal, they were joined by a smaller group protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia. During the demonstration, several paint-filled balloons were thrown at the Consulate General by some of the demonstrators. The balloons landed on the outer-front perimeter gate.

April 26, 1999 • La Paz, Bolivia

A group of five people staged a nonviolent demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators launched fireworks in the direction of the embassy, shouted anti-NATO/U.S. slogans, and burnt a U.S. flag.

April 27, 1999 • San Jose, Costa Rica

Twelve individuals staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy against U.S. involvement in the NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 27, 1999 • Teguciagalpa, Honduras

Approximately 40-­50 people representing the Civic Council of Popular and Indigenous Organizations (COPIN) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO's actions in the Balkans.

April 28, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

A group of 120 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO action in Kosovo. The demonstration was organized by a leftwing radical group called Quebracho. The demonstration was boisterous and fireworks were set-off. Two American flags were burned.

April 29, 1999 • Monterrey, Mexico

A group of 18 protesters from the leftwing PRD party gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to demonstrate against U.S. policies in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted about 30 minutes.

May 1, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

Approximately 300 people staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting U.S. and NATO actions in Kosovo and against the massacres perpetrated by President Milosevic against the people of Kosovo. The demonstration was boisterous, and two American flags and an effigy of Uncle Sam was burned. The demonstration was organized by the Partido de Trabajadores Por El Socialismo (PTS) and Quebracho, a leftwing communist group.

May 1, 1999 • Mexico City, Mexico

The traditional May Day demonstration with its ritual stop at the U.S. Embassy saw the demonstrators shout anti-NATO slogans and protest against the bombing of Yugoslavia.

May 11, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

Over 200 Chinese demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A letter of protest was accepted by an embassy officer. The demonstration was peaceful though some of the demonstrators threw eggs at the embassy.

May 12, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

Approximately 500 people staged a demonstration outside the U.S. Consulate. The group was from a Chinese-Brazilian Cultural Association called the Association for the Peaceful Union of China. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. They presented a letter of protest to the consulate, which was accepted by a consulate officer. The protesters also hurled eggs and firecrackers at the consulate. No one was hurt and there was no damage.

May 14, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

Approximately 200 individuals conducted a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting the continued NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 15, 1999 • Santiago, Chile

Approximately 60 demonstrators participated in a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 15, 1999 • Lima, Peru

Dozens of Chinese citizens protested outside the U.S. Embassy against NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A letter of regret was handed to an embassy officer.

May 20, 1999 • Hermosillo, Mexico

A group of 30 people gathered at the U.S. Consulate to protest against the U.S. role in the Kosovo conflict.

May 21, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

Approximately 150 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest against NATO and U.S. military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by Quebracho, a moderately violent leftwing radical group.

May 21, 1999 • Brasilia, Brazil

Approximately 60 demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

May 21, 1999 • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Approximately 12 demonstrators who appeared to be university students staged a protest at a street corner adjacent to the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators were against NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

May 21, 1999 • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

There was a second demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. Approximately 40 people gathered at the consulate to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

May 21, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

Approximately 40 individuals held a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to oppose NATO military action against Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by a student group from the University of Sao Paulo. The demonstration was peaceful, though a U.S. flag was burned.

May 21, 1999 • Monterrey, Mexico

Approximately 15­-20 youths arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to demonstrate against NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The group burned an American flag and one of the demonstrators attempted to spray paint graffiti on the Consulate General's perimeter fence. The demonstrator was arrested by police.

May 28, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

Approximately 250 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO and U.S. actions in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by Movement of Socialist Workers and University students from the University of Buenos Aires.

June 2, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

Approximately 200 people staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Consulate General representatives met with leaders of the demonstration and received a letter of protest concerning NATO's bombing of Yugoslavia.

June 17, 1999 • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Approximately 12 demonstrators staged a peaceful, but vocal protest across the street from the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

EUROPE

Chart showing Targets of Attack: Europe

*March 30, 1999 • Nicosia, Cyprus
A private Cypriot college expelled some 50 British and American students over NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia.

March 24, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Approximately 3,000 demonstrators from the Greek Communist Party, Greek Communist Youth Party, and various peace committees and labor unions conducted a demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. They were protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia. One American flag was burned, but police tactics prevented the demonstrators from reaching the embassy's sidewalk. From March 24, 1999, to May 26, 1999, there were 28 anti-NATO demonstrations at the U.S. Embassy.

March 24, 1999 • Paris, France

Approximately 30-­40 people gathered across the street from the U.S. Embassy and shouted, "Stop the war." They eventually left the area without incident.

March 24-­25, 1999 • Strasbourg, France

During the night between March 24­-25, 1999, unknown individual(s) spray painted a Serbian slogan on the pillars of the U.S. Consulate General.

March 24, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

About 1,000 people organized by the Greek Communist Party (KKK) gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest against the NATO military action in Yugoslavia. A few minutes later, a second wave of demonstrators marched on the U.S. Consulate General and remained for 10 minutes.

Later in the evening, around 11:30 p.m., some 300 protesters marched on the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators pasted a KKK statement to the front door of the U.S. Consulate and spray painted in Greek "Murderers of the people--KKK." The group dispersed shortly after midnight.

March 24, 1999 • Florence, Italy

Demonstrators organized by radical left autonomous groups and supported by the Communist Renewal political party staged a protest in front of the U.S. Consulate General against NATO air strikes.

March 24, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 100 demonstrators gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Serbia/Kosovo. The demonstration was organized by members of the Communist Renewal and Humanist parties and included members of the Leoncavallo Social Center. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 24, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Approximately 100 people gathered at the U.S. Embassy to demonstrate against NATO bombings in Kosovo and Belgrade. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 24, 1999 • Valletta, Malta

Seven men and one woman staged a peaceful demonstration on the plaza besides the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

March 24, 1999 • Valletta, Malta

Seven men and one woman of Serbian-Yugoslavian descent staged a second peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 24, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

In the evening hours, a crowd of 40 persons staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. involvement in Yugoslavia. Many of the demonstrators appeared intoxicated and during the early stages of the demonstration, participants threw stones, bottles, paint, and eggs at the embassy. At one point demonstrators climbed on an embassy vehicle parked in front of the compound and broke its windshield and dented its roof and hood. Another embassy vehicle had its rear window broken out by demonstrators as they walked on the side street adjacent to the south wall of the embassy compound.

March 24, 1999 • Istanbul, Turkey

A bomb exploded in a McDonald's restaurant bathroom causing minor damage. No one was hurt in the attack.

March 24, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Forty-five pensioners staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. involvement in Yugoslavia.

March 25, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

Approximately 50 people affiliated with the Kurds and Armenian Communist Party staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia.

March 25, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

At 4:30 p.m., a group of 100 protesters approached the U.S. Embassy displaying signs against NATO bombings in Kosovo and Yugoslavia and yelling anti-U.S./NATO themes. The group left the area at 4:48 p.m. At 4:53 p.m., the demonstrators returned to the U.S. Embassy and presented a U.S. Embassy officer with a letter of protest before departing. Finally, at 5:25 p.m., a group of 35 protesters arrived at the U.S. Embassy. The group delivered a note of protest and dispersed at 5:31 p.m.

March 25, 1999 • Tallinn, Estonia

An individual arrived at the U.S. Embassy by cab and spent an hour on his cell phone making phone calls. Some members of the press arrived at the embassy--presumably called by the protester. The protester, an ethnic Russian, tried to present a wheelchair to the embassy. The wheelchair was refused.

March 25, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At approximately 8 a.m., 100­-300 demonstrators approached the U.S. Consulate General. Police attempted to keep the demonstrators confined to an area across the street from the Consulate. A scuffle broke out and one demonstrator was injured.

March 25, 1999 • Bologna, Italy

At approximately 3 a.m., rocks and bottles containing flammable liquid were thrown at John Hopkins University. Some windows were broken and the flammable liquid seeped underneath the front doors, igniting and starting a small fire inside the entrance. The fire was quickly extinguished. Of the 150 students attending the Johns Hopkins Bologna branch, about one-third are American. The school, like other university branches in this region, was closing for spring break.

March 25, 1999 • Milan, Italy

At 6:30 p.m., approximately 130 demonstrators gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Serbia/Kosovo. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 25, 1999 • Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan

Three people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy and presented two letters to an embassy official.

March 25, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Two demonstrations were held at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The first demonstration was comprised of a dozen elderly Russians--the same people who have been regularly protesting at the U.S. Embassy for the past 2 months--stood outside the embassy for half-an-hour holding anti-American and anti-NATO signs. Shortly afterwards, some approximately eight Russian youths arrived at the U.S. Embassy and held a sign saying "Remember Vietnam." The protestors remained across the street from the embassy and made no attempt to approach the embassy.

March 25, 1999 • Vilnius, Lithuania

During the evening hours, an unknown individual(s) spray-painted "NATO Go Home" on the park side of the rear embassy wall.

March 25, 1999 •Skopje, Macedonia

At approximately 11 a.m., some 150­-200 people gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to support the Serbian cause and denounce NATO action in Yugoslavia. The group was peaceful and were kept across the street from the embassy by the police. The demonstrators left the area an hour later.

At 1 p.m., another demonstration of 150­-200 people formed across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group was vocal but peaceful and left after 1 hour.

Between the hours of 2 p.m. and 4 p.m., some 20-­40 protesters from the earlier demonstration (see above) remained across the street from the U.S. Embassy. Between 2 p.m., and 4:45 p.m., the number of demonstrators grew to 300­-400 people and they began to throw rocks and shards of building material at the embassy. By 5:15 p.m., the crowd had grown to 500-­600 and was growing fast. They were also throwing larger objects at the embassy and burned an American flag. Fifteen minutes later, the demonstrators now numbered several thousand and tried to enter the embassy compound. Some of the demonstrators were able to breach the outer perimeter of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators destroyed the perimeter fence and all the vehicles on the U.S. Embassy compound. They set fires and tried to smash the embassy hard-line doors and enter the embassy. Embassy personnel were forced to enter the safehaven and wait for help. By 6:30 p.m., Macedonian Special Forces responded and ejected the demonstrators from embassy property. Between 7 p.m. and 7:30 p.m., the demonstrators began to move from outside the embassy to other parts of the capital. No embassy personnel were hurt in the incident.

March 25, 1999 • Chisinau, Moldova

A crowd of 50-­100 demonstrators gathered across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Serbia. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 25, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

At 12:50 a.m., 200 additional demonstrators joined the 40 demonstrators who were at the U.S. Embassy the night of March 24 (see above). They began to throw eggs, paint, and beer bottles at the front of the embassy. By 5:50 a.m. the demonstrators had cleared the area.

March 25, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Starting at 8 a.m. and lasting for the remainder of the day demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The groups consisted of Serbs, Russian nationalists, and skinheads. Bottles, eggs, and other objects were thrown at the U.S. Embassy. Several visa applicants were injured. The demonstrators ranged in groups from 50 to 1,000 people. The crowds dispersed at 3:15 a.m., on March 26.

March 25, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

At 12 noon approximately 350 people staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. Four hours later, at 4 p.m., another group of 40 people also demonstrated in front of the U.S. Consulate. Both protests were in response to NATO actions against Yugoslavia.

March 25, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

At 12 a.m., six Russians, three men and three women, arrived at the U.S. Consulate General and pelted the U.S. Marine vehicle with chunks of ice, which they had brought with them. The Russian driver of the Marine vehicle was not hurt. The Russian militia arrested the perpetrators.

March 25, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

Approximately 25-­30 representatives of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting U.S. and NATO military strikes in the former Yugoslavia.

March 25, 1999 • Yekaterinburg, Russia

Cossacks and representatives of the Russian Communities staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes against Serbia.

March 25, 1999 • Banju Luka, Republika Srpska

A branch office of the U.S. Embassy was stoned by approximately 100 demonstrators. One of the embassy branch's guards was badly beaten by the demonstrators and many of the branch office windows were broken and official vehicles damaged.

March 26, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

Approximately 50 people affiliated with the Kurds and Armenian Communist Party staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Some of the demonstrators threw eggs at the front of the embassy.

March 26, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 5,000 Serbs staged a demonstration one block from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Demonstrators threw eggs, exploded firecrackers, and burned American flags. Otherwise the demonstration was peaceful, and police prevented the demonstrators from getting close to the U.S. Embassy.

March 26, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

Approximately 3,000 individuals demonstrated at the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO military intervention in Yugoslavia. Although the demonstration was generally peaceful, some eggs and rocks were thrown at the embassy. There was no damage, and no one was hurt.

March 26, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

Approximately 70-­100 people held a peaceful demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy. Twenty-five minutes after the first group departed, a second group of 25 people arrived at the U.S. Embassy and also demonstrated peacefully. The second group dispersed after 10 minutes.

March 26, 1999 • Tallinn, Estonia

An unknown individual threw eggs at the U.S. Embassy.

March 26, 1999 • Paris, France

Some 200 pro-Serb demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO air strikes. The crowd dispersed after being allowed to deliver a written communique to the embassy.

March 26, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 120 Serbs and Germans calling themselves Deutschland Bewegung (Germany Movement) staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators had pelted the consulate with eggs.

March 26, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 9:45 p.m., an anonymous caller to the Greek newspaper Elefthrotypia and Star Television advised that a bomb would explode at the Rainbow Computer System offices. Approximately 1 hour later a bomb exploded causing no injuries and only minor damage to the building's front gate. The company is Greek owned but is a distributor for Apple Computers and the name Apple Computers is plastered all over the front of the building.

March 26, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 15 elderly Russians demonstrated across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 26, 1999 • Chisinau, Moldova

A group of 100 demonstrators gathered across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes. Demonstrators attempted to cross the street to approach the U.S. Embassy, but were turned back by the police. At least two demonstrators were arrested.

March 26, 1999 • Nicosia, Cyprus

From March 26, 1999, to June 7, 1999, there were 91 demonstrations at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's military action. The embassy also reported daily candlelight vigils by approximately 15-­20 people--mostly Serbs--in the vacant lot across the street from the embassy.

March 26, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

Approximately 100 persons demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO activities in Kosovo and Yugoslavia.

March 26, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

Fifty people gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

March 26, 1999 • Pristina, Serbia

Serbian demonstrators burned down the USIS American Center. No one was hurt in the attack.

March 26, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 400 people gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest against NATO air strikes. Demonstrators remained in front of the embassy for the remainder of the day.

March 26, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

Between 200 and 400 demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest the NATO air strikes. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 26, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 10 a.m., approximately 40-­45 representatives of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) and the rightwing Russkii Klub staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators burned a poster-board American flag and spray-painted anti-U.S. graffiti on a nearby building.

March 26, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

Demonstrators staged a peaceful demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy protesting U.S. action in Yugoslavia and Slovak Government support for NATO.

March 26, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Eighteen people held a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 27, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

A group of 50 people affiliated with the Kurds and Armenian Communist Party staged a peaceful 1-hour demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy.

March 27, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

A demonstration organized by the Serbian Cultural Association was staged 1 block from the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration, which numbered some 5,000 people, was protesting NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 27, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

Some 100 people held a demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy protesting U.S. and NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Police arrested five people for throwing eggs at the embassy.

March 27, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

A group of approximately 100-­300 people staged a demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group threw eggs and rocks at the embassy, breaking two windows. The demonstrators then went to the German Embassy before coming back to the U.S. Embassy where they held a brief protest before departing.

March 27, 1999 • Copenhagen, Denmark

Approximately 1,000 people staged a violent demonstration on the thoroughfare outside the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators threw eggs, road flares, rocks, and one Molotov cocktail at the embassy. The Molotov cocktail hit the ground and exploded before reaching the building. Over 40 windows were broken. The demonstration lasted about 2 hours.

March 27, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

Several individuals threw eggs at the front door of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

March 27, 1999 • Paris, France

Approximately 40 people staged an unannounced sit-down strike on Rue Boissy D'Anglas adjacent to the U.S. Embassy and shouted, "Stop the war." Police moved the demonstrators away from the embassy.

March 27, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 150 demonstrators sponsored by the Workers Party (Munkaspart) gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Serbia-Montenegro.

March 27, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Approximately 500 protesters staged a demonstration at Aviano Airbase to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by the Provincial Federation of the Communist Refoundation Party.

March 27, 1999 • Florence, Italy

The Communist Renewal political party and several radical leftist groups staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes. The 100 demonstrators were peaceful and dispersed after 1 hour.

March 27, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 2,000-­3,000 students marched through downtown Milan to protest the NATO air strikes in Serbia/Kosovo. The demonstrators passed by the corner of the U.S. Consulate General where they remained for 30 minutes. Some of the demonstrators threw firecrackers and shouted anti-American slogans. A demonstrator burned a British flag.

March 27, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was hurt in the attack.

