For the most current version of this Note, see Background Notes A-Z.
Area: 592,800 sq. km. (228,880 sq. mi.).
Cities: Capital--Antananarivo (pop. about 1,300,000). Other cities--Antsirabe (about 500,000), Mahajanga (about 400,000), Toamasina (about 450,000).
Terrain: Mountainous central plateau, coastal plain.
Climate: Moderate interior, tropical coasts.
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Malagasy.
Population (2009 estimate): 20,653,556.
Annual population growth rate (2009 estimate): 3%.
Ethnic groups: 18 Malagasy tribes; small groups of Comorans, French, Indians, and Chinese.
Religions: Traditional beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%.
Languages: Malagasy (official), French (official), English (official).
Education: Years compulsory--5. Attendance--65%. Literacy--68.9%.
Health: Infant mortality rate--54.2/1,000. Life expectancy--62.89 yrs.
Work force (2000): 7.3 million. Agriculture--80%; industry--7%.
Independence: June 26, 1960.
Constitution: Entered into force in March 1998.
Branches: Executive--president, prime minister, cabinet. Judicial--Supreme Court, High Court of Justice, Constitutional High Court. Legislative--National Assembly and Senate.
NOTE: On March 17, 2009, democratically elected President Marc Ravalomanana stepped down and purported to transfer his authority to a senior military figure, who in turn purported to confer the presidency on opposition leader Andry Rajoelina, who is currently heading the High Transitional Authority (HAT). The United States characterized the transfer of power as tantamount to a military coup d’état and does not recognize the HAT. References to de-facto government officials in this text are factual only and do not reflect U.S. recognition of the HAT regime.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
National holiday: June 26.
GDP (U.S.$, 2008 est., official exchange rate): $9.729 billion.
GDP per capita (2008 est., purchasing power parity): $1,000.
Unemployment: no reliable data available.
Natural resources: Graphite, chrome, coal, bauxite, ilmenite, nickel, gold, oil, tar sands, precious and semiprecious stones, and hardwoods.
Agriculture (26% of GDP, 2008 est.): Products--rice, livestock, seafood, coffee, vanilla, sugar, cloves, cotton, sisal, peanuts, and tobacco.
Industry (15.9% of GDP, 2008 est.): Types--processed food, clothing, textiles, mining, paper, refined petroleum products, glassware, construction, soap, cement, tanning.
Trade: Exports (2007, f.o.b.) $989 million: apparel, shrimp, vanilla, coffee, cloves, graphite, essential oils, industrial minerals and gemstones. Major export markets--France, U.S., Germany, Italy, U.K. Imports (2007, f.o.b.) $1.933 billion: foodstuffs, fuel and energy, capital goods, vehicles, consumer goods and electronics. Major suppliers--France, China, Iran, Mauritius, Hong Kong.
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
Madagascar's population is predominantly of mixed Asian and African origin. Research suggests that the island was uninhabited until Indonesian seafarers arrived in roughly the first century A.D., probably by way of southern India and East Africa, where they acquired African wives and slaves. Subsequent migrations from both the Pacific and Africa further consolidated this original mixture, and 18 separate tribal groups emerged. Asian features are most predominant in the central highlands people, the Merina (3 million) and the Betsileo (2 million); the coastal people are of more clearly African origin. The largest coastal groups are the Betsimisaraka (1.5 million) and the Tsimihety and Sakalava (700,000 each).
The Malagasy language is of Malayo-Polynesian origin and is generally spoken throughout the island, with significant regional variations. French is spoken among the educated population of this former French colony. English is becoming more widely spoken, and in 2003 the government began a pilot project of introducing the teaching of English into the primary grades of 44 schools, with hopes of taking the project nationwide. In 2010, however, the de-facto government introduced measures that would limit the use and teaching of English.
Most people practice traditional religions, which tend to emphasize links between the living and the dead. They believe that the dead join their ancestors in the ranks of divinity and that ancestors are intensely concerned with the fate of their living descendants. The Merina and Betsileo reburial practice of famadihana, or "turning over the dead" celebrates this spiritual communion. In this ritual, relatives' remains are removed from the family tomb, rewrapped in new silk shrouds, and returned to the tomb following festive ceremonies in their honor.
