Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Area: 5,128 sq. km. (1,980 sq. mi.); about 1.5 times the size of Rhode Island.
Cities: Capital--Port of Spain (metropolitan pop. 300,000).
Other cities--San Fernando, Arima, Chaguanas.
Terrain: Plains and low mountains.
Climate: Tropical; rainy season (June through December).
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Trinidadian(s) and Tobagonian(s).
Population (1999 est.): 1.3 million.
Annual growth rate: 0.6%.
Ethnic groups: African 40%, East Indian 40.3%, mixed 14%, European 1%, Chinese 1%, Other 3.7%.
Religions: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Anglican 14.4%, Hindu 24.3%, Muslim 6%, Other Protestant 14%, other 9.1%.
Education: Years compulsory--8. Literacy--98%.
Health (1999 est.): Infant mortality rate--18.6/1,000. Life expectancy--68 yrs. male; 73 yrs. female.
Work force (564,000, 1999 ): Trade and services--61%. Construction--13%. Manufacturing--11%. Agriculture--9%. Oil/gas--4%.
Type: Parliamentary democracy.
Independence: August 31,1962.
Present constitution: August 31, 1976.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral parliament. Judicial--independent court system; highest court of appeal is Privy Council in London.
Subdivisions: 7 counties, 4 municipalities (Trinidad); Tobago House of Assembly (Tobago).
Political parties: People's National Movement (PNM), United National Congress (UNC), National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR) and others.
Suffrage: Universal at 18.
Economy (1999 est.)
GDP: $6.14 billion.
Annual growth rate: 5.6%.
Per capita income: $5,900.
Natural resources: Oil and natural gas, lumber, fish.
Economic sectors: Hydrocarbons (26% of GDP), crude oil, natural gas, petrochemicals.
Agriculture (2% of GDP): Sugar, cocoa, citrus, poultry.
Tourism: 3.4% of GDP.
Industry (8% of GDP): Processed food and beverages, manufacturing, printing.
Trade: Exports--$4.22 billion (2000 estimate): crude oil and petroleum products (65%) petrochemicals (18%) iron and steel, sugar, and agricultural products. Major markets--U.S. (43%), CARICOM, Puerto Rico, France, Colombia, Dominican Republic. Imports--$2.17 billion: machinery and transport equipment (37%), manufactured goods (28%), food and agricultural products (13%), chemicals (13%). Major suppliers--U.S. (48%), U.K., Germany, Canada, Brazil, CARICOM.
Exchange rate (2001): TT $6.24=U.S.$1.
PEOPLE AND HISTORY
Columbus landed in Trinidad in 1498, and the island was settled by the Spanish a century later The original inhabitants--Arawak and Carib Indians--were largely wiped out by the Spanish colonizers, and the survivors were gradually assimilated. Although it attracted French, free Black, and other non-Spanish settlers, Trinidad remained under Spanish rule until the British captured it in 1797. During the colonial period, Trinidad's economy relied on large sugar and cocoa plantations.
Tobago's development was similar to other plantation islands in the Lesser Antilles and quite different from Trinidad's. During the colonial period, French, Dutch, and British forces fought over possession of Tobago, and the island changed hands 22 times--more often than any other West Indian island. Tobago was finally ceded to Great Britain in 1814. Trinidad and Tobago were incorporated into a single colony in 1888.
In 1958, the United Kingdom tried to establish an independent Federation of the West Indies comprising most of the former British West Indies. However, disagreement over the structure of the federation and Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago's withdrawal soon led to its collapse. Trinidad and Tobago achieved full independence in 1962 and joined the British Commonwealth.
Trinidad and Tobago's people are mainly of African or East Indian descent. Virtually all speak English. Small percentages also speak Hindi, French patois, and several other dialects. Trinidad has two major folk traditions: Creole and East Indian. Creole is a mixture of African elements with Spanish, French, and English colonial culture. Trinidad's East Indian culture came to the island with indentured servants brought to fill a labor shortage created by the emancipation of the African slaves in 1833. Most remained on the land, and they still dominate the agricultural sector, but many have become prominent in business and the professions. East Indians have retained much of their own way of life, including Hindu and Muslim religious festivals and practices.
Trinidad and Tobago is a unitary state, with a parliamentary democracy modeled after that of the U.K. From 1962 until 1976, Trinidad and Tobago, although completely independent, acknowledged the British monarch as the figurehead chief of state. In 1976, the country adopted a republican constitution, replacing Queen Elizabeth with a president elected by parliament. The general direction and control of the government rests with the cabinet, led by a prime minister and answerable to the bicameral parliament.
The 36 members of the House of Representatives are elected to terms of at least 5 years. Elections may be called earlier by the president at the request of the prime minister or after a vote of no confidence in the House of Representatives. The Senate's 31 members are appointed by the president: 16 on the advice of the prime minister, six on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and nine independents selected by the president from among outstanding members of the community. Trinidad's seven counties and four largest cities are administered by elected councils. Tobago was given a measure of self-government in 1980 and is ruled by the Tobago House of Assembly. In 1996, Parliament passed legislation, which gave Tobago greater self-government.
The country's highest court is the Court of Appeal, whose chief justice is appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. Final appeal on some matters is decided by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.
Principal Government Officials
President--Arthur Napoleon Raymond Robinson
Prime Minister--Patrick Manning
Minister of Foreign Affairs--Knowlson Gift
Charge d' Affairs--Mackisack Logie
Ambassador to the U.S. and the OAS--Vacant
Ambassador to the UN-George McKenzie
The embassy of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is located at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 (tel. 202467-6490; fax. 202-785-3130)
The first political party in Trinidad and Tobago with a continuing organization and program -- the People's National Movement (PNM) -- emerged in 1956 under Dr. Eric Williams, who became Prime Minister upon independence and remained in that position until his death in1981. Politics have generally run along ethnic lines, with Afro-Trinidadians supporting the PNM and Indo-Trinidadians supporting various Indian-majority parties, such as the United National Congress (UNC) or its predecessors. Most political parties, however, have sought to broaden their purview.