March 27, 1999 • Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

Pro-Serb demonstrators staged an anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

March 27, 1999 • Valletta, Malta

Approximately 206 persons marched to the U.S. and British Embassies to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators carried placards and lit candles.

March 27, 1999 • Chisinau, Moldova

A small demonstration was held at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 27, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

A U.S. Embassy camera videotaped an adult female walking past the front of the U.S. Embassy and handing something to a male juvenile (approximately 10 years old) who was playing outside the entrance to the U.S. Embassy with his 5-year-old friend. After handing the item to the boy, the woman quickly walked away. The 10-year-old then handed the object to the younger boy before he too ran away. The second boy then threw the item, which was red paint, against the entrance of the embassy before running away. Police later arrested the woman and the two boys. Shortly after this incident, ten demonstrators appeared in the front and rear of the U.S. Embassy protesting NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and the protesters left 10 minutes later.

March 27, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

At 1 p.m., a crowd of 120 persons demonstrated outside the U.S. Embassy protesting NATO air strikes. Several demonstrators attempted to jump the police barricades but were pushed back by the police.

March 27, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

At 3 p.m., a crowd of 120 persons returned to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes and the arrest of Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) leader Abdullah Ocalan.

March 27, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

Finally, at 5 p.m., a group of 300 Serbs and Norwegians demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO activities in Yugoslavia. Eggs were thrown against the wall of the embassy.

March 27, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

A demonstration staged by the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, (LDPR), communist groups, skinheads, Serbs and other groups staged a protest in front of the U.S. Embassy Existing Office Building (EOB) against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators, which at one point numbered 3,000, were unruly. Several fights broke out between the crowd and militia and bottles, rocks, eggs, and other objects were thrown at the EOB.

March 27, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

Approximately 250-­300 demonstrators protested outside the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators shouted obscenities and burned real and mock flags as well as a Coca-Cola sign. An hour later, some 15 demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Consul General's residence. With the arrival of extra Russian security personnel, the demonstrators departed the Consul General's residence.

March 27, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 2:35 p.m., a lone Russian male threw two glass bottles filled with paint at the U.S. Consulate General. One bottle struck the U.S. seal gracing the consulate's facade, and the second bottle struck just below the window outside the consular section. The Russian male was immediately apprehended and declared, "This is my personal protest."

March 27, 1999 • Yekaterinburg, Russia

A group of 150 people demonstrated in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes. The crowd was angry but orderly.

March 27, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

Approximately 45 demonstrators gathered in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy to hold a peaceful demonstration against U.S. action in Yugoslavia and Slovak Government support for NATO. The demonstrators marched to the German and British Embassies, demonstrated, and returned to the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators dispersed soon after.

March 27, 1999 • Stockholm, Sweden

A group of 35 broke from a larger anti-NATO demonstration of 500 Serbs who were marching in downtown Stockholm. The smaller group marched to the U.S. Embassy where they remained for 10 minutes as a protest against U.S. actions before departing peacefully.

March 27, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

At 12 p.m., 57 members of the Advanced Socialist Party of Ukraine held a peaceful demonstration at the U. S. embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 27, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

At 2 p.m., 30 people held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 27, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

At 11:52 p.m., 30 people coming from a soccer game shouted obscenities in front of the U.S. Embassy before being removed by the police. The people appeared to be intoxicated.

March 28, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 10,000 demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 28, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

Demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

March 28, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

Approximately 60-­70 ethnic Russians held a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy protesting NATO air strikes. The demonstration lasted 1 hour.

March 28, 1999 • Helsinki, Finland

At approximately 6:25 p.m., an unidentified individual walked up to the U.S. Embassy perimeter fence and fired several rounds from a gas-powered pellet gun at the embassy. The suspect was apprehended by police. The suspect, who was extremely intoxicated, admitted to firing the shots and stated that the situation in the Balkans was his motivation for the act. No one was hurt in the incident nor was there damage to the embassy.

March 28­-29, 1999 • Marseille, France

Sometime over the weekend, unknown individuals threw a wine bottle over the wall at the U.S. Consulate General. The bottle broke near the door of the Consulate General but did no damage. Serbian graffiti also was spray painted onto the front gate of the Consulate.

March 28, 1999 • Paris, France

A group of approximately 500 people, mostly Serbs and Serb sympathizers, marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes. The group eventually turned violent and attempted to rush at the embassy outer perimeter. The protestors threw rocks that cracked two ground floor windows of the embassy. Police reinforcements were called and ultimately moved the demonstrators away from the embassy. Twenty policemen were injured, none seriously, and 20 demonstrators were arrested.

March 28, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 400 Serbs staged a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General against NATO air strikes. The demonstrators were kept away from the Consulate General by police.

March 28, 1999 • Souda Bay, Greece

Some 200 people gathered at the main gate of the Naval Support Activity Souda Bay, Crete, to protest NATO air strikes.

March 28, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Police detonated a bomb discovered at an automated teller machine (ATM) in front of a Citibank branch. A telephone caller to local media warned of the bomb. No one claimed responsibility.

March 28, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Some 25 protesters sponsored by the Unitary Committee Against Aviano staged a peaceful demonstration at Aviano Air Base.

March 28, 1999 • Sigonella, Italy

Over 100 people gathered at the U.S. Naval Air Station and staged a peaceful protest against NATO air strikes.

March 28, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 1,000 people from the Liberal Democratic Party (LDPR) communist groups, skinheads, Serbs, and other groups staged a demonstration in front of the building temporarily serving as the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators periodically threw bottles, eggs, and other objects at the embassy.

March 28, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

At approximately 1:30 p.m., a white Opel Fortuna sport utility vehicle (SUV) containing two terrorists stopped in the center of Novinskiy Bulvar, the street in front of the building temporarily serving as the U.S. Embassy. (The SUV was used by the police to patrol the area around the U.S. Embassy and at first did not draw suspicion from the militia protecting the U.S. Embassy.) A man dressed in green army fatigues exited the rear of the SUV with a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) launcher on his shoulder and pointed it at the embassy. Several dozen Russian militia personnel who were guarding the embassy against continuous demonstrations noticed the man and started moving towards the vehicle. The terrorist dropped the RPG launcher and got another one from the back seat of the SUV and again pointed it at the embassy. Neither launcher fired. The terrorists also fired 11 rounds from automatic weapons at the building before fleeing the scene. The terrorists escaped and the SUV was later found abandoned three-quarters of a mile from the embassy. Eyewitnesses said that two men in military fatigues exited the vehicle. The two RPGs and two automatic weapons used by the gunmen were recovered by the police. The SUV used by the terrorists was reportedly carjacked with the militiaman shortly before the attack. The two terrorists forced the militiaman to drive them to the embassy. After the attack, the terrorists forced the militiaman to drive away. The militiaman was released unharmed a short time later. The two terrorists continued driving a short distance further before abandoning the SUV.

March 28, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

A crowd of slightly over 100 people arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes.

March 28, 1999 • Belgrade, Serbia

Unknown individuals smashed the widows of the U.S., British, French, and German cultural centers and an Air France office. A large poster placed outside the U.S. Cultural Center read, "This is Belgrade, too."

March 28, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

Demonstrators staged a peaceful demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. action in Yugoslavia and Slovak Government support for NATO.

March 28, 1999 • Madrid, Spain

A demonstration of 400 people sponsored by Spain's Communist Party was held in front of the U.S. Embassy. The peaceful demonstration was in opposition to NATO's air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 28, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Over 200 people from the Larvra Church demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action.

March 29, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

Approximately 60 people affiliated with the Kurds and Armenian Communist Party demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

Demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Paris, France

In the early morning hours, protesters broke the windows of the United Airlines office.

March 29, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

Approximately 6,000-­7,000 demonstrators filed passed the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes. Demonstrators burned American flags and for almost 2 hours the U.S. Consulate General was pelted with eggs, bottles, coins, and cartons of yogurt. One of the demonstrators threw a lighted flare onto the first floor balcony of the building where it burned out harmlessly. They also burned German flags.

March 29, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 75 people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy, protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Chisinau, Moldova

The Communist Party brought 50 people to demonstrate against the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 29, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Thirty demonstrators representing Serbian groups gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to object to NATO air strikes in Kosovo and Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful.

LEAFLETS

"Psychological operations (PSYOP) is a specialized form of persuasive communication used to influence another's perception, actions, attitude and behavior. Leaflets have been used to inform people of humanitarian assistance, warn of impending military operations, encourage surrender or demoralize the enemy. PSYOP products must attract attention so that the target audience will want to pick them up and read the message or listen to the radio or television broadcast, despite restrictions that may have been imposed or fear of personal danger."

--4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne)

March 29, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

A demonstration sponsored by the Portuguese Council for Peace and Cooperation and the Portuguese Communist Party staged a peaceful demonstration on a major thoroughfare outside the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting U.S. and NATO actions in Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Bucharest, Romania

Some 150 people demonstrated in front of the U.S. Consulate, which is around the corner from the U.S. Embassy, to protest NATO and U.S. intervention in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators threw eggs at the Consulate's windows. After 20 minutes the crowd moved down the street to the British Embassy.

March 29, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 10 a.m., approximately 30­-35 representatives of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) staged a demonstration across the street from the U.S. Consulate General to protest U.S. and NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The group burned a cardboard American flag and several oversized copies of American dollar bills. The group presented a letter to a U.S. Consulate officer and then dispersed shortly after.

March 29, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 3 p.m., some 20­-25 members of the rightwing Russkii Klub staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. They displayed several placards with anti-U.S./NATO slogans. One placard showed a Russian soldier bayoneting Mickey Mouse. They dispersed after an hour.

March 29, 1999 • Podgorica, Serbia-Montenegro

Several thousand demonstrators gathered at the USIS library to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

About 200 protesters gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO airs strikes before moving on to the German, British, and French Embassies.

March 29, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 180 people gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 30, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

Demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Nicosia, Cyprus

A private Cypriot college has expelled some 50 British and American students over NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Tbilisi, Georgia

Approximately 15­-20 people demonstrated outside the U.S. Embassy against NATO military actions in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 20 people from Deutschland Bewegung (German Movement) staged a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes.

March 30, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At 2 p.m., a group of 20 people staged a peaceful protest outside the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. involvement in NATO air strikes in Serbia. The demonstration ended at 3:30 p.m.

March 30, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At 6 p.m., a second group of 40-­45 people called "No to the War Campaign," gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. involvement in Serbia. The protest was vocal, but peaceful and ended at 7:15 p.m.

March 30, 1999 • Florence, Italy

A few hundred students marched from the university area to the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Approximately 150­-200 demonstrators comprised primarily of students and members of a group called Centri Sociale gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

March 30, 1999 • Bishkek, Kyrgystan

A group of 15 teenagers gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO actions against Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 60­-80 people held a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy.

March 30, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

Two hundred people demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful, although an egg was thrown at the embassy and an American paper flag was torn up by one of the demonstrators.

March 30, 1999 • Bucharest, Romania

At 11:45 a.m., 15-­20 individuals gathered on the street in front of the U.S. Consulate to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Bucharest, Romania

At 5:30 p.m., some 200 people came to the U.S. Consulate to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 10 a.m., approximately 30-­35 representatives of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) and several members of the rightwing Russkii Klub gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At 4 p.m., over 50 members of the LDPR and the Russkii Klub staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Belgrade, Serbia-Montenegro

A crowd of 100 protesters damaged the U.S. Embassy. They took down the embassy's sign that was mounted onto the front of the building, broke windows, and threw paint at the building.

March 30, 1999 • Belgrade, Serbia-Montenegro

Crowds of demonstrators angry over NATO air strikes attacked two McDonald's restaurants as well as the Turkish and British Embassies.

March 30, 1999 • Podgorica, Serbia-Montenegro

Close to 10,000 people staged an anti-NATO demonstration outside the USIS Information Center. This was the fourth day of demonstrations.

March 30, 1999 • Podgorica, Serbia-Montenegro

Approximately 3,000 people staged a peaceful demonstration outside the USIS Information Center. They were protesting NATO actions against Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Ljubljana, Slovenia

Between 4,000 and 5,000 people gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 340 people demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action. A bottle was thrown by one of the demonstrators. The perpetrator was immediately arrested. Over the last few days, paint has been splattered over a number of embassy vehicles, and the air was let out of vehicles belonging to embassy personnel.

March 31, 1999 • Sofia, Bulgaria

A demonstration organized by the Bulgarian Youth Socialist Party gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators were generally peaceful, though some eggs were thrown at the embassy.

March 31, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

Approximately 75 students from the Communist Youth Organization (KNE) gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 31, 1999 • Naples, Italy

Between 7 p.m., and 7:30 p.m., approximately 150 people held a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO bombings in Kosovo and Belgrade.

March 31, 1999 • Kumanova, Macedonia

At approximately 2:30 p.m., three U.S. soldiers who are part of the U.S. First Infantry Division came under fire while patroling the border with Serbia. The soldiers were captured by Serb forces. According to the Pentagon spokesman, the three U.S. servicemen came under fire and split off in their Humvee from the rest of the patrol along a road near Kumanova. They reported over their radio that they were surrounded. The three U.S. servicemen were released unharmed on May 2, 1999.

March 31, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 400 demonstrators from the Serbian Brotherhood gathered at the Russian White House across from where the new U.S. Embassy is being built to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Five members of the group dropped off a petition to a U.S. Embassy officer. The demonstration was peaceful.

March 31, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

Thirty to thirty-five representatives of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) and the Russkii Klub staged an anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators burned an American flag and an effigy of Uncle Sam, but were otherwise peaceful.

March 31, 1999 • Bern, Switzerland

Approximately 300 Serbian demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators presented a letter to the embassy and dispersed peacefully a short time later.

April 1, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

Approximately 50 demonstrators, including skinheads, demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes. The demonstration lasted 1 hour and was peaceful.

April 1, 1999 • Tallinn, Estonia

At 3 p.m., a group of 40 people, mostly pensioners, arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 3:45 p.m.

April 1, 1999 • Tallinn, Estonia

At 6 p.m., a larger group of 100 ethnic Russian youth gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was generally peaceful, though an American flag was burned, and some of the demonstrators were arrested for rowdy behavior.

April 1, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 6:20 p.m., a woman placed a bag containing 16 small butane or propane canisters against the main entrance of the U.S. Consulate General, lit it, and ran away. The consulate guards monitoring the Consulate entrance notified another guard who was outside the building at the time. The guard was able to apprehend the woman as she was running away, and hand her over to the police who were guarding the consulate. The guard then grabbed the bag and threw it away from the consulate entrance. Moments later, four of the canisters exploded. No one was hurt nor was the building damaged.

April 1, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 8:30 p.m., 100 students assembled in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest American and NATO activity in Kosovo. After 15 minutes, the group departed peacefully.

April 1, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 300 persons on a "Peace March" through the city stopped at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 1 hour.

April 1, 1999 • Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

Between 200 and 250 people, including 150 Serbs bussed in from France, staged a peaceful protest in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 1, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Serbian groups numbering 150 people held a demonstration against the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Eggs were thrown at the embassy and an American flag was burned.

April 1, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

A group of eight men staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 1, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

Approximately 40 people gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 1, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

A crowd of 125 people staged a pro-NATO demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration was planned to coincide with the regular 5 p.m., anti-NATO demonstration that has been staged every day since March 26.

April 1, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

Approximately 100 people marched to the U.S. Embassy carrying pro-NATO/Kosovo signs.

April 1, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Forty-five men and women from the Progressive Socialist Party staged a peaceful anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 2, 1999 • Tbilisi, Georgia

A group of 100-­125 people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest military action in Yugoslavia.

April 2, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 300 Serbs marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 2, 1999 • Florence, Italy

A few hundred people organized by Rifondazione Communist and other far leftist groups staged a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Consulate General. The group's focus was as much on internal domestic issues as the NATO bombings of Yugoslavia.

April 2, 1999 • Naples, Italy

At 12:30 p.m., a group of masked individuals entered a McDonald's restaurant and broke windows, threw paint, and harassed customers and employees. The demonstrators returned later at 11 p.m., that evening and again threw paint and harassed customers.

April 2, 1999 • Skopje, Macedonia

At 3:45 a.m., a U.S. Marine walking guard around the U.S. Embassy fired 4 or 5 shots at a vehicle that crashed through the police barricade erected to block the main street in front of the embassy. After being fired upon, the vehicle came to a halt near a second set of barricades. The police took the driver into custody. The driver was not injured and the vehicle was hit with only one round. According to the police, the driver was very intoxicated.

April 2, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Serbian groups numbering 60 people held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 2, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

Thirty members of the Social Democratic Youth Faction of Poland staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The group passed a letter appealing for an end to the armed conflict to an embassy officer.

April 2, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

Eight men and one woman arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 2, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovakia

A small peaceful anti-NATO demonstration was held at the U.S. Embassy.

