For the most current version of this Note, see Background Notes A-Z.
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
Area: 15,007 sq. km.
Cities: Capital--Dili, Baucau.
Climate: Tropical; hot, semi-arid; rainy and dry seasons.
Nationality: Noun--Timorese; adjective--Timorese.
Population (2004): 924,642.
Religion: Catholic 98%.
Languages: Portuguese, Tetum (official languages); English, Bahasa Indonesia (working languages).
Health: Life expectancy--49.5 years. Mortality rate (under 5)--126 per 1,000 live births.
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence (from Portugal): November 28, 1975.
Restoration of independence: May 20, 2002. (See History section.)
Constitution: March 2002.
Branches: Executive--president (head of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--unicameral parliament. Judicial--Supreme Court and supporting hierarchy. As the Supreme Court has not yet been formed, the Court of Appeal functions, on an interim basis, as the Supreme Court.
Major political parties: Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (FRETILIN), Democratic Party (PD), Social Democratic Party (PSD), Timorese Social Democratic Association (ASDT).
GDP (2004 est.): $370 million.
GDP per capita (nominal): $430.
GDP composition by sector: Services 57%, agriculture 25%, industry 17%.
Industry: Types--coffee, oil and natural gas.
Trade: Exports--coffee, oil and natural gas. Major markets--Australia, Europe, Japan, United States. Imports--basic manufactures, commodities. Major sources--Australia, Europe, Indonesia, Japan, United States.
GEOGRAPHY AND PEOPLE
East Timor is located in southeastern Asia, on the southernmost edge of the Indonesian archipelago, northwest of Australia. The country includes the eastern half of Timor island as well as the Oecussi enclave in the northwest portion of Indonesian West Timor, and the islands of Atauro and Jaco. The mixed Malay and Pacific Islander culture of the Timorese people reflects the geography of the country on the border of those two cultural areas. Portuguese influence during the centuries of colonial rule resulted in a substantial majority of the population identifying itself as Roman Catholic. Some of those who consider themselves Catholic practice a mixed form of religion that includes local animist customs. As a result of the colonial education system and the 23-year Indonesian occupation, approximately 17% of Timorese speak Portuguese and 63% speak Bahasa Indonesia. Tetum, the most common of the local languages, is spoken by approximately 91% of the population. Mambae, Kemak, and Fataluku are also widely spoken. This linguistic diversity is enshrined in the country's constitution, which designates Portuguese and Tetum as official languages and English and Bahasa Indonesia as working languages.
Portuguese and Dutch traders made the first western contact with East Timor in the early 16th century. Sandalwood and spice traders, as well as missionaries, maintained sporadic contact with the island until 1642, when the Portuguese moved into Timor in strength. The Portuguese and the Dutch, based at the western end of the island in Kupang, battled for influence until the present-day borders were agreed to by the colonial powers in 1906. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor from 1942-45. Portugal resumed colonial authority over East Timor in 1945 after the Japanese defeat in World War II.
Following a military coup in Lisbon in April 1974, Portugal began a rapid and disorganized decolonization process in most of its overseas territories, including East Timor. Political tensions--exacerbated by Indonesian involvement--heated up, and on August 11, 1975, the Timorese Democratic Union Party (UDT) launched a coup d'�tat in Dili. The putsch was followed by a brief but bloody civil war in which the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN) pushed UDT forces into Indonesian West Timor. Shortly after the FRETILIN victory in late September, Indonesian forces began incursions into East Timor. On October 16, five journalists from Australia, Britain, and New Zealand were murdered in the East Timorese town of Balibo shortly after they had filmed regular Indonesian army troops invading East Timorese territory. On November 28, FRETILIN declared East Timor an independent state, and Indonesia responded by launching a full-scale military invasion on December 7. On December 22, 1975 the UN Security Council called on Indonesia to withdraw its troops from East Timor.
Declaring a provisional government made up of Timorese allies on January 13, 1976, the Indonesian Government said it was acting to forestall civil strife in East Timor and to prevent the consolidation of power by the FRETILIN party. The Indonesians claimed that FRETILIN was communist in nature, while the party's leadership described itself as social democratic. Coming on the heels of the communist victories in Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, the Indonesian claims were accepted by many in the West. Major powers also had little incentive to confront Indonesia over a territory seen as peripheral to their security interests. Nonetheless, the widespread popular support shown for the guerilla resistance launched by the Timorese made clear that the Indonesian occupation was not welcome. The Timorese were not permitted to determine their own political fate via a free vote, and the Indonesian occupation was never recognized by the United Nations.