About 41% of the Malagasy are Christian, divided almost evenly between Roman Catholic and Protestant. Many incorporate the cult of the dead with their religious beliefs and bless their dead at church before proceeding with the traditional burial rites. They also may invite a pastor to attend a famadihana. While many Christians continue these practices, others consider them to be superstitions that should be abandoned. Many of the Christian churches are influential in politics. In the coastal regions of the provinces of Mahajanga and Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Muslims constitute a significant minority. Muslims are divided between those of Malagasy ethnicity, Indo-Pakistanis, and Comorans.
The written history of Madagascar began in the seventh century A.D., when Arabs established trading posts along the northwest coast. European contact began in the 1500s, when Portuguese sea captain Diego Dias sighted the island after his ship became separated from a fleet bound for India. In the late 17th century, the French established trading posts along the east coast. From about 1774 to 1824, it was a favorite haunt for pirates, including Americans, one of whom brought Malagasy rice to South Carolina.
Beginning in the 1790s, Merina rulers succeeded in establishing hegemony over the major part of the island, including the coast. In 1817, the Merina ruler and the British governor of Mauritius concluded a treaty abolishing the slave trade, which had been important in Madagascar's economy. In return, the island received British military and financial assistance. British influence remained strong for several decades, during which the Merina court was converted to Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, and Anglicanism.
The British accepted the imposition of a French protectorate over Madagascar in 1885 in return for eventual control over Zanzibar (now part of Tanzania) and as part of an overall definition of spheres of influence in the area. Absolute French control over Madagascar was established by military force in 1895-96, and the Merina monarchy was abolished.
Malagasy troops fought in France, Morocco, and Syria during World War I. After France fell to the Germans, the Vichy government administered Madagascar. British troops occupied the strategic island in 1942 to preclude its seizure by the Japanese. The Free French received the island from the United Kingdom in 1943.
In 1947, with French prestige at low ebb, a nationalist uprising was suppressed after several months of bitter fighting. The French subsequently established reformed institutions in 1956 under the Loi Cadre (Overseas Reform Act), and Madagascar moved peacefully toward independence. The Malagasy Republic was proclaimed on October 14, 1958, as an autonomous state within the French Community. A period of provisional government ended with the adoption of a constitution in 1959 and full independence on June 26, 1960.
In March 1998, Malagasy voters approved a revised constitution. The principal institutions of the Republic of Madagascar are a presidency, a parliament, a prime ministry and cabinet, and an independent judiciary. The president is elected by direct universal suffrage for a 5-year term, renewable twice. The last presidential election was held on December 3, 2006.
In Madagascar, the parliament has two chambers; the National Assembly and the Senate. The last National Assembly election was held on September 23, 2007, and marked a significant reform to the parliament. The National Assembly previously had 160 members, elected for a four-year term in single-member and two-member constituencies. However, in July 2007, just before the National Assembly elections, a council of ministers agreed to reduce the number of parliamentarians from 160 to 127. Consequently, few of the 116 districts elected more than one member. Antananarivo's six districts, however, each elected two deputies. The Senate has 33 members, with 22 members elected for a six-year term, 1 for each province by provincial electors, and 11 members appointed by the president.
The prime minister and members of parliament initiate legislation, and the government executes it. The president can dissolve the National Assembly. For its part, the National Assembly can pass a motion of censure and require the prime minister and council of ministers to step down. The Constitutional Court approves the constitutionality of new laws.
In an effort to decentralize administration, the country's six provinces were dissolved in the constitutional referendum of 2007, in favor of 22 regions designated previously in 2004. Decentralization is an ongoing process, and has been a key element of Madagascar's development plans.