April 2, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

At 12:30 p.m., a man rode a horse up to the front of Spaso House (the U.S. Ambassador's residence) and shot a clay-tipped arrow into the front lawn of the house. A note written in Russian was attached to the arrow. The note read "If America does not stop the war in Serbia, the war will come to America." The letter was signed "Alexander Nevsky. The horseman was detained by the militia and determined to be mentally unstable.

April 2, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Seventy men and women gathered in the park across the street from the U.S. Embassy for a peaceful demonstration against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 3, 1999 • Brugge, Belgium

Demonstrators gathered outside a McDonald's restaurant to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 3, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 40 demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to stage a peaceful demonstration against NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators had arrived from two other larger anti-NATO/U.S. demonstrations that were taking place in the city.

April 3, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

The Albanian International Aid Society held a pro-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

April 3, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Approximately 350 demonstrators sponsored by the Unitary Committee against Aviano 2000 held an anti-NATO rally at Aviano Air Base.

April 3, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

A vehicle belonging to a civilian employee of the U.S. Air Force was set on fire. No one was hurt in the attack. On April 9, 1999, the Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei claimed responsibility.

April 3, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

A Molotov cocktail was placed under a car belonging to a U.S. serviceman. The car was destroyed, but no one was hurt.

April 3, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Two hundred people gathered near the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted less than 2 hours.

April 3, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Serbian groups numbering about 400 gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was generally peaceful, though a American flag was burned.

April 3, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Twenty-six members of the Slovansky Party gathered in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 4, 1999 • Spangdahlem, Germany

Twelve people held a peaceful protest against NATO military action in Yugoslavia outside Spangdahlem Air Base.

April 4, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Approximately 7,000 demonstrators gathered at the Italian, French, and U.S. Embassies to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Some of the demonstrators threw rocks and paint at both the Italian and French Embassies. After leaving the Italian and French Embassies, demonstrators stopped at the Hilton Hotel and threw rocks at a restaurant on the ground floor breaking several windows.

April 4, 1999 • Crete, Greece

Approximately 4,000 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Naval base at Souda Base to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Protesters clashed with police, and two protesters and 15 policemen were injured.

April 4, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

A pro-Serbian group of 15 people gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to peacefully protest U.S. involvement in the NATO air strikes in Serbia.

April 4, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

A lone English-speaking man demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy. He was carrying a large sign which read in English, "Mrs. Albright stop the air raid in Yugoslavia--at Easter time."

April 4, 1999 • Bratislava Slovakia

A peaceful anti-NATO demonstration was held in front of the U.S. Embassy. Demonstrators also protested at the German, British, and French Embassies as well as at the European Union (EU) office.

April 4, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 100 members of the Slovansky Party demonstrated peacefully in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy against NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Demonstrators were given permission to assemble in front of the U.S. Embassy until April 14.

April 5, 1999 • Spangdahlem, Germany

Ten demonstrators staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at Spangdahlem Air Base.

April 6, 1999 • Spangdahlem, Germany

Demonstrators gathered outside Spangdahlem Air Base to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 3 a.m., a Molotov cocktail was thrown at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was injured and there was minor damage. No one claimed responsibility for the attack. The incident occurred following a demonstration of some 7,000 people protesting NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 5, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Demonstrators representing the Working Group Easter March staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting weapons production and nuclear weapons. Participating in the demonstration were Serb groups protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 5, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

A group of 35 Serbian men and women staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

April 6­-7, 1999 • Frankfurt, Germany

During the evening of April 6-­7, an employee of California's Office of Trade and Investment parked her car at a gas station near the U.S. Consulate General. (The gas station was the scene of nightly vigils protesting NATO military action against Yugoslavia.) On the morning of April 7, the passenger side window of the victim's car was smashed out. Copies of a locally published Serbian newspaper Novosti was found in the front seat of the car. The victim stated that she had a decal of her U.S. university in the rear window of the car. No other vehicles in the area were damaged.

April 6, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals protesting NATO's air strikes on Yugoslavia threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant. No one was hurt in the attack.

April 6, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 20 elderly Russians (mostly women) staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy.

April 7, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

Approximately 50 people organized by the local Russian citizens group gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful.

April 7, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

A peaceful anti-NATO demonstration was held by some 20 elderly Russians across the street from the U.S. Embassy.

April 8, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

Forty people staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

April 8, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

A dozen Russian pensioners came to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 8, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

A hundred demonstrators from a group called the Committee to support Yugoslavia gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO actions in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 1 hour.

April 8, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Thirty members of the Progressible Socialist Party and six Serbians demonstrated in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 9, 1999 • Minsk, Belarus

Approximately 200 people staged a peaceful anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy. Three American flags were burned during the protest.

April 9, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

At 4 p.m., a group of 40­-50 demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 9, 1999 • Tallin, Estonia

At 7 p.m., the same group of 40-­50 people who were at the U.S. Embassy earlier in the day (see above) returned to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 9, 1999 • Helsinki, Finland

Approximately 150 people representing the Open Action Group for Peace in the Balkans held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

April 9, 1999 • Bratislava, Solvakia

Approximately 200­-300 people gathered in Hviedoslavovo Square near the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia.

April 9, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 15 men and women from the Slavic Party staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy.

April 10, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 400 Serbs protested against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia near the U.S. Consulate General.

April 10, 1999 • Spangdahlem, Germany

Approximately 75 to 100 people gathered at Spangdahlem Air Base to stage a peaceful protest against NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 10, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 100 people attended an anti-NATO demonstration at the foot of a Soviet memorial outside the U.S. Embassy.

April 10, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

Approximately 200 people belonging to the Communist Worker's Party, the Blitz, and other anti-American groups staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 10, 1999 • Stockholm, Sweden

Approximately 1,500 people from a Serb group called the Federation held an anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators threw eggs and sticks at police guarding the embassy. Several American flags were burned behind police barricades erected to keep the demonstrators away from the embassy. When two Molotov cocktails were thrown, police donned their riot gear, which sufficiently intimidated the demonstrators. No more Molotov cocktails were thrown. The demonstrators were too far away from the embassy for thrown objects to cause any damage to the embassy. After 1 hour, the demonstrators departed without further incident.

April 10, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Forty Ukrainian men and women demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 11, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Demonstrators organized by Northern Italian Social Centers, which include anarchist and far leftists, staged a violent demonstration at Aviano Air Base. Seven people, including five law enforcement officers, were injured when demonstrators clashed with police. Whereas 1,500 or so of the demonstrators were just carrying signs, some 700 of them, many with their faces covered, were intent on violence and armed with rocks. A group of women approached the air base intending to tie a sign that read, "Stop the bombs" to the main gate. The women were followed by men with covered faces who pelted the police with rocks. The police responded with tear gas.

April 11, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Shortly after midnight, a car with military license plates was set on fire. No one has claimed responsibility for the incident.

April 11, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 2,000 students from various Moscow universities gathered at the Russian White House across the southwest corner of the NEC. The crowd peacefully demonstrated against NATO involvement in Kosovo.

April 11­-25, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovak Republic

The U.S. Embassy was the scene of daily peaceful demonstrations against NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The protests averaged about 50 people a day.

April 12, 1999 • Cordenons, Italy

A vehicle belonging to a U.S. serviceman assigned to Aviano Air Base was set on fire at around 12 a.m. A leaflet from the Anti-Imperialist Territorial Nuclei was found near the vehicle. The vehicle was parked near the serviceman's residence at the time of the attack. No one was injured, but the fire destroyed the entire rear section of the vehicle.

April 12, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Twenty anti-NATO demonstrators gathered near the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 12, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Twenty-one Serbian men and women held a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

April 13, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 30 elderly protestors arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators stayed across the street from the embassy and were peaceful.

April 13, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

Sometime during the evening hours, after the U.S. Secretary of State's visit to Oslo ended, a large rock was thrown over the second floor portico of the U.S. Embassy. A window in the USIS section was shattered.

April 13, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Thirty-seven Slavic party members staged a peaceful demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

April 14, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 20 Russian demonstrators (mostly elderly women) staged a peaceful anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy.

April 14, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Twenty members of the Lavra Church and 16 members of the Ukrainian National Assembly gathered in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia. The group had permission to assemble in front of the U.S. Embassy until April 15, 1999.

April 15, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at a General Motors-Detroit Motors car dealership in the Athens suburb of Filothei. One IED consisted of five small gas (propane) canisters placed under a parked vehicle on the property of the dealership. The second IED consisted of 14 small gas (propane) canisters placed between two parked cars on the property of the dealership. The building also was spray painted with the slogan: "The bombings in Kosovo are a polite offer of the favorite company Detroit Motors." No one was hurt in the blasts, but there was significant material damage. On April 17, 1999, a group called the Enraged Anarchists claimed responsibility in a call to a local newspaper. (The dealership was the site of a similar bombing in February 1998. See Political Violence Against Americans: 1998.)

April 15, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Two people representing the Hague Peace Platform (anti-NATO military action in Yugoslavia) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 15, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Some 20 Russian demonstrators (mostly elderly women) came to the U.S. Embassy to condemn NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 15, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Thirteen Serbian men and woman staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 16, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

A group of 40 people marched from the Yugoslav embassy to an area across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group handed an embassy officer a petition and proceeded down the street to the German Embassy.

April 16, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

A demonstration of 100 people organized by the Movement for Neutrality staged an anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted about 1 hour.

April 16, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Six people representing the Hague Peace Platform staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 16, 1999 • St. Petersburg Russia

An older Russian male, cursing and shouting anti-American slogans, attempted to enter the vehicle of the Acting U.S. Consul General. The vehicle was stopped at a traffic light at the time of the incident. The vehicle departed without incident. At the time, the acting Consul General was en route from one official function to another and his vehicle was flying the American flag.

April 16, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Eighteen Serbs and Ukrainians demonstrated near the park across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

April 17, 1999 • Helsinki, Finland

A group of some 160 people representing Conscientious Objectors in Finland held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting against NATO and Serbian actions in the Balkans. A representative of the group presented the embassy with a petition book containing group signatures and lengthy text demanding that the violence in the Balkans must come to an end immediately.

April 17, 1999 • Portogruardo, Italy

While traveling on the highway between Portogruardo and Pordenone, a dependent spouse of a U.S. Air Force serviceman stationed at Aviano Airbase was the victim of harassment. Shortly after the victim accessed the highway at Portogruardo in her private vehicle with Allied Forces Italy license plates, a car passed her and took up a position in front of her, while a second vehicle took up the flank position and a third vehicle got in directly behind the victim's car. The occupants of the car's made obscene gestures as well as threatening motions depicting the slitting of the throat. As the victim tried to evade the cars by moving into the emergency lane she was immediately cut off. The four cars traveled at the normal speed limit for approximately 5-­6 miles before the victim managed to take an exit ramp. She was not followed. The victim was able to get the license plate number of one of the vehicles.

April 17, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Twenty Serbian men and woman staged a peaceful demonstration near a park in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 19, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 27 Serbian men and women demonstrated near a park in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 20, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw rocks and firebombs at three Blockbuster Video stores. Damage was minimal and no one was hurt.

April 20, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 12 Serbian and Ukrainian men and women demonstrated near a park in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 21, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

Approximately 20 "anarchists" peacefully demonstrated and blocked the entrance of the main branch office of Citibank with a banner painted with anti-war and American slogans. The group used the banner to prevent people from entering the bank. The demonstration lasted 2 hours and caused no serious problems.

April 21, 1999 • Milan, Italy

During the evening hours four Blockbuster Video stores were damaged by stones and had anti-NATO graffiti spray-painted on them. Some of the slogans stated, "NATO killers," "Out of NATO, Out of War," and "Blockbastards." No one has claimed responsibility for the attacks.

April 21, 1999 • Madrid, Spain

Approximately 50 people calling themselves Friends of Yugoslavia staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 22, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Thirty-five pension-age Russians demonstrated at the U.S. Embassy to condemn NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The protestors remained across the street from the embassy and stayed for only 15 minutes.

April 23, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Unidentified individuals threw a Molotov cocktail at a McDonald's restaurant to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. No one was hurt in the attack.

April 23, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Twenty-two Ukrainian men and women staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes.

April 24, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At 3 p.m., a group called "No to the War Campaign" organized a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. Approximately 75 people gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to protest against NATO involvement in Serbia.

April 24, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At 12:30 p.m., a group of seven individuals gathered outside the U.S. Embassy. The group was demonstrating against U.S. involvement in NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 24, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 1,000 demonstrators opposed to the war in Kosovo threw firecrackers at police guarding the building housing the U.S. Consulate General.

April 24, 1999 • Yekaterinburg, Russia

At approximately 6:05 a.m., a bomb had detonated in the parking lot some 10-­20 feet from an office building housing the U.S. Consulate General. No one was hurt in the blast, but all the windows on the parking lot side of the building were broken and the window frames damaged. According to the Russia militia, after seeing a bag under one of its cars and hearing a ticking sound, they moved the vehicle and vacated the area. The bomb detonated a short time later creating a crater 4 feet wide and 2 feet deep.

April 25, 1999 • Kavala, Greece

Approximately 800 men, women, and children from the cities Xanthi, Kavala, Komotini, and Drama in northern Greece staged a demonstration at the USIA Voice of America (VOA) Kavala relay station. The demonstrators were protesting the NATO-led/American military action in Yugoslavia. Some of the demonstrators threw rocks, burned an American flag, and attempted to climb the fence surrounding the VOA site. Police were able to control the crowd. No one was injured and there was no damage to the VOA site.

April 25, 1999 • Tuscany, Italy

Approximately 2,000 people organized by demonstrators threw rocks, paint, firecrackers, and balloons or plastic baggies filled with paint in the direction of the consulate. Communist Renewal participated in an anti-NATO demonstration at Camp Darby, which is near the town of Piza. The demonstration was peaceful, though some firecrackers were thrown onto the base.

April 25, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Two anti-NATO demonstrations occurred near the U.S. Consulate General. The first demonstration involved several hundred people and was a precursor to the second one that included an estimated 5,000 people. A strong police presence prevented the demonstrators from passing in front of the consulate, thereby preventing any damage to the consulate.

April 25, 1999 • Pozan, Poland

Thirty people gathered at the U.S. Consulate Agency to protest NATO involvement in Kosovo. The demonstration was peaceful.

April 26, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 6:40 p.m., an unidentified male called two local newspapers to warn of an explosive device placed at the building housing the Fullbright Foundation in Thessaloniki. The caller claimed to represent a previously unknown group called Rigas Ferraios. When police EOD personnel arrived, they found the explosive device, which was placed in a cylindrical cardboard box used for the sale of bottled whisky, outside the third floor Fullbright office. As the police went back downstairs to get their disposal equipment, the building janitor saw the device and decided that he wanted the cardboard cylinder. He opened it, dumped its contents into the black garbage bag he was carrying, and headed down the stairs. The police were surprised to see the janitor emerge from the building carrying the bomb. He told the police not to worry since the cardboard container was empty. When asked, he told the police that the contents were in the garbage bag he was carrying. Police carefully relieved the janitor of his burden.

Editor's note: Regas Feraios or Velestinlis was a 18th century activist who worked for the liberation of all the Balkans from under the occupation of the Ottoman Turks. His activities worried the Austrian Empire. Feraios and seven others were arrested by the Austrian police and handed over to the Ottoman governor of Belgrade to be executed.

April 26, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 50 people sponsored by the Humanitarian Movement staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action against Serbia.

April 26, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Eleven members of the Slavic Party staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Embassy.

April 26­-May 9, 1999 • Bratislava, Slovak Republic

The U.S. Embassy was the site of daily demonstrations to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The protesters, usually numbering 50­-75, were mostly older. Skinheads were observed participating in the early demonstrations.

April 27, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Shortly before midnight, a bomb exploded outside the Inter-Continental Hotel. The explosion brought down a fa�ade of the hotel and hurled broken glass that killed one person and injured another. Both were Greek citizens attending a conference at the hotel. About 20 minutes before the blast, an unidentified caller placed separate calls to Sky Television network, the Greek daily Eleftherotypia, and the Flash radio station warning that a bomb had been planted. Although police had notified hotel, the bomb detonated prior to evacuation. The cafeteria and ground floor lobby were full of people. Police rushed to the scene but had located the bomb by the time it detonated. Following the attack, the Greek terrorist group Revolutionary Nuclei sent a five-page communique to the Athens daily Athinaiki which published it on April 28. In summary, the communique complains about Western policy in Kosovo and on Ocalan.

