Republic of Chad
Area: 1,284,634 sq. km. (496,000 sq. mi.); about the size of Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico combined.
Cities: Capital--N'Djamena (pop.500,000 est.). Other major cities--Moundou (pop. 120,000), Abeche, Sarh.
Terrain: Desert, mountainous north, large arid central plain, fertile lowlands in extreme southern region.
Climate: Northern desert--very dry throughout the year; central plain--hot and dry, with brief rainy season mid-June to mid-September; southern lowlands--warm and more humid with seasonal rains from late May to early October.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Chadian(s).
Population: 5.5 million.
Annual growth rate: 2.5%.
Density: 4.2 per sq. km. (11 per sq. mi.).
Ethnic groups: 200 distinct groups--including Toubou (Gourane), Arabs, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Kanembou, Bagirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, Hadjerai, and Maba--most of whom are Muslim, in the north and center. Non-Muslims, Sara (Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moudang, Moussei, Massa--in the south. About 2,500 French citizens live in Chad.
Religions: Muslim, Christian, traditional.
Languages: French and Arabic (official); 200 indigenous Chadian languages. Health: Life expectancy--46. Infant mortality rate--132/1,000.
Independence: August 11, 1960.
Branches: Executive--president (head of state, president of the council of ministers), council of ministers. Legislative--Provisional Council of the Republic. Judicial--court of appeals, several lower courts.
Political party: Six political parties as of May 18, 1992: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS), Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP), Democratic Union for Progress in Chad (UDPT), National Rally for Democracy and Progress (VIVA-RNDP), Union for Democracy and the Republic (UDR), Chadian People's Assembly (RPT).
Administrative subdivisions: 14 prefectures, 54 subprefectures, 27 administrative posts, and 9 municipalities.
Flag: Blue, yellow, and red vertical bands from left to right.
GDP (est.): $1 billion.
Per capita income (est.): $200.
Natural resources: Petroleum (unexploited), natron (sodium carbonate), kaolin.
Agriculture: Products--cotton, gum arabic, livestock, fish, peanuts, millet, sorghum, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, dates.
Industry: Types--agriculture and livestock processing plants, natron mining.
Trade: Exports--$155 million: cotton (46%), livestock, gum arabic.
Imports--$250 million: petroleum, machinery, cement, motor vehicles, used clothing. Major trade partners--France and countries of the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa. Chad enjoys preferential tariffs in France and other EC countries.
Economic aid received (1990): Economic, food relief--$312 million from all sources. U.S. aid--$10.9 million (fiscal year ending 1990).
There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad. Those in the north and east are generally Muslim; most southerners are animists and Christians. Through their long religious and commercial relationships with Sudan and Egypt, many of the peoples in Chad's eastern and central regions have become more or less Arabized, speaking Arabic and engaging in many other Arab cultural practices as well. Chad's southern peoples took more readily to European culture during the French colonial period.
Chad has known human habitation since time immemorial. The oldest humanoid skull yet found in Chad (Borkou) is more than 1 million years old. Because in ancient times the Saharan area was not totally arid, Chad's population was more evenly distributed than it is today. For example, 7,000 years ago, the north central basin, now in the Sahara, was still filled with water, and people lived and farmed around its shores. The cliff paintings in Borkou and Ennedi depict elephants, rhinoceri, giraffes, cattle, and camels; only camels survive there today. The region was known to traders and geographers from the late Middle Ages. Since then, Chad has served as a crossroads for the Muslim peoples of the desert and savanna regions and the animist Bantu tribes of the tropical forests.
Sao people lived along the Chari River for thousands of years, but their relatively weak chiefdoms were overtaken by the powerful chiefs of what were to become the Kanem-Bornu and Baguirmi kingdoms. At their peak, these two kingdoms and the kingdom of Ouaddai controlled a good part of what is now Chad, as well as parts of Nigeria and Sudan. From 1500 to 1900, Arab slave raids were widespread. The French first penetrated Chad in 1891, establishing their authority through military expeditions primarily against the Muslim kingdoms. The first major colonial battle for Chad was fought in 1900 between the French Major Lamy and the African leader Rabah, both of whom were killed in the battle. Although the French won that battle, they did not declare the territory pacified until 1911; armed clashes between colonial troops and local bands continued for many years thereafter.
In 1905, administrative responsibility for Chad was placed under a governor general stationed at Brazzaville in what is now Congo. Although Chad joined the French colonies of Gabon, Oubangui-Charo, and Moyen Congo to form the Federation of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) in 1910, it did not have colonial status until 1920. The northern region of Chad was occupied by the French in 1914.