Principal Government Officials
HAT President -- Andry Nirina RAJOELINA
HAT Prime Minister -- Camille Albert VITAL
HAT Minister of Foreign Affairs -- Hyppolite Raharison RAMAROSON
HAT Minister of Finance and Budget -- Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA
HAT Minister of Commerce and Trade -- Freddie MAHAZOASY
HAT Minister of Justice -- Christine Harijaona RAZANAMAHASOA
HAT Minister of Environment, Water and Forests -- Herilanto RAVELOHARISON
HAT Minister of Internal Security -- Rémy Sylvain Organès Rakotomihantarizaka
HAT Minister of National Education -- Julien Razafimanazato
HAT Minister of Tourism -- Irène Victoire ANDREAS
Ambassador to the U.S. -- Jocelyn B. Radifera
Ambassador to the UN -- Zina Andrianarivelo-Razafy
Madagascar maintains an embassy in the United States at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 (tel. 202-265-5525).
Madagascar's first President, Philibert Tsiranana, was elected when his Social Democratic Party gained power at independence in 1960 and was reelected without opposition in March 1972. However, he resigned only 2 months later in response to massive antigovernment demonstrations. The unrest continued, and Tsiranana's successor, Gen. Gabriel Ramanantsoa, resigned on February 5, 1975, handing over executive power to Lt. Col. Richard Ratsimandrava, who was assassinated 6 days later. A provisional military directorate then ruled until a new government was formed in June 1975, under Didier Ratsiraka.
During the 16 subsequent years of President Ratsiraka's rule, Madagascar continued under a government committed to revolutionary socialism based on the 1975 constitution establishing a highly centralized state. National elections in 1982 and 1989 returned Ratsiraka for a second and third 7-year presidential term. For much of this period, only limited and restrained political opposition was tolerated, with no direct criticism of the president permitted in the press.
With an easing of restrictions on political expression, beginning in the late 1980s, the Ratsiraka regime came under increasing pressure to make fundamental changes. In response to a deteriorating economy, Ratsiraka relaxed socialist economic policies and instituted some liberal, private-sector reforms. These, along with political reforms like the elimination of press censorship in 1989 and the formation of more political parties in 1990, were insufficient to placate a growing opposition movement known as Hery Velona or "Active Forces." A number of already existing political parties and their leaders, among them Albert Zafy and Rakotoniaina Manandafy, anchored this movement which was especially strong in Antananarivo and the surrounding high plateau.
In response to largely peaceful mass demonstrations and crippling general strikes, Ratsiraka replaced his prime minister in August 1991 but suffered an irreparable setback soon thereafter when his troops fired on peaceful demonstrators marching on his suburban palace, killing more than 30.
In an increasingly weakened position, Ratsiraka acceded to negotiations on the formation of a transitional government. The resulting "Panorama Convention" of October 31, 1991, stripped Ratsiraka of nearly all of his powers, created interim institutions, and set an 18-month timetable for completing a transition to a new form of constitutional government. The High Constitutional Court was retained as the ultimate judicial arbiter of the process.
In March 1992, a widely representative National Forum organized by the Malagasy Christian Council of Churches (FFKM) drafted a new constitution. Troops guarding the proceedings clashed with pro-Ratsiraka "federalists" who tried to disrupt the forum in protest of draft constitutional provisions preventing the incumbent president from running again. The text of the new constitution was put to a nationwide referendum in August 1992 and approved by a wide margin, despite efforts by federalists to disrupt balloting in several coastal areas.
Presidential elections were held on November 25, 1992, after the High Constitutional Court had ruled, over active forces objections, that Ratsiraka could become a candidate. Runoff elections were held in February 1993, and the leader of the Hery Velona movement, Albert Zafy, defeated Ratsiraka. Zafy was sworn in as President on March 27, 1993. After President Zafy's impeachment by the National Assembly in 1996 and the short quasi-presidency of Norbert Ratsirahonana, the 1997 elections once again pitted Zafy and Ratsiraka, with Ratsiraka this time emerging victorious. A National Assembly dominated by members of President Ratsiraka'a political party AREMA subsequently passed the 1998 constitution, which considerably strengthened the presidency.