Editor's note: Abdullah Ocalan is the leader and founder of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK). He was captured by the Turkish Government in Nairobi, Kenya, on February 15, 1999. Ocalan had just left the Greek Embassy where he had been staying en route to the airport. The communique attacks the United States, NATO, the "New World Order," and other alleged imperialist centers. It attacks the Simitis Government's association with NATO, and speaks approvingly of sabotage in Greece and elsewhere against NATO. It attacks U.S. Ambassador to Greece R. Nicholas Burns, the Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and other U.S. institutions.

April 27, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

A group of 12 people affiliated with the Socialist Workers Party protested in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO military action in Serbia.

April 27, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 25 pension-age Russians came to the U.S. Embassy to condemn NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The protestors were peaceful and remained across the street from the embassy.

April 29, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 25 pension-age Russians returned to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The protestors were peaceful and remained across the street from the embassy.

April 30, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 15 anti-NATO demonstrators gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action in Serbia. The demonstrators were organized by the University Student Union.

May 1, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 11:40 a.m., some 500 people organized by the Labor Center of Thessaloniki gathered in the street in front of the U.S. Consulate General as part of the traditional May 1 gathering. A delegation of 13 individuals went to the 7th floor entrance of the Consulate General and posted a four-page resolution on the consulate's front door. Among other things, the resolution called for the Greek Government to halt the use of Thessaloniki as a entrance point for NATO war material moving northward.

May 1, 1999 • Souda Bay, Greece

Approximately 350 people staged an anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration outside the main gate to the Naval Support Activity at Souda Bay. At one point, the demonstration turned violent when younger demonstrators threw rocks at police outside the main gate. Police eventually dispersed the crowd by using teargas. No one was hurt and the demonstrators did not gain access to the base.

May 1, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 12 p.m., a group of 3,000 organized by the Greek Communist Party (KKE) gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO and U.S. military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful and they remained in front of the consulate for 15 minutes.

May 1, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

Approximately 50-­70 representatives of the Trade Unionists and Communists staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting U.S. and NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The group was peaceful, though they burned an American flag.

May 4, 1999 • Riga, Latvia

Approximately 20 Russian pensioners came to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The 45-minute demonstration was peaceful.

May 5, 1999 • Spangdahlem, Germany

Twelve people gathered at the main gate of Spangdahlem Air Base to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 5, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 11:30 p.m., terrorists fired three 2.36-inch rockets at three unoccupied banks located on the same street in the Athens port suburb of Piraeus. There were no injuries and moderate-to-light damage. The first rocket was fired at a building with "representative offices" of U.S.-affiliated Chase Manhattan Bank. (The building also houses the French-affiliated bank, Credit Lyonnais, and the Greek-shipping company, Chandris, who owns the Celebrity cruise lines.) The ground-floor main lobby of the building sustained significant material damage. The bank's offices are located on the building's second level and were not damaged. The second rocket was fired at British-affiliated Midland Bank located 2 blocks from Chase Manhattan Bank. In the second attack, the rocket did not explode but shattered the front glass panels of the bank, landing inside. Seconds after the second attack, a rocket was fired at the French-affiliated Banque National de Paris located in the same area. Again, the rocket did not explode but shattered front glass and landed inside the facility.

May 5, 1999 • Rome, Italy

In the early morning hours, a Molotov cocktail was thrown into a McDonald's restaurant. No one was injured and damage was minimal. The Armed Revolutionary Nuclei claimed responsibility.

May 5, 1999 • Vincenza, Italy

Two vehicles belonging to U.S. servicemen were set on fire outside the Vincenza Air Base.

May 6, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Greenpeace staged an impromptu demonstration at Aviano Air Base. The group appeared to be protesting three issues; NATO military action in Yugoslavia, the "health and environmental effects of depleted uranium," and "the war in Kosovo and chemical risks in Italy." The 2-hour demonstration was peaceful.

May 6, 1999 • Fiume Veneto, Italy

A privately owned vehicle with Allied Forces Italy license plates was set on fire. It is not known if the fire was caused by arson or an accelerant placed on or near the vehicle. The vehicle was parked in a driveway of a home occupied by two USAF members. The home is located approximately 15 minutes from Aviano Air Base.

May 8, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 200 persons from the Humanitarian Movement marched through the capital stopping at the U.S. Embassy for 30 minutes before moving on to the Parliament.

May 8, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

Approximately 200 demonstrators led by the Communist Party marched to the U.S. Consulate General shouting "Yankee go home."

May 9, 1999 • Rhein Main, Germany

A group of demonstrators staged a peaceful anti-war protest at the Rhein Main Air Base.

May 9, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 10:30 a.m., two helmeted individuals on a motorcycle fired a number of rounds from a 9mm into the office of American Express and then drove off. At 11:50 a.m., a similar incident occurred at the Greek-owned Inter-American Insurance Company. Since it was the weekend, no one was hurt and damage was minimal. Following the attack, an unidentified caller to Sky television station claimed responsibility for both attacks in the name of Red Line (Kokkini Grammi).

May 9, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Ten members of the Movement for Peace in the Balkans marched to the U.S. Embassy in the Balkans before proceeding on to the Parliament.

May 9, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

Between 26 and 32 Chinese students gathered at the U.S. Embassy and staged a peaceful anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration.

May 9, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

At 4:30 p.m., approximately 40 Chinese demonstrators gathered in the street across from the building temporarily serving as the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Members of the group left a letter of protest with an embassy officer. At 5:52 p.m., the demonstrators moved across the street from the EOB. By 9:30 p.m., the crowd grew to approximately 300 demonstrators. They attempted to cross the street to get in front of the U.S. Embassy but were prevented by the militia and Omon troops.

May 9, 1999 • St. Petersburg, Russia

At 11:40 p.m., a Russian male passed through the barricades located to the right of the U.S. Consulate General. He stopped in front of the consulate and threw at least four bottles filled with black paint at the fa�ade of the building. The individual was arrested by the militia guarding the Consulate General.

May 10, 1999 • Copenhagen, Denmark

Approximately 30 Chinese staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy against NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A letter of protest was also presented to an embassy officer.

May 10, 1999 • Bonn, Germany

Chinese demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 10, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

Approximately 38 Chinese individuals gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to protest against the destruction of the Chinese Embassy in Serbia by NATO air strikes. The group stayed for 35 minutes before heading towards the British Embassy. Approximately 45 minutes later they returned to the U.S. Embassy where they stayed for another 20 minutes. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 10, 1999 • Chisinau, Moldova

A group of 25 Chinese, probably from Moldova State University, demonstrated peacefully in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators did not have a permit and were removed by the police.

May 10, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

Chinese students gathered at the U.S. Embassy and staged a peaceful anti-NATO/U.S. demonstration.

May 10, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 250 members of the Chinese community (mostly students) gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The group was peaceful, although they did burn an American flag.

May 10, 1999 • London, United Kingdom

Approximately 80 protestors from the Chinese Democratic Party staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Paris, France

A demonstration by a group called the Association Des Amis de Pekin staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. Approximately 300 Chinese and Europeans showed up to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Berlin, Germany

Approximately 120 Chinese students staged a brief, peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators also presented a petition to the embassy.

May 11, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 100 Chinese students and professors held a protest march against NATO air strikes of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators reached the U.S. Consulate General and remained for 40 minutes before departing.

May 11, 1999 • Rome, Italy

Approximately 30 Chinese staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. Before departing they presented a letter of protest to an embassy officer.

May 11, 1999 • Bonn, Germany

Approximately 150 people organized by the Chinese Students in Germany held a vocal, yet peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators delivered a letter of protest to an embassy officer.

May 11, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Approximately 15 Chinese nationals staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Madrid, Spain

Approximately 350 protestors calling themselves Chinese Immigrant Residents of Spain gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Approximately 200 Chinese nationals staged a fairly peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy after breaking through a police barricade erected 100 yards down the street from the embassy. A representative of the protestors presented an embassy official with a statement condemning the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators threw a few eggs and plastic bottles at the embassy.

May 12, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 200 demonstrators protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade overran police barricades 1 block from the U.S. Embassy and congregated on the front of the embassy. The demonstrators chanted slogans and presented a petition. With the arrival of police reinforcements, the demonstrators agreed to move back to the original barricades. The demonstration ended without further incident.

May 12, 1999 • Milan, Italy

At approximately 12:30 p.m., one dozen members of the Green Party gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group unfurled an anti-NATO banner and lit flares. A representative of the group was allowed to enter the lobby of the Consulate where she spoke with a consulate officer. The demonstration ended peacefully 1 hour later.

May 12, 1999 • Milan, Italy

At approximately 6 p.m., a group of self-professed "pacifists" gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General distributing anti-NATO leaflets. The group departed 30 minutes later, moving on to the British Consulate.

May 12, 1999 • Galway, Ireland

As First Lady Mrs. Clinton was presenting a speech at Galway University approximately 50 Irish demonstrators gathered outside the university to protest against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Mrs. Clinton was in Galway to receive an honorary degree from the National University of Ireland Galway and the Freedom of the City of Galway.

May 12, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

Approximately 250 Chinese gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

May 12, 1999 • Kiev, Ukraine

Some two dozen Chinese students gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. When police told that they did not have permission to demonstrate, they departed.

May 12, 1999 • London, United Kingdom

Approximately 150 people affiliated with the Chinese Students and Scholars Association staged a protest at the U.S. Embassy against NATO's bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade.

May 13, 1999 • Budapest, Hungary

Approximately 600 protestors sponsored by the Chinese Association of Hungary gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 13, 1999 • Florence, Italy

Over 300 demonstrators organized by several radical leftist groups calling themselves pacifists gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes and Ethiopian policy against Eritrea, Italy's membership in NATO, and alleged Italian Government inaction in support of the Kosovo and Eritrean refugees. The 1-hour demonstration was basically peaceful, though eggs and red paint were thrown at the consulate.

May 13, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Several thousand demonstrators marched past the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by Italian unions and Communists and extreme leftist groups. Demonstrators threw smoke bombs and firecrackers as they passed the U.S. Consulate General and some threw plastic bags of (apparently) animal blood onto the sidewalks not far from the consulate.

May 13, 1999 • Rome, Italy

A demonstration consisting of 1,000 people representing mainly radical labor groups and originally authorized by the police to demonstrate over labor issues, passed close to the U.S. Embassy chanting anti-U.S./NATO slogans. An unidentified demonstrator threw two lit flares toward the embassy. The flares landed inside the compound, causing no damage or injuries.

May 14, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

Approximately 200 demonstrators representing the Association of Chinese Scholars of the Netherlands and the Dutch Union for Chinese People Inside Holland staged an anti-NATO protest at the U.S. Embassy. At one point two demonstrators presented a petition to an embassy officer.

May 16, 1999 • Copenhagen, Denmark

A group of 300-­400 people representing two factions--organizers from the Danish Autonomes, a group of Danish anarchists, and ethnic Serbs--gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military activity in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 17, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 12 demonstrators gathered in the vicinity of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was organized by the Women's Association for a Nuclear Future.

May 20, 1999 • Catania (Sicily), Italy

Arsonists protesting NATO military action against Yugoslavia attempted to set fire to a Blockbuster Video store. Blockbuster is a U.S. chain of video stores. Police were able to quickly extinguish the fire. A note was left at the scene calling for "War to be waged against the war."

May 22, 1999 • Milan, Italy

At 5 p.m., approximately 100 persons gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action against Serbia. The demonstrators were organized by the Osservatorio di Milano, a left-leaning, anti-Mafia, anticrime organization.

May 24, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

A group of eight individuals arrived at the U.S. Embassy in a horse-drawn hearse and a car. They gathered outside the embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. They handed a letter of protest to an embassy officer. The demonstrators claimed to be from the Women's Mobile Parliament. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 25, 1999 • Moscow, Russia

A demonstration organized by the Citizens Union of Students and Youth was held across the street from the building temporarily serving as the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting against NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

May 25, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately five people from the Women's Association for a Nuclear Future staged a peaceful demonstration against NATO military action in Yugoslavia at the U.S. Embassy.

May 27, 1999 • Zurich, Switzerland

At approximately 9:10 a.m., an unidentified female approached the office of American Airlines, used a lighter to set fire something in a shopping bag, threw the bag into the office and ran away. There was a lot of smoke but very little damage. The office was evacuated and no one was hurt. A partially burned note written in German was found in the bag. The note alluded to the war in the Balkans and a "war against imperialism." The perpetrators, who were not clearly identified by the note, claimed solidarity with the downtrodden of whatever nationality in resistance to imperialist war.

May 28, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

Approximately 90 people staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against Yugoslavia.

May 29, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 12 people gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO military action against Serbia. The peaceful demonstration was organized by the Serbian community in Milan.

May 31, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At approximately 4:30 a.m., an improvised incendiary device (IID) exploded outside a McDonald's restaurant in Zografos, a suburb of Athens. The IID consisted of two small gas canisters and a plastic container with inflammable liquid. The explosion caused minor damage and no injuries. At 4:40 a.m., an unidentified caller to the Greek newspaper Elefterotypia stated, "The attack was an act of solidarity towards all imprisoned."

June 3, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

Approximately 100 Communist (KKE) demonstrators carrying anti-NATO banners paused briefly in front of the U.S. Consulate General before moving on to the port of Thessaloniki. During their brief stop, one of the demonstrators spray painted "Yankees go home," and "KKE" in large red letters on the sidewalk in front of the building housing the consulate.

June 4, 1999 • Istanbul, Turkey

At approximately 6:30 a.m., Turkish police stopped two men entering a building under construction located 100 meters south from the back of the U.S. Consulate General. A firefight ensued and the two men were killed. The two men were armed with two pistols and a light antitank weapon (LAW) rocket. The men were members of the Revolutionary People's Liberation Party Front (DHKP/C, formerly Dev-Sol) and it is believed that they planned to enter the construction site and fire the rocket at the U.S. Consulate. This is the third time that the group fired and/or attempted to fire a rocket at the U.S. Consulate. On April 6, 1992, and again on July 11, 1992, DHPK/C (then known as Dev-Sol) terrorists fired a rocket at the rear of the U.S Consulate General at 9:15 p.m., and 9:40 p.m., respectively. In both attacks there was minor damage but no injuries. The group subsequently issued a Bulletin (No. 87) which stated in part, "On June 4, 1999 at around 6 a.m., we attempted an attack with a LAW weapon against the United States of America's Istanbul Consulate General in order to protest America's attack on Yugoslavia and to promote the brotherhood between our peoples and the Yugoslav peoples."

June 5, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

Approximately 500 demonstrators converged on Prague's Old Town Square. Fringe groups numbering several hundred peeled away from the main demonstration later in the day and attacked several sites around town including a McDonald's and a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants. The group, numbering 450 people also stopped at the U.S. Embassy and hurled bottles and rocks at the embassy breaking 29 windows on the first two floors. The protestors chanted anti-NATO/anticapitalism slogans. One demonstrator and nine policemen were injured--three seriously. The demonstrators were part of a larger demonstration called the Global Street Party, a loose association of anarchists and radical environmentalists against capitalism, war, social inequality, and globalization.

June 5, 1999 • Aviano, Italy

Approximately 15,000 demonstrators representing various Italian political parties marched to Aviano Air Base carrying anti-NATO/anti-U.S. placards. Approximately 250­-300 of the demonstrators threw rocks and firecrackers at the airbase. The group also started to pull down the sniper screen from the perimeter fence and set fire to the grass at the base of the fence. The fire did not spread and was quickly extinguished by U.S. Air Force personnel. Two of the demonstrators were slightly injured and only minor damage was done to property.

June 7, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

A small anti-NATO demonstration organized by the Women's Association for a Nuclear Future was staged in the vicinity of the U.S. Embassy. There was only one woman and her child.

June 11, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 6 p.m., approximately 1,500­-2,000 people marched from the water front to the U.S. Consulate General. The group arrived at the U.S. Consulate General at 7:20 p.m. They paused at the U.S. Consulate General for 25 minutes chanting anti-U.S. slogans and burning an American flag before continuing to the Port of Thessaloniki.

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

Chart showing Targets of Attack: Sub-Saharan Africa

March 27, 1999 • Harare, Zimbabwe

Approximately 120 Yugoslav demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. At one point, demonstrators threw eggs at the embassy. Before departing the demonstrators left a petition at the embassy.

March 28, 1999 • Johannesburg, South Africa

Several hundred people gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes. Eggs and tomatoes were thrown at the U.S. Consulate General and U.S. and NATO flags were burned.

March 30, 1999 • Cape Town, South Africa

About 50 people, most from the small Serbian community, staged a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Consulate General protesting NATO air strikes.

March 31, 1999 • Goborone, Botswana

Seventy-five Yugoslav expatriates approached the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. Two of the demonstrators delivered a protest letter to an U.S. Embassy official.

April 1, 1999 • Harare, Zimbabwe

A group of 75 people, mostly Serbs, gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action against the Belgrade Government. The 1-hour demonstration was peaceful.