In 1959, the territory of French Equatorial Africa was dissolved, and four states--Gabon, the Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), and Chad--became autonomous members of the French Community. In 1960, Chad became an independent nation under its first president, Francois Tombalbaye.
A long civil war began as a tax revolt in 1965 and soon set the Muslim north and east against the southern-led government. Even with the help of French combat forces, the Tombalbaye Government was never able to quell the insurgency. Tombalbaye's rule became more irrational and brutal, leading the military to carry out a coup in 1975 and to install Gen. Felix Malloum, a southerner, as head of state.
In 1978, Malloum's Government was broadened to include more northerners. Internal dissent within the government led the northern Prime Minister, Hissein Habre, to send his forces against the national army at N'Djamena in February 1979. This act led to intense fighting among the 11 factions that emerged. At this point, the civil war had become so widespread that regional governments decided there was no effective central government and stepped in.
A series of four international conferences held first under Nigerian and then Organization of African Unity (OAU) sponsorship attempted to bring the Chadian factions together. At the fourth conference, held in Lagos, Nigeria, in August 1979, the Lagos accord was signed. This accord established a transitional government pending national elections. In November 1979, the National Union Transition Government (GUNT) was created with a mandate to govern for 18 months. Goukouni Oueddei, a northerner, was named President; Col. Kamougue, a southerner, Vice President; and Habre, Minister of Defense.
This coalition proved fragile; in March 1980, fighting broke out again between Goukouni's and Habre's forces. The war dragged on inconclusively until Goukouni sought and obtained Libyan intervention. More than 7,000 Libyan troops entered Chad. Although Goukouni requested complete withdrawal of external forces in October 1981, the Libyans pulled back only to the Aozou Strip in northern Chad.
An OAU peacekeeping force of 3,500 troops replaced the Libyan forces in the remainder of Chad. The force, consisting of troops from Nigeria, Senegal, and Zaire, received funding from the United States. A special summit of the OAU ad hoc committee on the Chad/Libya dispute in February 1982 called for reconciliation among all the factions, particularly those led by Goukouni and Habre, who had resumed fighting in eastern Chad. Although Habre agreed to participate, Goukouni refused to negotiate with Habre on an equal basis. In the series of battles that followed, Habre's forces defeated the GUNT, and Habre occupied N'Djamena on June 7, 1982. The OAU force remained neutral during the conflict, and all of its elements were withdrawn from Chad at the end of June.
In the summer of 1983, GUNT forces launched an offensive against government positions in northern and eastern Chad. Following a series of initial defeats, government forces succeeded in stopping the rebels. At this point, Libyan forces directly intervened once again, bombing government forces at Faya Largeau. Ground attacks followed the bombings, forcing government troops to abandon N'Djamena and withdraw to the south. In response to Libya's direct intervention, French and Zairian forces were sent to Chad to assist in defending the government. With the deployment of French troops, the military situation stabilized, leaving the Libyans and rebels in control of all Chad north of the 16th parallel.
In September 1984, the French and the Libyan Governments announced an agreement for the mutual withdrawal of their forces from Chad. By the end of the year, all French and Zairian troops were withdrawn. Libya did not honor the withdrawal accord, however, and its forces continued to occupy the northern third of Chad.
President Habre's efforts to deal with his opposition were aided by a number of African leaders, especially Gabon's President, Omar Bongo. During accords held in Libreville, Gabon, in 1985, two of the chief exile opposition groups, the Chadian Democratic Front and the Coordinating Action Committee of the Democratic Revolutionary Council, made peace with the Habre Government. By 1986, all of the rebel commando (CODO) groups in southern Chad came in from the forests, rallied to President Habre's side, and were re-integrated into the Forces Armees Nationales Chadiennes (FANT).
In the fall of 1986, fighters loyal to Goukouni Oueddei, leader of the GUNT, began defecting to the FANT. Although Libyan forces were more heavily equipped than were the Chadians, Habre's FANT, with considerable assistance from ex-GUNT forces, began attacks against the Libyan occupiers in November 1986 and won victories at all the important cities. The Chadian offensive ended in August 1987, with the taking of Aozou Town, the principal village in the Aozou Strip. Chad Government forces held the village for a month but lost it to a heavy Libyan counterattack.
The OAU ad hoc committee continued to seek a peaceful solution to the Chad/Libya conflict, holding meetings over the years with heads of state or ministerial-level officials. In October 1988, Chad resumed formal diplomatic relations with Libya, in accordance with recommendations made by the OAU.