In December 2001, a presidential election was held in which both major candidates claimed victory. The Ministry of the Interior declared incumbent Ratsiraka of the AREMA party victorious. Marc Ravalomanana contested the results and claimed victory. A political crisis followed in which Ratsiraka supporters cut major transport routes from the primary port city to the capital city, a stronghold of Ravalomanana support. Sporadic violence and considerable economic disruption continued until July 2002 when Ratsiraka and several of his prominent supporters fled to exile in France. In addition to political differences, ethnic differences played a role in the crisis and continue to play a role in politics. Ratsiraka is from the coastal Betsimisaraka tribe and Ravalomanana comes from the highland Merina tribe.
After the end of the 2002 political crisis, President Ravalomanana began many reform projects, forcefully advocating "rapid and durable development" and the launching of a battle against corruption. December 2002 legislative elections gave his newly formed TIM (Tiako-i-Madagasikara--I Love Madagascar) Party a commanding majority in the National Assembly. November 2003 municipal elections were conducted freely, returning a majority of supporters of the president, but also significant numbers of independent and regional opposition figures.
Following the crisis of 2002, the President replaced provincial governors with appointed PDSs (Presidents des Delegations Speciales). This effectively put an end to the "autonomous provinces," although they nominally remained in place because they were included in the constitution. Subsequent legislation established a structure of 22 regions to decentralize administration. In September 2004, the government named 22 Regional Chiefs, reporting directly to the President, to implement its decentralization plans. Rumors about the dissolution of the autonomous provinces had been around for some time, and on April 4, 2007 a constitutional referendum was held, in which the majority of the voters backed a revised constitution without any provinces. The new regions have become the highest level of subdivision.
On March 17, 2009, President Ravalomanana stepped down after a period of protests in the capitol, handing the government over to the military, which in turn conferred the presidency on opposition leader Andry Rajoelina. Rajoelina has declared himself “President of the High Transitional Authority” and pledged to hold presidential elections by October 2010 (a pledge that did not come to fruition), following a constitutional referendum and revision of the electoral code. The United States has condemned the unconstitutional and undemocratic change of power in Madagascar. We consider the series of events of early 2009 that led to the installation of the current de-facto leadership to be a military coup d’état.
Structural reforms began in the late 1980s, initially under pressure from international financial institutions. An initial privatization program (1988-1993) and the development of an export processing zone (EPZ) regime in the early 1990s were key milestones in this effort. A period of significant stagnation from 1991-96 was followed by 5 years of solid economic growth and accelerating foreign investment, driven by a second wave of privatizations and EPZ development. Although structural reforms advanced, governance remained weak and perceived corruption in Madagascar was extremely high. During the period of solid growth from 1997 through 2001, poverty levels remained stubbornly high, especially in rural areas. A six-month political crisis triggered by a dispute over the outcome of the presidential elections held in December 2001 virtually halted economic activity in much of the country in the first half of 2002. Real GDP dropped 12.7% for the year 2002, inflows of foreign investment dropped sharply, and the crisis tarnished Madagascar's budding reputation as an African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) standout and a promising place to invest. Following resolution of the crisis, the economy rebounded with GDP growth of over 9% in 2003. Currency depreciation and rising inflation hampered economic performance in 2004-2005; by 2006 inflation had abated somewhat (to 11%) but growth remained sluggish (4.7% est.).
Following the 2002 political crisis, the government attempted to set a new course and build confidence in coordination with international financial institutions and the donor community. Madagascar developed a recovery plan in collaboration with the private sector and donors and presented it at a "Friends of Madagascar" conference organized by the World Bank in Paris in July 2002. Donor countries demonstrated their confidence in the new government by pledging $1 billion in assistance over five years. The Malagasy Government identified road infrastructure as its principal priority and underlined its commitment to public-private partnership by establishing a joint public-private sector steering committee.
In 2000, Madagascar embarked on the preparation of a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative. The boards of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank agreed in December 2000 that the country had reached the decision point for debt relief under the HIPC Initiative and defined a set of conditions for Madagascar to reach the completion point. In October 2004, the boards of the IMF and the World Bank determined that Madagascar had reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative.
The Madagascar-U.S. Business Council was formed in Madagascar in 2002. The U.S.-Madagascar Business Council was formed in the United States in May 2003, and the two organizations continue to explore ways to work for the benefit of both groups. An American Chamber of Commerce was launched at the end of 2008 and remains active even after the 2009 coup d’état.