April 3, 1999 • Pretoria, South Africa

Approximately 50­-100 Serbs and Serb supporters marched to the British and U.S. Embassies to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators were generally peaceful, though U.S. and British flags were burned.

April 8, 1999 • Harare, Zimbabwe

Approximately 35 Zimbabwe women staged a peaceful anti-U.S. demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy.

April 17, 1999 • Harare, Zimbabwe

Approximately 200 people gathered at the U.S. Embassy to participate in the International Day of protests against the U.S. and NATO bombings of Yugoslavia. The demonstrators were noisy but peaceful.

April 24, 1999 • Johannesburg, South Africa

At 6 p.m. 100 Serb demonstrators staged an unauthorized demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators carried anti-Clinton signs protesting NATO bombing in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators took down a parking sign at the Consulate General and threw firecrackers and eggs at the building. No one was hurt and damage to property was minimal.

April 24, 1999 • Cape Town, South Africa

Approximately six members of the Workers International Vanguard League staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators called for an immediate halt to NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 10, 1999 • Pretoria, South Africa

Approximately 75 people from a group calling itself the Chinese Community of South Africa briefly demonstrated outside the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A letter of protest was read by a group leader and then accepted by an embassy officer. The group was peaceful, though an American flag was burned.

May 11, 1999 • Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Fourteen members of the Chinese community staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Two letters of protest were handed over to an embassy officer.

NEAR EAST

Chart showing Targets of Attack: Near East

May 8, 1999 • Jerusalem, Occupied Territory

Chinese students and scholars held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to protest the NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy. The demonstrators presented a letter of protest to a consulate officer.

May 9, 1999 • Cairo, Egypt

A group of 15­-20 Chinese journalists came to the U.S. Embassy to protest the attack on the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Two of the journalists were admitted to the embassy to present a written protest to an embassy officer.

May 10, 1999 • Tel Aviv, Israel

Approximately 30 ethnic Chinese staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest the NATO bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators presented a letter of protest to an embassy officer.

May 14, 1999 • Tel Aviv, Israel

Fifty-to-sixty Chinese residents staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

SOUTH ASIA

Chart showing Targets of Attack: South Asia

March 26, 1999 • Calcutta, India

At 4 p.m. about 30 people representing the West Bengal Women's Federation, the All India Youth Federation, and the All India Student Federation staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the American Cultural Center. The crowd presented speeches and burned an effigy of President Clinton before dispersing.

March 26, 1999 • Calcutta, India

At approximately 5 p.m. a group of 200 representatives of the Student's Federation of India and the Democratic Youth Federation of India arrived at the American Cultural Center and briefly blocked the entrance to the building while they placed banners protesting NATO air strikes on the fence of the Cultural Center. They burned an effigy of President Clinton, then dispersed around 5:20 p.m.

March 26, 1999 • New Delhi, India

Members of the Samata Party held a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 27, 1999 • Calcutta, India

About 100 members of the Socialist Unity Center of India held a peaceful demonstration in front of the American Cultural Center against alleged "American aggression in Yugoslavia." The protesters burned an effigy of the American president and dispersed peacefully.

March 29, 1999 • Chennai, India

Two Indian groups, totaling some 200 people staged peaceful demonstrations near the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO air strikes in Kosovo.

March 30, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Twenty supporters of the Chatra Yubha Sangram Committee (Naxalites) held a peaceful demonstration in front of the USIS library. The group chanted slogans and burned an effigy of President Bill Clinton before departing.

March 30, 1999 • New Delhi, India

Approximately 80-­90 demonstrators from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) staged an unannounced peaceful demonstration in front of the American Center to protest U.S./NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

March 31, 1999 • Mumbi, India

A group of 50 demonstrators from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the USIS building to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 1, 1999 • Chennai, India

Thirty members of the Communist Party of India (CPI) staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General.

April 6, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 60 supporters of the Communist Party of India held a demonstration at the USIS facility protesting NATO military action against Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful, but an effigy of President Bill Clinton was burned.

April 7, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 15 supporters of the Communist Party of India Marxist-Leninist (Naxalites) held a demonstration in front of the USIS facility. The group was protesting NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. An effigy of President Bill Clinton was burned, but overall the demonstration was peaceful.

April 7, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 20 members of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General against NATO air strikes.

April 8, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 3:35 p.m., approximately 20-­25 people from Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Delhi Unit held a demonstration in front of the American Center Building to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 8, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 3:40 p.m., three members of the Delhi Citizen Forum for Civil Rights presented a letter to the U.S. Embassy protesting NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia. The three departed peacefully after presenting the protest letter.

April 13, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 40 supporters of the United Trades Union Congress held a demonstration at the USIS facility to protest the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. An effigy of President Clinton was burned and a petition was handed over to security personnel.

April 13, 1999 • Mumbai, India

A group of 30 people belonging to the Third Parallel World (TPW), a group of different organizations and institutions, demonstrated at Azad Maiden, (an area designated for demonstrations by the Mumbai High Court) about 4 miles from the U.S. Consulate General. Four representatives of the TPW were escorted by police to the U.S. Consulate General to present a memorandum denouncing NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The memorandum also condemned the Yugoslav president for engineering ethnic cleansing. A consulate officer received the memorandum from the representatives.

April 15, 1999 • New Delhi, India

A group of 30­-40 people from the Democratic Youth Federation of India held an unannounced demonstration in front of the American Center building to protest NATO and U.S. attacks on Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful.

April 16, 1999 • Calcutta, India

About 15 supporters of the Revolutionary Writers, Artists, and Intellectuals Association (RWAIA) held a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia. An effigy of President Clinton was burned and a memorandum was handed over to security personnel.

April 16, 1999 • New Delhi, India

Approximately 10­-12 people from America Watch held an unannounced demonstration in front of the American Center building to protest U.S. and NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 28, 1999 • Calcutta, India

About 600 supporters of the Student Federation of India and the Democratic Youth Federation of India staged a demonstration at the USIS facility to protest the continued NATO attack on Yugoslavia. The demonstrators threw eggs, tomatoes, and rocks at the building, breaking more than 30 windows. An effigy of President Clinton was also burned.

May 8, 1999 • Baluchistan, Pakistan

Approximately 30 Chinese workers at an American-supervised power plant staged a protest outside the living quarters of the Americans. The demonstrators harassed the American workers and threatened them with violence. No violence ever occurred.

May 10, 1999 • Islamabad, Pakistan

Police fired teargas to prevent 150 Chinese protestors from marching to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 30 supporters of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) held a demonstration a few blocks from USIS to protest the continued NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.

May 11, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 11:05 a.m. 20-­25 children, including a few adults from Children for Peace Group, staged an unannounced peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest U.S. and NATO attacks on Yugoslavia.

May 11, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 2:55 p.m. 40-­45 people from Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), Delhi State, held an unannounced demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting U.S. and NATO military strikes on Yugoslavia. An effigy of NATO was burned, otherwise the demonstration was peaceful.

May 11, 1999 • Islamabad, Pakistan

Approximately 150-­200 Chinese nationals marched towards the U.S. Embassy. The crowd shouted slogans and taunted the police, who kept the demonstrators 100 feet from the embassy. An embassy officer accepted a letter of protest from the demonstrators.

May 12, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 100 people gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to demonstrate for world peace. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 13, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately ten supporters of the Samata Party held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General.

May 13, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 40 members of the New Democratic Workers Union protested against NATO action in Yugoslavia in front of the U.S. Consulate General.

May 13, 1999 • Mumbai, India

Approximately 35 members of the Samata Party (SP) and Hind Mazdoor Kisan Panchayat (HMKP) conducted a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO attacks on Yugoslavia and the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. An embassy officer accepted a letter of protest from representatives of the group who were escorted to the consulate by the police.

May 13, 1999 • Kathmandu, Nepal

Approximately 50 demonstrators from various leftist parties and student groups staged a peaceful protest at the U.S. Embassy against NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A group of six representatives presented a protest letter to an embassy officer.

May 13, 1999 • Colombo, Sri Lanka

Approximately 250 demonstrators approached the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 14, 1999 • Calcutta, India

The South Calcutta District Congress Committee (Congress-I) held a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators staged a mock trial in which President Bill Clinton was hanged and Indian Premier Vajpayee was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for their part in the NATO bombing. A memorandum was handed over to security personnel.

May 14, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 24 members of the Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist protested against NATO action in Yugoslavia for 30 minutes outside the U.S. Consulate General in the designated demonstration area. The demonstration was peaceful.

May 17, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 300 supporters of the West Bengal College and University Teachers' Association held a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate. The group was demonstrating against NATO's bombing of Yugoslavia. A memorandum was handed over to security personnel.

May 17, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 50 members from the All India Imperialist Forum staged a peaceful anti-NATO protest at the U.S. Consulate General.

May 19, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 25 supporters of the Communist Party of India held an unannounced demonstration at USIS protesting NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 20, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 2,500 supporters of the Center for Indian Trade Unions held a peaceful demonstration at USIS protesting the continued NATO bombings of Yugoslavia.

May 20, 1999 • Mumbai, India

Approximately 14 demonstrators belonging to the Socialist Unity Center of India staged a peaceful protest at an area designated for demonstrations by the Mumbai High Court. Two representatives of the group were escorted in police vehicle to the USIS building to present a petition to a USIS officer. The petition condemned NATO's attack on Yugoslavia.

May 21, 1999 • New Delhi, India

Approximately 250 demonstrators from the Indo-Iraq Friendship Society gathered near the U.S. Embassy to protest the U.S. and NATO bombing in Yugoslavia and Iraq. About eight of the demonstrators were allowed to present a letter of protest to an embassy officer.

May 23, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 10 a.m., approximately 40 demonstrators from the Loktantrik Samajwadi Party gathered near the U.S. Embassy to protest against U.S. and NATO action in Yugoslavia. Especially the bombing of the Chinese and Indian Embassies in Belgrade. Three of the demonstrators were allowed to come to the embassy and present a letter of protest.

May 23, 1999 • New Delhi, India

At 4:50 p.m., about 20­-25 students took part in an impromptu demonstration. During the protest the students burned an American flag and pounded on the front gate of the U.S. Embassy. Police reinforcements arrived and 15 demonstrators were arrested.

May 24, 1999 • Mumbai, India

Approximately 100 members of the Akhil Bhartiya Vidhyarthi Parisha (a student union group) held an unannounced demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting NATO military action against Yugoslavia. The demonstration was peaceful, though an effigy of President Bill Clinton was burned.

May 24, 1999 • Chennai, India

Approximately 50 members of the Communist Party of India (CPI) held a protest outside the U.S. Consulate General in the designated demonstration area. The demonstration was against NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

May 24, 1999 • New Delhi, India

Approximately 10­-15 people from the All India Student Association held an unannounced demonstration at the American Center building to protest NATO's attack on the Indian Ambassador's residence in Belgrade.

May 25, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 25 supporters of the Akhil Bharatiya Vidarthi Parishad staged a demonstration at the USIS facility to protest NATO military action against Serbia. An American flag was burned and a number of demonstrators arrested.

May 31, 1999 • Calcutta, India

Approximately 40 supporters of the All India Central Council for Trade Unions staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the USIS American Center.

June 3, 1999 • Calcutta, India

About 250 supporters of the Calcutta Street Hawkers Union staged a demonstration at the USIS facility to oppose NATO aggression on Yugoslavia.

EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC

Chart showing Targets of Attack: East Asia and Pacific

March 24, 1999-­June 20, 1999 • Australia

During Operation Allied Force, there were 97 demonstrations at U.S. diplomatic facilities in Australia. The breakdown is as follows: U.S. Embassy Canberra (2), Consulate General Melbourne (89), Consulate General Perth (2), and Consulate General Sydney (4).

March 25, 1999 • Nagoya, Japan

Demonstrators from the National Federation of Students' Self-Government Associations Tokai Regional Joint Struggle Conference staged a 10-minute peaceful protest in front of the U.S. Consulate to condemn NATO air strikes against targets in Serbia-Montenegro.

March 26, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 20 protesters gathered at the U.S. Embassy and presented an embassy official with a message that read in part "Clinton= Milosevic."

March 26, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Twenty-six demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to stage a peaceful protest the NATO airstrikes in Yugoslavia. The group was from the All Japan Students Council Federation (Zengakuren) and the Nihonzan Myohoji Temple priests. Over the past few days, one to three individuals have been holding a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy to protest the NATO air strikes.

March 27, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 60 people staged a short (10­-15 minutes) peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy against NATO air strikes.

March 28, 1999 • Auckland, New Zealand

More than 50 people staged a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General in opposition to U.S.-NATO bombings in Yugoslavia.

March 29, 1999 • Beijing, China

Two Western-looking males staged a prearranged peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. A public notice giving details of the planned protest was circulated via e-mail throughout the expatriate English-speaking community the weekend before the planed demonstration. The text of the e-mail read " A small group of Yugoslavian citizens will start peaceful protest against the war on March 29th at 8:30 a.m., in front of the American Embassy. The protest will continue every day at the same time--hopefully not for long. If you would like to express your support please join us and light a candle with hope that war is not going to spread and will finish soon. Dalida." The two protestors sat on the curb located across the street from the U.S. Embassy and lit several candles, which the police immediately extinguished. The protesters left after 25 minutes.

March 29, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

Twenty members of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong marched to the U.S. Consulate General to protest the bombing of Yugoslavia. They presented a letter to a consular officer.

March 29, 1999 • Fukuoka, Japan

Four members of Kakumaru-ha (Revolutionary Marxist Faction) staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Consulate. They demanded that a U.S. Consul accept their protest note. After 15 minutes, they threw the protest note over the consulate gate and left the area.

March 29, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 80 people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

March 30, 1999 • Taipei, Taiwan

A Labor Party (LP) vehicle identified as the "Anti-Imperialism Express" arrived at the consular section of American Institute of Taiwan (AIT). Thirty-five LP members and its chairperson got out of the car and demonstrated in front of the AIT building against NATO military action in Yugoslavia and "U.S.-Japan Defense Treaty." During the demonstration, an AIT officer accepted a letter of protest from the LP chairperson. The demonstration was peaceful, though they did burn an American flag.

March 31, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Fifty people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy to oppose the NATO air strikes.

April 5, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 15 people staged a peaceful demonstration in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia.

April 6, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 11 protesters gathered in a park across the street from the U.S. Embassy to hold a peaceful protest against NATO air strikes in Yugoslavia.

April 7, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately 50 protesters gathered in a park opposite the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstrators were peaceful and departed after 45 minutes.

April 9, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

A group of four women from the Federation of Japanese Women's Organizations staged a peaceful anti-NATO demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group completed their protest by delivering a letter to an embassy local guard.

April 9, 1999 • Wellington, New Zealand

Approximately nine demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The peaceful demonstration lasted 1 hour.

April 10, 1999 • Hanoi, Vietnam

Two Vietnamese males staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. They were protesting NATO military action in Yugoslavia. Police arrived and arrested the two men. They were held in police custody for 1 hour and then released.

April 14, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Ten people from three citizens' groups staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO intervention in Yugoslavian affairs. The groups represented were the Asian Solidarity Seminar, the Committee to Oppose the New Guidelines, and the Peace Chain Reaction.

April 15, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Four individuals from the Association to Link Peace and Life protested at the U.S. Embassy against NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia.

April 21, 1999 • Nagoya, Japan

Twelve people from the Chuukakuha-affiliated Aichi Liaison Conference to Oppose the New Guidelines of the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and Emergency Defense came to the U.S. Consulate to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. The demonstrators wanted to deliver a letter of protest to the consulate. When consulate officers declined to meet with the protesters, a representative from the group read aloud the text in front of the consulate's entrance and left the letter of protest.

April 25, 1999 • Nagoya, Japan

Approximately 43 students from Nagoya University, Aichi University, and Gifu University staged a peaceful demonstration at the building housing the U.S. Consulate. The students were protesting NATO military action in Serbia-Montenegro. Since the consulate was closed, the group left a letter of protest and a banner in front of the building.

May 8-­10, 1999 • People's Republic of China

On May 7, 1999, NATO jets mistakenly fired laser-guided bombs at the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, killing three individuals and injuring 27. Reaction by the people of China resulted in large, and at times violent, demonstrations in front of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing and the U.S. Consulate Generals in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang. Demonstrations were not easily numbered, as there was no clear beginning or end to them; waves of demonstrators ebbed and swelled over the 3-day period. At most, the U.S. Embassy in Beijing and U.S. Consulate General in Chengdu were granted a few hours rest in the middle of the night, with demonstrations beginning again full force the next morning. The demonstrators numbered as many as tens of thousands in places such as Beijing.