A month later, Habre's reconciliation efforts succeeded, and he took power in N'Djamena. In April 1989, Idriss Deby, one of Habre's leading generals, defected and fled to Darfur in Sudan, from which he mounted a series of attacks on the eastern region of Chad. In November 1990, he invaded; on December 2, 1990, his forces entered N'Djamena without a battle, President Habre and forces loyal to him having fled. After 3 months of provisional government, a national charter was approved by the Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) on February 28, 1991, with Deby as President.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
The Fundamental Act of the Republic, proclaimed on October 18, 1982, served as the constitutional basis for government until December 10, 1989, when it was replaced by a new constitution. The latter was revoked by the MPS on December 4, 1990, after Habre's fall.
Until the December 1990 takeover of the government by the MPS, Chad's political structure comprised an executive office, a national assembly, and the National Union for Independence and Revolution (UNIR), the sole political party. The MPS embarked on an ambitious democratization program, which included authorization for multiple political parties in October 1991 and presidential, legislative, and local elections in 1993. The current government, self-described as a transitional or provisional government, is headed by President Idriss Deby. Prime Minister Jean Bawoyeu Alingue is charged with administration of government. A council of ministers, which the president heads, directs government policy. Authority for the current government structure comes from the national charter of March 1991. Until March 1992, the MPS was the only political organization permitted. Since then, the Rally for Democracy and Progress (headed by Lol Mahamat Choua), the Democratic Union for Progress in Chad (Elie Romba), the National Rally for Democracy and Progress (Kassire Joumakoye), the Union for Democracy and the Republic (Jean Bawoyeau Alingue), and the Chadian People's Assembly (Dangde Laobele Damaye), were authorized.
The MPS is composed of a 28-member executive committee and a 155-member national committee. Idriss Deby is the president of the MPS. Chad's politics are dominated by the democratization agenda, established by the MPS as a priority. Progress has been made in ameliorating Chad's human rights record and in liberalizing politics. Currently, an outspoken press, two trade unions, and two human rights organizations function openly.
Relations between Chad and Libya are important factors in Chad's political environment. Idriss Deby and the MPS have advocated a good- neighbor policy with all countries bordering Chad, including Libya. This has resulted in a lessening of the military tensions evident under the Habre regime, but concerns remain as to Libya's political intentions in Chad, and the dispute over the Aozou Strip remains unresolved. The case was referred to the International Court of Justice for review.
Principal Government Officials
President, Head of State, President of the Council of Ministers--Idriss Deby
Prime Minister--Jean Bawoyeu Alingue
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Mahamat Saleh Ahmat
Ambassador to the US and UN--Acheik ibn Oumar
Chad maintains an embassy in the United States at 2002 R Street, NW, Washington, DC 20009 (tel: 202-462-4009).
The Chadian military under former President Hissein Habre was dominated by members of Gourane, Zaghawa, Kanembou, Hadjerai, and Massa groups. Idriss Deby, a member of a minority Zaghawa clan and a top military commander, revolted and fled to the Sudan, taking with him many Zaghawa and Hadjerai soldiers in 1989.
The forces Deby led into N'Djamena on December 1, 1990, and which overthrew Habre were mainly of Zaghawas, including a large number of Sudanese Zaghawa. Many of these were recruited while Deby was in the bush. Deby's coalition also included a small number of Hadjerais and southerners.
Chad's armed forces numbered about 35,000 at the end of the Habre regime but swelled to an estimated 50,000 in the early days of Idriss Deby. The growth was a result of recruiting tribal members loyal to Deby and his principal commanders and of combining Habre's and Deby's armies into the new national Chadian army, FANT.
With French support, a reorganization of the armed forces was initiated early in 1991. The reorganization goal is to reduce the armed forces from 50,000 to 25,000 and to restructure it into a ground army of approximately 20,000, consisting of a republican guard, infantry regiments, and support battalions. Also included in the new structure is a gendarmerie of about 5,000 and an air force of about 400. Ethnic composition of the regiments is to reflect that of the country as a whole.
A key challenge for the national army of Chad is the reduction portion of the overall reorganization plan. Limited funds to pay mustering out bonuses and pensions and a lack of employment opportunities in the economy have inhibited efforts. However, a list of the initial reductions has been drafted and is being reviewed by government officials for implementation.
About 85% of Chadians make their living from subsistence agriculture, fishing, and stock raising. Cotton and livestock are the two major exports, accounting for 70% of Chad's export earnings. In years of adequate rainfall, Chad is self-sufficient in food. In years of drought, such as those that occurred in the mid-1970s, in 1984-85, and in 1990, large quantities of foodstuffs, primarily cereals, must be imported.