Madagascar’s ongoing political crisis continues to negatively impact key economic indicators and the business sector. The actions of the HAT regime forced the United States under existing law to withdraw AGOA eligibility from Madagascar at the end of 2009, a situation which resulted in the loss of thousands of jobs. Parts of the country have returned to a barter economy, reports indicate many laid-off workers have reverted to the informal sector, and standards of living have declined since the coup.
Madagascar, which has historically been perceived as on the margin of mainstream African affairs, eagerly rejoined the African Union (AU) in July 2003 after a 14-month hiatus triggered by the 2002 political crisis, and joined the Southern African Development Community (SADC) in 2006. From 1978 until 1991, then-President Ratsiraka emphasized independence and nonalignment and followed an "all points" policy stressing ties with socialist and radical regimes, including North Korea, Cuba, Libya, and Iran. Taking office in 1993, President Albert Zafy expressed his desire for diplomatic relations with all countries. Early in his tenure, he established formal ties with South Korea and sent emissaries to Morocco.
Starting in 1997, globalization encouraged the government and President Ratsiraka to adhere to market-oriented policies and to engage world markets. External relations reflect this trend, although Madagascar's physical isolation and strong traditional insular orientation have limited its activity in regional economic organizations and relations with its East African neighbors. During his term, President Ravalomanana welcomed relations with all countries interested in helping Madagascar to develop. He consciously sought to strengthen relations with Anglophone countries as a means of balancing a historically strong French influence.
Following the 2009 coup d’état, Madagascar was suspended from participating in AU and SADC activities until constitutional order is restored. Most donors in Madagascar, including the U.S. and the European Union, have suspended assistance programs to the Government of Madagascar. The United States currently undertakes only humanitarian assistance programs that have a direct impact on civilian populations in need. The AU formed an International Contact Group to coordinate international community action to ensure a return to constitutional rule as quickly as possible. Additionally, the AU and others have enacted certain targeted sanctions or travel restrictions on members of the HAT regime who are impeding a return to free, fair, and durable democracy in Madagascar.
Relations with the United States date to the mid-1800s. The two countries concluded a commercial convention in 1867 and a treaty of peace, friendship, and commerce in 1881. Traditionally warm relations suffered considerably during the 1970s, when Madagascar expelled the U.S. ambassador, closed a NASA tracking station, and nationalized two U.S. oil companies. In 1980, relations at the ambassadorial level were restored.
Throughout the troubled period, commercial and cultural relations remained active. In 1990, Madagascar was designated as a priority aid recipient, and assistance increased from $15 million in 1989 to $40 million in 1993. More recently, U.S. assistance contributed to a population census and family planning programs; conservation of Madagascar's remarkable biodiversity; private sector development; agriculture; democracy and governance initiatives; and media training. The Ravalomanana government was especially positive about ties with the United States. Madagascar became the very first country with a Millennium Challenge Account compact when it signed an agreement worth $110 million in April 2006, although the compact has been terminated due to the 2009 coup d’état and resulting ongoing political crisis.
The United States considers the series of events in Madagascar in early 2009 to be a military coup d’état, and as a result has suspended all assistance programs that directly benefit the government as well as all non-humanitarian assistance to Madagascar. The United States’ intent is to support international efforts led by the AU to ensure that a credible electoral process takes place as soon as possible, organized by an independent entity.
U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador -- (vacant)
Deputy Chief of Mission -- Eric Stromayer
USAID Director -- Rudolph Thomas
Defense Attaché -- CAPT John Ries
Public Affairs Officer -- Brett Bruen
Consular Officer -- Jane Gamble
Economic/Commercial Section Chief -- Glenn Fedzer
Political Officer -- Richard A. Allen
Management Officer -- Alfred Braswell
Peace Corps Country Director -- John Reddy
The U.S. Embassy in Madagascar is located at 14, rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo (tel. 261-20-22-212-57, 033-44-22-000; fax 261-20-345-39. The postal address is Ambassade Americaine, B.P. 620, Antananarivo, Madagascar.