In Beijing, the four main embassy buildings, including the Ambassador's residence, and the Foreign Commercial Service building were assaulted with a hailstorm of rocks, paint, ink, eggs, tomatoes, and other debris by thousands of demonstrators over a period of 3 days. Demonstrators burned the U.S. flag in protest. Heavy damage was inflicted upon the U.S. Chancery and most of the embassy's windows were shattered. Official and private vehicles on the embassy grounds were badly damaged, many completely totaled. In spite of the strength of the protests, the security perimeter of the U.S. Embassy in Beijing was not breached.

Similar demonstrations occurred in other cities with Chengdu and Shenyang witnessing the worst violence. In Chengdu, angry demonstrators stormed the U.S. Consulate General compound on May 9. They used a bicycle rack as a battering ram against the ballistic glass main front door. The demonstrators were unable, however, to break through and enter the consulate office building. The demonstrators did succeed in breaking into the Consul General's residence, and looting the house and then setting it ablaze. The fire was extinguished, but not before the residence was seriously damaged. One guard was injured.

Shenyang was also hit hard by demonstrations. The U.S. Consulate suffered significant external damage from rocks, paint, and ink. Many of the U.S. Consulate's windows were broken, and the building's fa�ade was badly damaged; however, the demonstrators did not succeed in breaching the perimeter. Demonstrators also broke windows at the U.S. Consulate General staff apartments and the Consul General's residence, and totaled or seriously damaged a number of U.S. official vehicles.

Guangzhou and Shanghai Consulates General were the least affected by demonstrations. Both the U.S. Consulates General in Guangzhou and Shanghai sustained broken windows.

The U.S. Consulate General in Hong Kong witnessed smaller, less violent demonstrations during this time, and sustained no physical damage. While several foreigners reported being harassed during the period of demonstrations, no deaths or serious injuries to Americans (U.S. Government officials or private American citizens) occurred in China or Hong Kong as a result of the demonstrations.

For statistical purposes, there were 27 demonstrations at U.S. diplomatic interests in China over the 3-day period. All but three (all in Hong Kong) were violent.

May 10, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

A group of 75-­80 members of the Chinese Student Association of Japan-Tokyo Chapter held a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The group presented a letter of protest to a consulate officer.

May 10, 1999 • Manila, Philippines

Members of the Chinese community demonstrated in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, Serbia. The demonstrators burned an American flag and pelted the embassy with ripe mangoes.

May 10, 1999 • Vientiane, Laos

A crowd of 75-­100 Chinese people staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrated lasted 90 minutes and ended when a demonstrator read a statement condemning U.S. and NATO actions in the Balkans.

May 10, 1999 • Singapore, Singapore

Fifteen Chinese students arrived at the U.S. Embassy around 10 a.m. to protest the NATO bombings. Four of the students wanted to present a letter that called for a halt to the bombings to an embassy officer. The students met with an embassy officer and dispersed peacefully after the meeting.

May 10, 1999 • Singapore, Singapore

At 2 p.m. some 24 Chinese students gathered at the U.S. Embassy and staged a sit-in. Police asked the students to move from the embassy area to the public sidewalk for safety reasons and the students readily complied. Four of the students requested and were allowed to meet with an official of the embassy. After the meeting, the four students talked briefly with the press outside the embassy before departing.

May 10, 1999 • Taipei, Taiwan

Approximately 35­-40 people staged a peaceful demonstration at the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The demonstrators burned American flags and threw eggs and red ink at the AIT.

May 10, 1999 • Bangkok, Thailand

Approximately 30 Thai journalists demonstrated at the U.S. Embassy. The group was concerned with the recent NATO attacks on television stations and the killing of three journalists in Belgrade. An embassy officer accepted a letter of protest from the demonstrators.

May 11, 1999 • Guangzhou, China

A pair of students from the Agricultural Institute arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to present a petition. They were allowed inside the consulate compound to present the petition to a consulate officer. Later that day, around 3 p.m., a group of 100 demonstrators from the Three-Self Christian Seminary presented a petition to a consulate officer expressing their outrage at the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 11, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

Approximately 2,500 people gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The group also presented a petition to the consulate.

May 11, 1999 • Shenzhen, China

There were demonstrations outside of McDonald's and Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurants and two separate demonstrations at Wal-Mart department store.

May 11, 1999 • Fukuoka, Japan

A group of 47 Chinese students held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A consulate officer also accepted a protest note from the demonstrators.

May 11, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Approximately 30 representatives from various citizens' and religious groups held a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's air strikes on Yugoslavia.

May 12, 1999 • Guangzhou, China

Two high school students presented a petition to the U.S. Consulate General. The petition was signed by the students' entire school.


May 12, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

Over 3,000 demonstrators staged a protest at the U.S. Consulate General against NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. The rally was organized by the Federation of Trade Unions, Hong Kong's biggest labor organization. The Federation's president handed a petition to a consulate officer.

May 12, 1999 • Shenzhen, China

A small peaceful demonstration was held at a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant.

May 12, 1999 • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

A man drove up to a fence adjacent to the U.S. Embassy and hung a bright red banner written in Malay and Chinese, "A debt in blood must be paid in blood." Other writing on the banner said, "Oppose Hegemonism." As embassy guards approached the man, he jumped into his car and drove away.

May 12, 1999 • Taipei, Taiwan

An ethnic Chinese male armed with two 1-liter bottles of gasoline attempted to throw one of the bottles at the front wall of American Institute of Taiwan (AIT). The device fell short of its mark and scorched the sidewalk. The individual was arrested by the police. The suspect is not affiliated with any organization and appeared to have acted alone.

May 13, 1999 • Phnom Penh, Cambodia

A demonstration organized by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce took place at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 13, 1999 • Phom Penh, Cambodia

Approximately 250-­300 ethnic Chinese protestors marched to the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Local police fired 30­-40 rounds into the air when the protestors tried to crash the temporary barriers. The demonstrators overran a nearby gas station. From there they were able to throw hot water bottles and some rocks onto the embassy compound. There was no damage to property. The demonstration ended when heavy rains started.

May 13, 1999 • Seoul, South Korea

Approximately 100 Chinese students and professors gathered in an area a quarter mile from the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A group of 12 demonstrators approached the U.S. Embassy and attempted to unfurl a banner and display placards at the embassy entrance. Police immediately escorted the demonstrators away. A half-hour later, the Chinese demonstrators selected three people to deliver a letter of protest to the U.S. Embassy. It was received by two embassy representatives.

May 13, 1999 • Auckland, New Zealand

A crowd estimated at over 300 staged a noisy, but peaceful protest in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Demonstrators pelted the Consulate General with eggs, but no damage was reported.

May 14, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

The U.S. Consulate General witnessed a small demonstration protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 14, 1999 • Shenzhen, China

Approximately 500 people staged a peaceful demonstration at the Wal-Mart department store. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Demonstrations were held every evening since the bombing of the Chinese Embassy.

May 14, 1999 • Shenzhen, China

Protestors staged a peaceful demonstration at a McDonald's restaurant. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 14, 1999 • Taipei, Taiwan

Eleven members of the China Patriotic and Common Heart Association arrived at the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) in three vehicles. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. Police confiscated eggs from the protestors prior to allowing them to come in AIT's sidewalk. All protestors and vehicles were kept at least 50 feet away from the AIT. The only exception was when five members of the group were allowed to come to the end of the sidewalk to present their petition to AIT's representative.

May 15, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Approximately ten people from the rightist group Issui-Kai (One Water Society) staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest NATO air strikes on Yugoslavia. A midnight vigil also was held by ten people. The vigil was held at the embassy and lasted until 5:15 a.m., May 16th.

May 16, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

The U.S. Consulate General witnessed a small demonstration protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.

May 16, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Two demonstrations with approximately 36 people was held at the U.S. Embassy to demand the halt to the NATO bombings.

May 17, 1999 • Hong Kong, China

The Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers presented to the U.S. Consulate General a large stack of petitions from 252 Hong Kong schools. The petitions condemned NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade and demanded an apology and compensation, as well as an end to the overall bombing campaign in Yugoslavia.

May 17, 1999 • Tokyo, Japan

Three individuals representing three groups--the Japan China Friendship Association, Japan Peace Committee, and the Japan Asia-Africa-Latin America Solidarity Committee--staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy requesting an immediate halt to the bombing of Yugoslavia by NATO.

May 17, 1999 • Bangkok, Thailand

Approximately 100 individuals of Chinese descent staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group was protesting NATO's bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade. A letter of protest was handed to an embassy officer.

ABDULLAH OCALAN

On February 15, 1999, Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) founder and leader Abdullah Ocalan (pronounced OH-jah-lahn) was arrested in Nairobi, Kenya, and handed over to Turkish authorities. The PKK is a terrorist organization that has been waging a war against the Turkish Government since 1984. Over 30,000 people have been killed in the 15-year conflict. The Greek Government indicated that Ocalan had been given safe refuge in its embassy for 10 days prior to his arrest. (The details of the transfer of Ocalan from Greek officials in Kenya to Turkey remain unclear.) In response to the rendition of Ocalan to Turkey on February 15, 1999, PKK supporters and sympathizers and elements of the Kurdish �migr� populations, (primarily in Europe) conducted demonstrations, some violent, at Turkish, Greek, Kenyan, Israeli, and U.S. diplomatic facilities. Elements within the PKK and Kurdish diaspora believe that the United States and Israel were involved in the arrest of Ocalan.

Chart showing types of anti-U.S. incidents by demonstration and violent demonstrationOn May 31, 1999, the trial of Ocalan, (a.k.a. "Apo") commenced in Istanbul, Turkey.* Ocalan was charged with treason, which carries the death penalty. On June 29, 1999, a Turkish State Security Court found Ocalan guilty of treason and sentenced him to death. The guilty verdict and death sentence resulted in over 100 demonstrations (primarily in Europe). Of the 100-plus demonstrations, 28 were directed against U.S. diplomatic facilities. Only four of the anti-U.S. demonstrations were violent resulting in minor damage but no injuries. One possible explanation for the low number of PKK inspired acts of violence is that Ocalan encouraged his supporters to refrain from violence while the trial was underway, and to show restraint during the appeals process so as not to jeopardize the prospects for a more lenient sentence (life imprisonment).

*In Turkey Apo follows a nicknaming practice or custom used among close friends. For first names starting with a vowel, an "o" is added at the end of the first two letters of the name. Ismail becomes Iso and Ibrahim, Ibo. It would stand to reason that Abdullah would be Abo, not Apo. However it one of those linguistic "quirks" in the Turkish language that Apo is the accepted nickname for Abdullah.

On December 30, 1999, Turkish Court of Appeals Chief Prosecutor Savas refused to overturn the death sentence against Ocalan and sent the case file to the Justice Ministry. (On January 3, 2000, the Justice Ministry forwarded the file to the Prime Minister. Normally, the next step is for the Prime Minister to forward the death penalty "file" to Parliament for action.)

Turkish Prime Minister Ecevit told reporters December 30, 1999, that Chief Prosecutor Savas said that it is now up to the government to decide whether or not to comply with the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) "interim measure" (i.e., a stay of execution until the ECHR has reviewed the case.) Prime Minister Ecevit reviewed the issue after the New Year with his two coalition partners and then presented the question to the cabinet. An "Ocalan Summit" of the coalition partners was planned for January 12, 2000.

On January 12, 2000, leaders of Turkey's governing coalition agreed to hold the Ocalan "file" at the Prime Ministry until the ECHR issues a decision, which could take up to 2 years.

A chronology of anti-U.S. incidents in response to the various stages of Ocalan's legal process in 1999 (i.e., Ocalan's rendition from Kenya, and being found guilty by the Turkish State Security Court and sentenced to death) follows.

Chart showing anti-U.S. incidents by country

 Chart showing anti-U.S. incidents and targets of anti-U.S. incidents by region

*February 16, 1999 • Naples, Italy
Demonstrators gathered at the Turkish Consulate, which is directly behind the U.S. Consulate, to protest the arrest of Ocalan. The demonstrators caused considerable damage in the form of red slogans on the front wall of the Turkish Consulate and the back wall of the U.S. Consulate.

June 29, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Police notified the U.S. Consulate that four representatives of the Kurdish community wanted to present a letter to the consulate. A consulate officer met with the Kurdish leader. The leader said that he was concerned about Kurdish reaction if Ocalan is hanged. Although he made no threats, he indicated there may be a danger of violence directed against U.S. interests by younger members of the Kurdish community in Munich. (Approximately 14,000 Kurds live in Munich.)

February 15, 1999

PKK leader Ocalan is arrested in Nairobi, Kenya, and turned over to Turkish authorities.

February 16, 1999 • Naples, Italy

At 6:15 p.m., 35 people descended upon the Turkish Consulate, which is located directly behind the U.S. Consulate. Slogans applied in red paint caused considerable damage to the front and side walls of the Turkish Consulate and the back wall of the U.S. Consulate General. The Greek Consulate, just a half block away, suffered one red-painted slogan ("Greek assassins") on their wall.

February 17, 1999 • Naples, Italy

The Refounded Communist Party staged an anti-U.S./pro-Ocalan demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General.

February 18, 1999 •Athens, Greece

At 6 p.m., the General Confederation of Greek Laborers (GSEE) staged a major demonstration (approximately 5,000 people) in the Athens University-Propylea area to show solidarity with PKK leader Ocalan and the Kurdish people. At the same time, members of various political youth parties staged demonstrations at various Greek, Turkish, and European Union facilities. Some 200 demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy and burned U.S. and Israeli flags. The demonstrators left after 15 minutes. A short time later, another wave of protestors arrived at the embassy and hurled various objects (rocks, eggs, coins) at the embassy. Four windows on the ground floor of the embassy were broken.

February 19, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

From 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., 600-­700 Kurds demonstrated in front of the Greek, U.S., and U.N. missions. The demonstrators were peaceful.

February 19, 1999 • Toronto, Canada

Approximately 250­-300 people gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General in support of Abdullah Ocalan. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 90 minutes.

February 19, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

At approximately 3 p.m., 20 representatives of the PKK staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest U.S. involvement in the ongoing case of PKK founder Abdullah Ocalan.

February 20, 1999 • Milan, Italy

Approximately 1,500 pro-Kurdish demonstrators gathered at the corner of the U.S. Consulate General. The peaceful demonstration was organized by the Communist Renewal Party and included members of the Leoncavallo Social Center as well as Kurds and Kurdish sympathizers.

February 20, 1999 • Amsterdam, Netherlands

A demonstration was scheduled to be held at the U.S. Consulate by PKK representatives. About 800 angry protesters were rerouted away from the U.S. Consulate General to another location. They shouted anti-American and anti-Israeli rhetoric at the arrest of PKK leader Ocalan.

February 24, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

Approximately 1,000­-1,200 Kurds demonstrated in front of the U.S. and U.N. missions. The demonstrators were vocal, but orderly.

February 25, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Some 3,000 pro-Kurdish demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy, presented a proclamation, and hurled assorted objects at the embassy. Seven windows and a door glazing of the front entrance were broken. The protestors also burned part of an American flag and desecrated the remaining fragments. The crowd dispersed after 40 minutes.

February 26, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 7:30 p.m., some 500 student protesters organized by the Youth Wing of the Communist Party (KKE) gathered across from the U.S. Consulate General. They chanted a number of anti-U.S. slogans about U.S./NATO involvement in Kosovo and the capture of Abdullah Ocalan.

February 26, 1999 • Thessaloniki, Greece

At 8:30 p.m., a second group of about 100 older protesters organized by the KKE-affiliated Committee of Solidarity in the Struggle of the Kurdish held a demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General to protest Ocalan's capture.

March 24, 1999 • Warsaw, Poland

About 38 Kurds held a peaceful protest in front of the U.S. Embassy against the arrest of PKK leader Ocalan, and for freedom for the Kurdish people.

June 26, 1999 • The Hague, Netherlands

At approximately 2:28 p.m.,18 demonstrators representing the Dutch Solidarity Committee for Ocalan protested in front of the U.S. Embassy. The group rode bikes around the city and stopped at different ministries, as well as the Turkish, U.S., and Israeli Embassies. The demonstrators left a petition on the U.S. Embassy's front steps requesting that the United States work to free Ocalan. The demonstrators departed peacefully at 2:45 p.m.

June 28, 1999 • Nicosia, Cyprus

At 10 a.m., a pro-PKK demonstration was held at Eleftheria Square in support of Ocalan. Approximately 150 demonstrators then marched to the vacant lot across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration began peacefully, but soon erupted into violence following news of the guilty verdict against Ocalan. The demonstrators threw rocks at the embassy's front gate and at the adjoining guard and police booths. Fighting broke out between the demonstrators and local police in the vacant lot. Riot police brought the demonstrators under control after 15 minutes. Hundreds of thrown stones broke all the windows in the police booth outside the embassy's north gate, as well as some large glass windows in a covered consular area outside the embassy fence.

June 28, 1999 • Hamburg, Germany

Approximately 100 demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General where they protested peacefully for about a hour after Ocalan's verdict was announced.