The Indonesian occupation of Timor was initially characterized by a program of brutal military repression. Beginning in the late 1980s, however, the occupation was increasingly characterized by programs to win the "hearts-and-minds" of the Timorese through the use of economic development assistance and job creation while maintaining a strict policy of political repression, although serious human rights violations - such as the 1991 Santa Cruz massacre -- continued. Estimates of the number of Timorese who lost their lives to violence and hunger during the Indonesian occupation range from 100,000 to 250,000. On January 27, 1999, Indonesian President B.J. Habibie announced his government's desire to hold a referendum in which the people of East Timor would chose between autonomy within Indonesia and independence. Under an agreement among the United Nations, Portugal, and Indonesia, the referendum was held on August 30, 1999. When the results were announced on September 4--78% voted for independence with a 98.6% turnout--Timorese militias organized and supported by the Indonesian military commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. While pro-independence FALINTIL guerillas remained cantoned in UN-supervised camps, the militia killed approximately 1,300 Timorese and forcibly pushed 300,000 people into West Timor as refugees. The majority of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly 100% of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On September 20, 1999 the Australian-led peacekeeping troops of the International Force for East Timor (INTERFET) deployed to the country, bringing the violence to an end.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS
East Timor became a fully independent republic on May 20, 2002, following approximately 2-1/2 years under the authority of the UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET). The country has a parliamentary form of government with its first parliament formed from the 88-member Constituent Assembly chosen in free and fair, UN-supervised elections in August 2001. The 29-member Cabinet is dominated by the FRETILIN Party, which won the majority of Assembly seats. Mari Alkatiri, FRETILIN's Secretary General, is Prime Minister and Head of Government, and Xanana Gusmao--elected in free and fair elections on April 14, 2002--is President and Head of State. UNTAET's mandate ended with independence, but a successor organization, the UN Mission for the Support of East Timor (UNMISET), was established to provide additional support to the Government. In April 2005, the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution establishing a small follow-on special political mission in East Timor, the UN Office in East Timor (UNOTIL), to succeed UNMISET when its mandate expires on May 20, 2005. UNOTIL will remain there until May 20, 2006.
Under the constitution ratified in March 2002, "laws and regulations in force continue to be applicable to all matters except to the extent that they are inconsistent with the Constitution;" and Indonesian and UNTAET laws and regulations continue to be in effect. In December 2004, the government held local elections in two of its 13 provinces. Local elections in the remaining provinces are scheduled to take place in 2005. East Timor witnessed its largest and longest political demonstration in April and May 2005 when several thousand protestors took part in a demonstration led by the Catholic Church that lasted twenty days. The demonstration ended peacefully with the signing of an agreement between the Catholic Church and the prime minister that resolved several key issues of disagreement.
Principal Government Officials
Head of State (President)--Kay Rala Xanana Gusmao
Head of Government (Prime Minister)--Mari Alkatiri
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Jose Ramos-Horta
Ambassador to the United Nations and United States--Jose Luis Guterres
East Timor maintains an embassy at 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 (tel: 202-965-1515).
As the poorest nation in Asia, East Timor must overcome formidable challenges. Basic income, health, and literacy indicators are among the lowest in Asia. Severe shortages of trained and competent personnel to staff newly established executive, legislative, and judicial institutions hinder progress. Rural areas, lacking in infrastructure and resources, remain brutally poor, and the relatively few urban areas cannot provide adequate jobs for the country's growing labor force. Many cities, including the country's second largest, Baucau, do not have routine electrical service. Rural families' access to electricity and clean water is very limited. While anticipated revenues from offshore oil and gas reserves offer great hope for the country, effective use of those resources will require a major transformation of the country's current human and institutional infrastructure. Meanwhile, as those substantial revenues come on line, foreign assistance levels--now standing at among the highest worldwide on a per capita basis--will likely taper off.
East Timor has made significant progress in a number of areas since independence. It has become a full-fledged member of the international community, joining the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It is surviving the massive exodus of UN personnel, equipment and resources, and has effected a relatively smooth transition to Timorese control of the government and its administration. It produced a National Development Plan, and its Constituent Assembly has transitioned into a National Parliament that has commenced reviewing and passing legislation. A nascent legal system has been put into place and efforts are underway to put in place the institutions required to protect human rights, rebuild the economy, create employment opportunities, and reestablish essential public services.
East Timor joined the United Nations on September 27, 2002, and is pursuing observer status in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and membership in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). East Timor's foreign policy has placed a high priority on its relationships with Indonesia; regional friends such as Malaysia and Singapore; and donors such as Australia, the European Union, Japan, Portugal, and the United States.
U.S.-EAST TIMOR RELATIONS
East Timor maintains an embassy in Washington DC, as well as a Permanent Mission in New York at the United Nations. The United States has a large bilateral development assistance program, $22.5 million in 2004, and also contributes funds as a major member of a number of multilateral agencies such as the Asian Development Bank and World Bank. The U.S. Peace Corps has an active program in East Timor.
Principal U.S. Officials
Ambassador--Grover Joseph Rees III
Deputy Chief of Mission--Sean B. Stein
Political/Economic/Commercial Affairs--Curtis Ried
The U.S. Embassy in East Timor is located at Praia de Coquieros, Dili; tel: 670-332-4684, fax: 670-331-3206. The embassy's web site is under construction.