Cotton alone accounts for 10% of agricultural GDP. Primary markets include neighboring Cameroon and Nigeria and France, Germany, and Portugal. In 1986, cotton prices on the world market declined by more than 50%, and CotonTchad did not show a profit again until 1991. Rehabilitation of CotonTchad, the major cotton company, has been financed by France, the Netherlands, the European Economic Community (EC), and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). Because of cotton's importance to the economy, the government excused the collection of export taxes until the company returned to profitability. CotonTchad is adhering to its agenda and is well on the road to recovery.
The other major export is livestock, herded to neighboring countries. Herdsmen in the Sudanic and Sahelian zones raise cattle, sheep, goats, and, among the non-Muslims, a few pigs. In the Saharan region, only camels and a few hardy goats can survive. Chad also sells smoked and dried fish to its neighbors and exports several million dollars worth of gum arabic to Europe each year. Other food crops include millet, sorghum, peanuts, rice, sweet potatoes, manioc, cassava, and yams.
In both the north and the south, industrial activity and minerals exploration peaked in 1978. The civil war and the Libyan intervention in 1980 devastated N'Djamena and destroyed most of the economic infrastructure there. Between the first outbreak of heavy fighting in N'Djamena in February 1979 and the withdrawal of Libyan forces from the capital in 1981, southern Chad became an autonomous area, not to be fully integrated into the country until 1983. The south continued to export cotton, but none of the economic benefits of that trade reached the rest of the country.
The effects of the war on foreign investment are still felt today, as investors who left Chad between 1979-82 have only recently begun to regain confidence in the country's future. By early 1983, the return of internal security and a successful Geneva donors' conference had prompted a number of international business representatives to make exploratory visits to Chad.
An international consortium is conducting exploratory drilling for petroleum in the south. By mid-1991, seismic studies by an American oil company in the north-central desert area were completed. The World Bank has agreed to partially finance a pipeline/mini-refinery/power plant project in N'Djamena using small crude oil deposits found north of Lake Chad.
Chad is officially non-aligned but has close relations with France, the former colonial power, and other members of the Western community. It receives economic aid from countries of the European Community, the United States, and various international organizations. Libya supplies aid and has an ambassador resident in N'Djamena.
Other resident diplomatic missions in N'Djamena include the embassies of France, the United States, Egypt, Algeria, Iraq, Sudan, Germany, the Central African Republic, Zaire, Nigeria, China, Cameroon, and the European Economic Community. A number of other countries have non- resident ambassadors. In 1988, Chad decided to recognize the "State of Palestine," which maintains an "embassy" in N'Djamena. Chad has not recognized the State of Israel.
With the exception of Libya, whose expansionist policies have kept the two nations in conflict since 1980, Chad has generally good rapport with its neighbors. Although relations with Libya improved with the advent of the Deby Government, strains persist.
Chad has been an active champion of regional cooperation through the Central African Economic and Customs Union, the Lake Chad and Niger River Basin Commissions, and the Inter-state Commission for the Fight Against the Drought in the Sahel.
Relations between the United States and Chad are good. The American Embassy in N'Djamena, established at Chadian independence in 1960, was closed from the onset of the heavy fighting in the city in 1980 until the withdrawal of the Libyan forces at the end of 1981. It was reopened in January 1982. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S. Information Service (USIS) offices resumed activities in Chad in September 1983.
The United States enjoyed close relations with the Habre regime, although strains over human rights abuses developed prior to Habre's fall. Cordial relations with the Deby Government continue. The USAID program is expanding, both in terms of project assistance and emergency aid. Approximately $15 million in emergency assistance was granted to combat a cholera epidemic and to prevent famine in 1991.
The U.S. development program in Chad concentrates on the agricultural, health, and infrastructure sectors and includes projects in road repair and maintenance, maternal and child health, famine early warning systems, and agricultural marketing. USAID works with several American voluntary agencies such as CARE, AFRICARE, and VITA on some of its projects. The first Peace Corps volunteers of the post-war period arrived in Chad in September 1987, and about 40 are currently assigned.
Development assistance had increased from $3.3 million in 1982 to $15 million in 1991. Budget constraints have forced economic support funds cutbacks for FY 1992, however.
Principal U.S. Officials
Deputy Chief of Mission--Steven R. Buckler
Political/Consular Officer--Michael Bajek
Administrative Officer--Thomas Bovaird
Economic/Commercial Officer--Alexander Bolling
Public Affairs Officer--Peter Piness
Regional Security Officer--Jon Myers
AID Representative--Anne Williams
Peace Corps Director--Joseph Hindman
Defense Attache--Ltc. Dale Flora, USA
The U.S. Embassy in Chad is located on Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena, (tel: 235-51-62-18 or 235-51-40-09).