June 29, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 9:40 p.m., approximately 200 Kurdish and leftist Greeks gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy to protest the incarceration and sentencing to death of PKK leader Ocalan. The demonstrators left peacefully after 20 minutes.

June 29, 1999 • London, United Kingdom

At 11 a.m., a large crowd that grew to 350 people staged a demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest Ocalan's conviction. The demonstrators dispersed after 90 minutes without incident.

June 29, 1999 • Frankfurt, Germany

At 2 p.m., approximately 300 demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Consulate General in what local police termed a spontaneous protest. The group was demonstrating on behalf of an autonomous Kurdish state. A verbal resolution was accepted by a U.S. Consulate General employee. This resolution discussed an autonomous Kurdish state but did not specifically mention the conviction of Ocalan. The group dispersed at 3:15 p.m. No incidents were reported.

June 29, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Police notified the U.S. Consulate General that four representatives from the Kurdish community wanted to present a letter to the U.S. Consulate General. A U.S. Consulate officer met with the leader and they spoke for approximately 10 minutes. The Kurdish leader noted the security measures at the U.S. Consulate General and said he was concerned about the Kurdish reaction if Ocalan is hanged. Although he made no threats, he indicated there may be a danger of violence directed against U.S. interests by younger members of the Kurdish community in Munich. Approximately 14,000 Kurds live in Munich.

June 29, 1999

The Turkish State Security Court ruled Abdullah Ocalan guilty and sentenced him to death.

June 30, 1999 • Montreal, Canada

Approximately 100 people staged a peaceful pro-Kurdish demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The crowd, which included many women and children, departed without incident after 30 minutes.

June 30, 1999 • Berlin, Germany

At 4 p.m., approximately 200 supporters of PKK leader Ocalan staged a peaceful demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration lasted 1 hour.

June 30, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 30 individuals representing the Kurdish Association of Vienna staged a small impromptu demonstration some 125 yards from the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted about 90 minutes.

July 1, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

Approximately 300­-500 people took part in a Kurdish demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration was lively with much chanting and shouting, but was not violent, probably due to the heavy police presence. The demonstrators presented two documents to an embassy officer. One document was an appeal on behalf of PKK leader Ocalan addressed to President Clinton, and the other document was addressed to the media and international community on the same subject.

February 17, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

A demonstration by Kurds from downtown Oslo to the Turkish Embassy passed by the U.S. Embassy. Some 150 protestors bearing signs and banners shouted in front of the U.S. Embassy for 30 minutes. Demonstrators threw rocks at the embassy and broke two windows. The group eventually went to the Turkish Embassy. However on their return from the Turkish Embassy, a smaller group (about 60 people) again stopped at the U.S. Embassy. This group was more violent than the first. They threw rocks at the U.S. Embassy and broke two more windows and clashed with an augmented police presence at the embassy. After 30 minutes, they moved towards downtown.

February 17, 1999 • Vladivostok, Russia

Approximately 20-­25 representatives of the PKK staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest "U.S." involvement in the apprehension and transfer of PKK leader Ocalan.

October 9, 1999 • Yerevan, Armenia

A group of 100 Kurdish nationals staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy for the "freedom of the Kurdish nation." The demonstration lasted 30 minutes.

December 16, 1999 • Calcutta, India

At 3:15 p.m., approximately 40 supporters of the Revolutionary Organization for Independence for Women gathered at the American Center to protest the arrest of Mumia Abu Jamal. The group shouted slogans such as, "U.S. cannot stop fighting against racism by arresting Mumia Abu Jamal and by giving death sentence to Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan." The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 3:40 p.m.

EAST TIMOR

August 30, 1999 - December 31, 1999

On August 30, 1999, the people of East Timor voted on a referendum to accept or reject independence from Indonesia. On September 4, 1999, the result of the vote was announced--the people of East Timor had overwhelmingly voted for independence. The results sparked a violent campaign throughout September by pro-integration militias--armed East Timorese favoring unity with Indonesia--against pro-independence supporters. Indonesian nationalists, mostly in Jakarta, responded to the referendum and the subsequent deployment of the International Force for East Timor with protests and low-level violence against perceived interference in their countries internal affairs.

As an outgrowth of the violence in East Timor, there were 21 non-violent demonstrations at U.S. diplomatic facilities worldwide. Protests ranged from pro-independence groups requesting U.S. intervention in East Timor to pro-integrationists protesting U.S. interference in Indonesian affairs. A chronology of demonstrations follow.

EUROPE

September 5-­7, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

Demonstrators calling for U.S. intervention in East Timor gathered at the U.S. Embassy. The demonstration was peaceful.

September 8, 1999 • Azores, Portugal

At approximately 1:30 p.m. some 240 protestors gathered 100 yards from Gate One at Portuguese Air Base (Lajes Field). At 2:10 p.m., the demonstrators marched to the front gate and several spokesmen for the group asked to deliver a letter to the U.S. military commander of the U.S. Forces Azores (USFORAZ). In summary the letter, addressed to the President of the United States, is to bring to U.S. attention the "tragic situation in East Timor . . . . Words are not enough to stop Indonesian sponsored genocide taking place in East Timor . . . . The U.S. should not shy away from our (U.S.) stated commitments to the cause of human citizens." Following delivery of the letter, the majority of the demonstrators dispersed, probably due to an afternoon rain shower.

September 8, 1999 • Ponto Delgada, Portugal

Approximately 200 demonstrators organized by the Azorean-Timor Friendship Association held a short peaceful vigil at the U.S. Consulate. The president of the association presented a letter to a Consulate employee that stated that the United States was an accomplice to the suffering in East Timor and the international community was ignoring the situation.

September 8­-9, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

At approximately 3:30 p.m., demonstrators gathered at the front of the U.S. Embassy for the 4th day in a row to urge American intervention in East Timor, Indonesia. An estimated 10,000 people gathered at the embassy and by 6 p.m., a human chain at the embassy extended approximately 6 miles to other five embassies that are permanent members of the United Nations in Lisbon. At 1 a.m., on Thursday, September 9, 1999, a Timorese youth scaled the front fence of the U.S. Embassy, and the crowd began chanting anti-American insults and pelted the embassy guards with stones, bottles, and sticks.

September 10, 1999 • Luxembourg, Luxembourg

A crowd numbering 800-­1,000 gathered at the U.S. Embassy to protest the situation in East Timor and call for U.S. intervention in the crisis. The crowd was loud and boisterous but peaceful.

September 11, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

Thousands of supporters of East Timor's independence were piling up garbage bags outside the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators said that they are doing this because "U.S. foreign policy is a moral rubbish dump." The demonstrators also lit candles on the sidewalk outside the embassy and spray painted anti-U.S. rhetoric on the street in front of the embassy.

September 11, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At 12:30 p.m., a group calling themselves The East Timor Ireland Solidarity Campaign gathered in front of the U.S. Embassy. They were joined by members of Amnesty International, Sinn Fein/Dublin Branch, Trocaire, and the Socialist Workers Party. During the demonstration, the crowd grew to approximately 600 people. The demonstrators called on the government to invoke the genocide convention of the United Nations in an effort to stop the violence against the civilian population in East Timor. During the demonstration four protestors climbed on top of the perimeter fence of the embassy and were asked by police to get down, which they did. A number of individuals from a group called Eco Warriors, a well-known group that demonstrates in defense of the Eco system, sprayed their hands with red paint and placed red handprints on the pillars of the embassy front gate. Two of the demonstrators were arrested. The organizers of the demonstration claimed that these individuals had nothing to do with their organization or cause. The demonstration ended at 3 p.m.

September 13, 1999 • Lisbon, Portugal

In the late evening hours, approximately 3,000 supporters of East Timor's independence gathered at the U.S. Embassy and then marched to the U.N. building. Around midnight, protestors were also in front of the U.S. ambassador's residence.

September 13, 1999 • Ponta Delgada, Portugal

About six vigil-keepers were in front of the U.S. Consulate.

September 16, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At approximately 12:45 p.m., a group from Amnesty International gathered outside the U.S. Embassy. By 1 p.m., students from a local high school joined the crowd, which grew to 80 people. The demonstration was part of a series of protests Amnesty International held throughout the week at the embassies of the five permanent members of the United Nations in an effort to stop the violence in East Timor. The head of Amnesty International in Ireland handed over a letter of protest to an embassy officer. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 2 p.m.

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

September 14, 1999 • Luanda, Angola

At approximately 4 p.m., fewer than 30 members of the student movement of the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) demonstrated peacefully across the street from the U.S. Embassy. The purpose of the demonstration was to bring international attention to the events in East Timor. Before departing, the group presented a letter to an embassy employee for the ambassador. The letter welcomes U.S. support for effective international action to restore a peaceful climate that will lead to the independence of East Timor. The demonstration ended at 4:45 p.m.

September 14, 1999 • Praia, Cape Verde

Several thousand demonstrators in support of independence for the people of East Timor marched to the various diplomatic missions. A delegation of four people presented two petitions at the U.S. Embassy as well as the U.N. Development Program offices. (It is believed that petitions were also delivered to the Chinese, French, Russian, and German Embassies.) One petition recalls the tremendous suffering of the people of East Timor and expresses Cape Verdeans' solidarity with them. The other petition mentioned "dissatisfaction with the governments of the nations that head the entities of international law, namely the United States of America for having until now, used a schizophrenic subterfuge regarding the cruelty that Indonesia has practiced regarding East Timor, when, in the name of the defense of sacred rights of mankind in other countries in identical situations, they undertook energetic action against the lying governments only and only because their own interests were in question."

EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

August 28, 1999 • Surabaya, Indonesia

At 10:45 a.m., approximately 40 young people claiming to be Muslim students from East Timor staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators handed a consulate guard a copy of the petition to the East Java governor and local police that, among other things, accused the U.N. Missions in East Timor (UNAMET) of bias, called for an end to the bloodshed, and endorsed "integration or autonomy" for East Timor.

September 6, 1999 • Darwin, Australia

Approximately 30 East Timorese pro-independence protesters staged a peaceful demonstration alongside two U.S. Navy vessels during a port visit. The protestors waved banners and placards and delivered a letter addressed to President Bill Clinton. The letter requested U.S. intervention in East Timor. The demonstrators dispersed after 20 minutes.

September 7, 1999 • Surabaya, Indonesia

Approximately 75 student protestors staged a demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting U.S., Australian, Portuguese, and U.N. interference in Indonesian affairs regarding East Timor. The demonstration was peaceful, though a U.S. flag was burned.

September 9, 1999 • Surabaya, Indonesia

Approximately 70 members of the Indonesian National Student Movement, a group associated with nationalist parties and with the Indonesian Democratic Party - Struggle (PDI-P), demonstrated outside the U.S. Consulate General. They denounced U.S. intervention in East Timor. The group shouted slogans and painted "Go to hell, U.S.A." on a tree in front of the Consulate General. The 35-minute demonstration was peaceful.

September 13, 1999 • Surabaya Indonesia

Approximately 200 pro-integration protestors gathered at the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators screamed anti-Western statements and burned U.S. and U.N. flags. The group, calling itself the People's Alliance for the Defense of the Nation, insisted that the United Nations and the U.N. Mission in East Timor (UNAMET), which they say engineered the pro-independence vote, take responsibility for the violence in the province. They also insisted that the Indonesian security forces retain sole responsibility for policing East Timor, saying that troops from "capitalist infidel" states would risk being killed if they entered Indonesia. The protestors asked to meet with the Consul General, but they declined to enter after learning that they would be restricted to two representatives.

September 14, 1999 • Surabaya, Indonesia

Approximately 150 university students staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Consulate General. The demonstrators were protesting foreign interference in Indonesia.

September 15, 1999 • Surabaya, Indonesia

Approximately 75 students from Universitas Hangtuah demonstrated in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The students complained that foreign intervention in East Timor represents "neocolonialism" and "neocapitalism," which is an affront to Indonesian sovereignty and dignity. Police kept the demonstrators about 12 meters from the Consulate General fence. Two protestors with an Indonesian flag in hand attempted to climb the Consulate General fence, but were prevented from doing so. The students threw tomatoes and eggs in the compound and at consulate security personnel. There have been five other demonstrations at the Consulate General since August 28, 1999.

September 30, 1999 • Jakarta, Indonesia

At 1:47 p.m., approximately 50 people staged an aggressive demonstration at the U.S. Embassy. The group burned an object at the embassy's front gate (possibly a flag), threw eggs, and sprayed red paint over the embassy's seal that was attached to the front gate. The demonstration ended at 2:58 p.m.

MUMIA ABU-JAMAL

January 1, 1999 - December 31, 1999

In June 1982, a Philadelphia jury convicted Mumia Abu-Jamal of first degree murder in the shooting death of Philadelphia policeman Daniel Faulkner. According to court records, the shooting occurred during the predawn hours on December 9, 1981. Mumia Abu-Jamal (born Wesley Cook), a freelance radio journalist, was moonlighting as a taxi driver when he happened by and saw Officer Faulkner struggling with his brother, William Cook, after a traffic stop. When police arrived on the scene, Faulkner was found fatally wounded, shot once in the back and once in the head. Mumia Abu-Jamal was sitting on a nearby curb. He had been shot once in the chest from a round of Faulkner's gun. His brother William Cook was unhurt and found standing against a brick wall. A .38-caliber revolver registered to Mumia Abu-Jamal was found at the scene with five spent shell casings that were of the same brand and caliber that killed Officer Faulkner.

The presiding judge in the case, Judge Albert F. Sabo, sentenced Mumia Abu-Jamal to death. The execution was scheduled for August 17, 1982. Mumia Abu-Jamal contended that his conviction was the result of a biased judge and an ineffective court-appointed lawyer. Ten days prior to his scheduled execution, Judge Sabo granted Mumia Abu-Jamal an indefinite delay of his execution to give him an opportunity to go through the Federal appeals process before his sentence is carried out.

This complex case has been ongoing for 18 years. During Abu-Jamal's incarceration, he has become a cause celebre attracting the attention of death-penalty opponents, foreign political leaders, and political groups of all persuasion. Overseas, periodic demonstrations at U.S. diplomatic facilities (primarily those in Europe) have been held to protest his arrest and conviction.

During 1999, there were 47 demonstrations at U.S. diplomatic facilities by opponents of capital punishment who want to halt all executions and supporters of Abu-Jamal who are demanding a new trial. Twenty-five of the demonstrations were in response to the decision by the U.S. Supreme Court on October 4, 1999, to let stand the conviction of Mumia Abu-Jamal for killing Officer Faulkner 18 years ago.

The U.S. Supreme Court's ruling opened the way for Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge to sign Abu-Jamal's death warrant and schedule his execution for December 2, 1999. However, Abu-Jamal's lawyers filed a Habeas Corpus petition in U.S. District (federal) Court in an attempt to get their client a new trial, arguing that Abu-Jamal's 1982 trial violated his constitutional rights. A Federal Judge issued a stay of execution in order to review the Habeas Corpus petition, which lists 29 separate issues of constitution violations.

As this report is going to press, the case remains in Federal court awaiting a decision of the District Court judge on the Habeas Corpus petition. The decision could be rendered at anytime--within days or many months. Regardless of the decision, the case is likely to continue through the Federal appeals process until it reaches the U.S. Supreme Court.

WESTERN HEMISPHERE

April 22, 1999 • Montreal, Canada

Some 30 young supporters of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal marched to the U.S. Consulate General. Their cause involves claims of (U.S.) police brutality and they have a history, according to Montreal police, of violence. Police moved in on the demonstrators within the beginning of the demonstration. After some pushing and shoving by police, the demonstration turned into a standoff. One demonstrator was arrested for throwing something at a police officer.

April 23, 1999 • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

At 11 a.m., six individuals approached the U.S. Consulate General and wanted to deliver a letter protesting the imprisonment of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group loitered in front of the Consulate General for 1 hour and departed after speaking with the Consulate General press officer for 15 minutes and delivering the protest letter.

April 23, 1999 • Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

At 4 p.m., a second demonstration took place outside the U.S. Consulate General. At one point, the demonstration grew to more than 60 people. The demonstrators made speeches and unfurled large banners and posters supporting Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 6:30 p.m.

April 23, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

At 11 a.m., approximately 60 people gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to support Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group was from a Brazilian organization called Mobilizacao International Pela Libertacao de Mumia Abu-Jamal. This demonstration is part of a worldwide effort to free Mumia Abu-Jamal. Another group showed up with a small contingent to demonstrate against NATO military action in Yugoslavia. The demonstration was basically peaceful, however, during the demonstration several paint filled balloons were thrown at the Consulate General by some of the demonstrators and landed on the outer front perimeter gate. The demonstration ended at 1:30 p.m.

April 24, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

At 4:49 p.m., a group of eight-to-ten demonstrators gathered at the U.S. Embassy Mission Residence (EMR) located two blocks from the U.S. Consulate and protested against the planned execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstrators were peaceful, but managed to spray paint several anti-U.S. slogans on the walls of the EMR prior to the arrival of the police. The demonstration ended at 5:01 p.m.

October 16, 1999 • Toronto, Canada

Approximately 150 demonstrators gathered in front of the U.S. Consulate General to protest the planned execution of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration, organized by a group called The Friends of Move, began at 1 p.m. It started off peacefully, however, at 3 p.m., protesters began moving away from the Consulate General en route to the Metro Police Headquarters to continue their demonstration. Altercations ensued and two protesters were arrested for assaulting police officers.

November 12, 1999 • Sao Paulo, Brazil

At approximately 3:30 p.m., a group of 18 people representing a Brazilian organization called Municipal Students Union (UMES) staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General to show support for Mumia Abu-Jamal. At 3:45 p.m., a strong supporter of Mumia Abu-Jamal, Workers Party (PT) Senator Eduardo Suplicy arrived at the U.S. Consulate General for a meeting he had previously arranged with consulate officers. The senator was accompanied by political activist Misa Lobo, and they presented a letter addressed to President Bill Clinton requesting that he personally intervene on Mumia Abu-Jamal's behalf, stay his execution, and grant him a new trial. The letter was signed by 300 Mumia supporters from Sao Paulo. The demonstrators departed at 4:30 p.m., when Senator Suplicy left the Consulate General.

November 14, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

At 3 p.m., 40 demonstrators arrived at the U.S. Embassy unannounced to protest the planned execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted about 1 hour.

December 11, 1999 • Mexico City, Mexico

Approximately 400 radical students from the National Autonomous University (UNAM) staged a violent protest at the U.S. Embassy in response to the treatment by U.S. law enforcement of demonstrators during the recent World Trade Organization (WHO) Ministerial Meeting in Seattle, Washington. The students were also protesting against the death sentence imposed on Mumia Abu-Jamal. Police clashed with the student demonstrators after they threw stones and fireworks at the embassy. Ninety-eight people reportedly were arrested. The protest came 1 day after students and UNAM officials had agreed to open negotiations to end a strike to protest tuition hikes that has crippled the university for almost 8 months. The students' strike council indicated that it was suspending negotiations with university officials and would organize additional street protests to press for the release of the arrested protesters.

December 17, 1999 • Buenos Aires, Argentina

At 7 p.m., approximately 30 people arrived at the U.S. Embassy to protest the planned execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 1 hour.

EUROPE

February 6, 1999 • Paris, France

A group of approximately 50 people held a demonstration across the street from the U.S. Embassy to protest the imprisonment of Mumia Abu-Jamal and Leonard Peltier. The 1 1/2-hour demonstration was peaceful. Leonard Peltier is an American Indian activist who was arrested and convicted for the 1975 murder of two FBI special agents.

April 14, 1999 • Olso, Norway

At 4 p.m., and without prior warning, the local anarchist group The Blitz staged an illegal demonstration (i.e., not authorized by the police) in front of the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators chanted slogans and spray painted the street with slogans such as "Free Mumia." At one point, the leader of the group ran to the embassy's front doors and began to tie the handles together with plastic police tape. A security investigator employed by the embassy unlocked the embassy's doors in order to remove the tape and chase off the individual trying to tie up the doors. At the same time, police arrived, dispersed the group, and restored order.

September 25, 1999 • Athens, Greece

At 12 p.m., approximately ten demonstrators from Amnesty International arrived at the U.S. Embassy to show their support for death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal and against the death penalty. At 1:05 p.m., a representative from the group delivered a petition to the local embassy guards. At 1:20 p.m., the demonstrators departed the area peacefully.

October 14, 1999 • Berlin, Germany

Approximately 35 demonstrators staged a peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy in support of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration lasted from 5 p.m. to 6:30 p.m.

October 15, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

At 3 p.m., an unannounced demonstration took place in front of the U.S. Embassy. Approximately 50-­60 people from the group The Blitz demonstrated in support of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group carried banners and yelled anti-U.S. slogans. The demonstration was peaceful and the demonstrators departed after 1 hour.

October 16, 1999 • Berlin, Germany

Between the hours of 2 p.m., and 3:30 p.m., approximately 30 people gathered at the U.S. Embassy in support of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful.

October 21, 1999 • Athens, Greece

Approximately ten demonstrators from Amnesty International arrived at the U.S. Embassy to demonstrate against the death penalty. Specifically, the group was protesting in support of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 1 p.m.

October 22, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

At 2 p.m., approximately 62 people representing various leftist groups held a demonstration near the U.S. Embassy to protest the incarceration of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group approached the embassy but stopped 125 yards from the embassy and handed over a petition to an embassy employee. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 90 minutes.

October 22, 1999 • Frankfurt, Germany

At 4:36 p.m., approximately 80 supporters of Mumia Abu-Jamal arrived at the U.S. Consulate General. The group conducted a sit-down demonstration and presented a resolution to the Consulate General, which was accepted by a consulate employee. The one-page resolution was written in German and demanded that Jamal's execution order be lifted and the case retried in another state. According to the Frankfurt police, Guenter Sonnenberg, a convicted member of the Red Army Faction (RAF), was listed as the event's organizer. The demonstration ended at 4:55 p.m. without incident.

October 23, 1999 • Berlin, Germany

At 1:30 p.m., approximately 400 supporters of Mumia Abu-Jamal arrived at the U.S. Embassy. The group carried signs and made speeches in support of Jamal and against capital punishment in the United States. The demonstration was peaceful and lasted 1 hour.

October 28, 1999 • Dublin, Ireland

At approximately 5:30 p.m., a small group of individuals gathered outside the U.S. Embassy to protest the death penalty. Members of the group carried signs that read, "Abolish the racist death penalty," and passed out flyers. It is possible that the demonstration stemmed from the recent U.S. Supreme Court decision to let stand the conviction of death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 7 p.m.

October 30, 1999 • Stockholm, Sweden

At 3:15 p.m., approximately 100 demonstrators marched to the U.S. Embassy protesting the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group was generally peaceful, though an American flag was burned and garbage was thrown at the embassy guard house. At 3:30 p.m. the demonstrators departed the area. The guard house was not damaged.

November 3, 1999 • Paris, France

At approximately 6:30 p.m., 80 people staged a pro-Mumia Abu-Jamal demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 7:30 p.m.

November 5, 1999 • Madrid, Spain

At approximately 7 p.m., less than 100 people staged a peaceful demonstration in front of the U.S. Embassy. The group belonged to an organization called El Comisiones Obreras (CCOO) and were protesting the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Before departing, the demonstrators presented letters to an embassy officer.

November 11, 1999 • Bath, United Kingdom

The regional security officer (RSO) at the U.S. Embassy in London received a phone call from the director of the American Museum in Bath who reported that the museum building and vehicle were vandalized. According to the museum director, unknown individuals spray painted graffiti on the exterior of the museum building and punctured the tires of the museum van. The graffiti read, "Are the KKK killing Abu-Jamal," and "White House=bunch of Nazis." On the same day, the museum received a short telephonic threat. A male caller with an African or Caribbean accent stated, "Next time we do it, we'll burn the place down." The museum does not have any American sponsorship but the U.S. Ambassador was an honorary chairman of the museum.

November 13, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

At approximately 2 p.m., 30-­40 members of an anarchist group, The Anarchists of the Black Cross, staged a noisy but peaceful demonstration at the U.S. Embassy to protest the conviction of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group dispersed after 20 minutes of speeches, but promised to return every day to show support for Abu-Jamal.

November 19, 1999 • Prague, Czech Republic

The U.S. Embassy experienced its second demonstration (see above) protesting the planned execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Approximately 40 members of The Anarchists of the Black Cross staged a peaceful sit-in on a sidewalk 50 yards from the embassy. The group departed after 25 minutes.

November 19, 1999 • Paris, France

At approximately 6 p.m., 60 demonstrators representing the French branch of the International Concerned Family and Friends of Mumia Abu-Jamal occupied the first-floor editorial offices of the International Herald Tribune for about 2 1/2 hours before being evicted by the police. Two senior editors met with seven representatives of the group to hear their demands. A representative for the demonstrators stated that they would not leave until their demands were met. Officials of the newspaper would not hold any discussions with the demonstrators as long as the building was occupied. Finally, at 9 p.m., the demonstrators were evicted by the police. The demonstration/occupation was peaceful.

November 20, 1999 • Vienna, Austria

Approximately 100 people gathered in Vienna's Sixteenth District and marched through the city streets to the vicinity of the U.S. Embassy to protest the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. After presenting a few speeches, the demonstrators dispersed peacefully.

November 20, 1999 • Rennes, France

At 4:15 p.m., approximately 50 members of an ad hoc group calling themselves the Mumia Abu-Jamal Group invaded the Franco-American Center (FAC). The group came into the FAC library, which was open, forced the FAC librarian to open the administrative offices, which were closed and locked at the time, and took occupation of the offices until 5:45 p.m. During the occupation, the group entered the FAC's computer network and damaged the center's accounting software by deleting files. They destroyed two American flags, stole two other flags, placed propaganda stickers throughout the office, broke the lock on the kitchen door and drank approximately $200 worth of liquor, and broke a fax machine while sending faxes to unknown locations. No hostages were taken, and two FAC employees remained on site voluntarily. (They were not harmed.) The Mumia Abu-Jamal Group actually consisted of members of three different groups: the Anarchists, a left-wing labor group, and a group known as SCALP (Section Carriment Anti-Le Pen). The Mumia Abu-Jamal Group was protesting the death sentence of convicted murderer Mumia Abu-Jamal, for the freedom of political prisoners in the United States, and for the freedom of U.S. labor leaders (sic). The police responded to the FAC building, and the demonstrators were allowed to depart peacefully. No arrests were made by the police.

November 24-­25, 1999 • Zurich, Switzerland

At approximately 12:40 a.m., the fire department responded to a fire alarm at the building that houses the Zurich American Center and consular agency offices. It appears that the fire alarm was activated by an improvised explosive device (IED) that caused damage to the entrance's glass door and other glass windows in the enclosed portico of the building. There was no damage to the Zurich American Center or consular agency offices, which are located on the third floor of the building. According to the police, the IED consisted of several large firecrackers taped together and detonated by a slow-burning sparkler. Spray painted onto the facade of the building in German were the slogans "Solidarity with political prisoners," and "Free Mumia."

The police also reported that there was graffiti sprayed on the facade of the building that houses the American Airlines offices and that a large plate-glass window was damaged by an IED placed near the building that houses the Chase Manhattan Bank. The IED is believed to be of the same composition as the one used at the building where the Zurich American Center and consular agency offices are located. A flyer written in German was left at all three scenes. The flyer states in part, "We knocked on the door with firework rockets during the night of November 24­-25, 1999 at Chase Manhattan Bank in Gartenstrasse 33, American Airlines in Lowenstrasse 25, and at the American Center/consular agency at Dufourstrasse 101 in Zurich. These attacks on the U.S. institutions are part of the worldwide resistance against the planned lynching justice of the former Black Panther and Afro-American journalist Mumia Abu-Jamal in the USA."

November 25, 1999 • Rennes, France

While 120 guests, mostly Americans of the Franco American Institute (FAI), were celebrating Thanksgiving at a local restaurant a group of 20 supporters of Mumia Abu-Jamal attempted to gain entry to the restaurant. Because the entrance to the restaurant was narrow, the FAI guests were able to block the door and prevent the Mumia supporters from entering. The police were called and soon arrived. The police physically removed the Mumia supporters and made them disperse.

November 27, 1999 • Oslo, Norway

At approximately 4:10 p.m., 65 people staged a spontaneous demonstration outside the U.S. Embassy. The demonstrators belonged to a group called Kansainvalinen Sosialistiliike (International Socialist Group) and were showing their support for Mumia Abu-Jamal. The police were notified and responded to the embassy and disbanded the crowd. Prior to the arrival of the police, a demonstrator placed a ribbon and small poster of Abu-Jamal near the entrance to the embassy.

November 27, 1999 • Barcelona, Spain

Fewer than 12 people arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to protest the incarceration and pending execution of Mumia Abul-Jamal.

November 30, 1999 • Munich, Germany

Approximately 70­-100 protestors held a peaceful march against the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstrators started their march at a German multinational company and marched to the U.S. Consulate General around 7 p.m. The demonstrators were peaceful. They chanted slogans and held banners stating their opposition to the WHO and the death penalty. They left the Consulate General around 7:15 p.m.

December 2, 1999 • Lyon, France

At 4:20 p.m., approximately 45 supporters of Mumia Abu-Jamal arrived at the American Presence Post (APP) and demanded a meeting with an American official. Approximately 30 members of the group remained in the ground floor lobby area of the local Chamber of Commerce, including five who chained themselves to posts, while 15 members of the group reached the second floor hallway just outside the APP doorway. Some of the protesters damaged a security camera located in the hallway outside the APP. All employees of the post remained inside, behind the hard line, along with a local French police officer. Post refused the group's demands for a meeting and immediately phoned the police. Police arrived and evicted the protesters. They remained across the street for 45 minutes. All employees left the building via the rear entrance. The protest ended at 6:20 p.m. No injuries were reported.

December 2, 1999 • Leipzig, Germany

At approximately 5:30 p.m., ten supporters from various leftist groups staged a peaceful 1-hour demonstration in front of the U.S. Consulate General. The group was protesting the imprisonment and death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Once at the Consulate General, the group erected a makeshift screen and projected a video featuring statements by Mumia Abu-Jamal and other speakers who denounced racism and capital punishment as a tool of "capitalist-racist oppression." Representatives of the group passed to the Consulate General's security guards a petition entitled "Save Mumi Abu-Jamal." The petition had been signed by approximately 150 persons.

December 2, 1999 • Barcelona, Spain

Approximately six people gathered at the U.S. Consulate General to protest the incarceration and pending execution of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Guards a the Consulate General reported that the same six had been present at the November 27 demonstration at the Consulate General (see above). The group left a letter of protest addressed to the Consulate General. It was signed by The Anarchist of the Black Cross, a group unfamiliar to the Consulate General.

December 3, 1999 • Bern, Switzerland

At 5 p.m., approximately 80 demonstrators representing the Local Solidarity Group for Mumia Abu-Jamal held a demonstration approximately 50 meters up the street from the U.S. Embassy. The group presented to the embassy a box containing signed petitions, calling for, among other things, nullification of the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. Along with the box of petitions, the group's leader presented a bottle of wine as a sign of "goodwill." The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 6 p.m.

December 13, 1999 • Copenhagen, Denmark

At approximately 6:30 p.m., 125 demonstrators from the local anarchist group The Blitz joined by a loose confederation of anti-death penalty activists, gathered at the U.S. Embassy to show support for death-row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal. At one point the demonstrators threw firecrackers in the direction of the embassy and blocked traffic for 45 minutes. Police dispersed the crowd after 1 hour. The demonstration was generally peaceful and no property was damaged.

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

April 24, 1999 • Johannesburg, South Africa

At approximately 10:20 a.m., approximately 50 people arrived at the U.S. Consulate General to call for the release of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was sponsored by the Socialist Party of Azania. (The Socialist Party of Azania is a small splinter group formed in 1998 by disaffected members of the Azanian People's Organization or AZAPO.) The leader of the group first insisted on handing a written statement to an American representative but was told none of the American staff was present. After two members of the local media arrived, he handed his statement over to a member of the Consulate General's guard force. The demonstrators then departed.

November 26, 1999 • Johannesburg, South Africa

Approximately 25 members of the Socialist Party of Azania came to the U.S. Consulate General with petitions requesting that Mumia Abu-Jamal be granted a stay of execution. When an official from the Consulate General joined the group in front of the main gate of the Consulate General, they unfurled a party flag behind the official and began snapping photos. An official from the U.S. Consular General accepted letters addressed to the Consulate General and President Clinton. The protesters dispersed about 1/2 hour later.

November 29, 1999 • Johannesburg, South Africa

Protesters again came to the U.S. Consulate General with petitions requesting that Mumia Abu-Jamal be granted a stay of execution. A U.S. Consulate General official accepted the letters of protest.

SOUTH ASIA

April 23, 1999 • Calcutta, India

At 3:05 p.m., about 75 supporters of the All India Anti-Imperialist Forum held a demonstration at the USIS facility to protest the death sentence of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 3:25 p.m.

December 16, 1999 • Calcutta, India

At 3:15 p.m., approximately 40 supporters of the Revolutionary Organization for Independence for Women gathered at the American Center to protest the arrest of Mumia Abu-Jamal. The group shouted slogans such as, "U.S. cannot stop fighting against racism by arresting Mumia Abu Jamal and by giving death sentence to Kurdish leader Abudllah Ocalan." The demonstration was peaceful and ended at 3:40 p.m.



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