The PNM remained in power following the death of Dr. Williams, but its 30-year rule ended in 1986 when the National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), a rainbow party aimed at Trinidadians of both African and Indian descent, won a landslide victory by capturing 33 of 36 seats. Tobago's A.N.R. Robinson, the NAR's political leader, was named Prime Minister. The NAR also won 11of the 12 seats in the Tobago House of Assembly. The NAR began to break down when the Indian component withdrew in 1988. Basdeo Panday, leader of the old United Labor Front (ULF), formed the new opposition with the UNC. The NAR's margin was immediately reduced to 27 seats, with six for the UNC and three for the PNM.
In July 1990, the Jamaat al Muslimeen, an extremist Black Muslim group with an unresolved grievance against the government overland claims, tried to overthrow the NAR government. The group held the prime minister and members of parliament hostage for 5 days while rioting shook Port of Spain. After a long standoff with the police and military, Black Muslim leader Yasin Abu Bakr and his followers surrendered to Trinidadian authorities. In July1992, the Court of Appeal upheld the validity of a government amnesty given to the Jamaat members during the hostage crisis. All 114 members of the Jamaat jailed since the coup attempt were released. The government appealed the ruling.
In December 1991, the NAR captured only the two districts in Tobago. The PNM, led by Patrick Manning, carried a majority of 21 seats, and the UNC came in second. Patrick Manning became the new Prime Minister and Basdeo Panday continued to lead the opposition. In November 1995, Manning called early elections, in which the PNM and UNC both won 17 seats and the NAR won two seats. The UNC allied with the NAR and formed the new government, with Basdeo Panday becoming prime minister -- the first prime minister of Indo-Trinidadian descent. Elections held in December 2000 returned the UNC to power when they won 19 seats, while the opposition PNM won 16, and the NAR 1. The UNC government fell in October 2001 with the defection of three of its parliamentarians, and the December 2001 elections resulted in an even 18 to 18 split between the UNC and the PNM. President Robinson invited PNM leader Manning to form a government before the end of the year, but the inability to break the tie has delayed Parliament from meeting. Both parties are committed to free market economic policies and increased foreign investment. Trinidad and Tobago has remained cooperative with the United States in the regional fight against narcotics trafficking and on other issues.
Trinidad and Tobago experienced a real growth rate of 3.2% in 1998, further growth of 5.6% in 1999, and 5% in 2000. This makes 6 straight years of real growth after 8 years of economic decline. The government of Prime Minister Basdeo Panday, which was elected in November 1995 and reelected in December 2000, has continued the sound macroeconomic policies of the previous regime, and is trying to further improve the investment climate. Long-term growth looks promising, as Trinidad and Tobago further develops its hydrocarbon, petrochemical, and metals sectors--with significant increases in exports--and continues its diversification efforts in services, tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture.
Trinidad and Tobago's strong growth rate over the past few years has led to trade surplus over the past three years, even with high import levels due to industrial expansion and increased consumer demand. The debt service ratio has fallen from 15.4% in 1997 to 4.4% in 2001. Unemployment continues to drop slowly, and was at 12.1% in 2001.
Energy-related revenue accounts for 25% of Trinidad's central government revenue. The petrochemical sector, including methanol, ammonia, urea and natural gas liquids, has continued to grow and due to recent price eases, has experienced a new burst of activity with the resumption of full-scale production of all existing facilities. Development continues on two new plants. Natural gas production continued to expand, and should meet the needs of the many industrial plants coming on stream in the next three yers. The biggest development was the completion of the Atlantic LNG plant in April 1999. Atlantic LNG is a single train 3 million metric tons per year liquefied natural gas plant that utilizes 450 mmcf/d of natural gas. Two additional trains have been approved, with a fourth already under discussion, and natural gas exploration continues apace. The expansion of Atlantic LNG over the next four years could create the largest single sustained increment in economic growth in Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has rapidly become the leading exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to the United States, and now supplies over half of U.S. LNG imports.
Three significant finds of natural gas and oil in 2000-2001 have added six trillion cubic feet (tcf) of possible reserves to Trinidad's 80tcf gas base and has spurred further exploration. A new oil find has added over 1 billion barrels to oil reserves, reviving growth in the previously declining oil sector.
Of the non-hydrocarbon sectors, distribution, construction, transportation, communications, and manufacturing all show signs of continued growth. Agriculture, however, has been experiencing negative growth rates.
U.S. investment in Trinidad and Tobago exceeds one and one-quarter billion dollars.
The government's economic strategy is based on fiscal and monetary discipline, private sector investment, and export-led growth. The $1.8 billion FY 1999/2000 budget devotes $170 million to an ambitious public sector investment program of which 17% is targeted to improving the physical infrastructure and 12% to improving the educational infrastructure. The water supply will be improved through a medium-term rehabilitation program, and a similar program will address improvements in electricity supply.
From the April 1993 float of the TT dollar to the present, the exchange rate has depreciated from $4.25 to $6.30=U.S.$1.00 where it has hovered for the past several years and has slightly strengthened since. The stability of the currency against the U.S. dollar has been maintained by the government's tight monetary policy.
Reductions in subsidies to state enterprises have contributed to fiscal soundness and lent credibility to the government's ongoing divestment program. Companies all or partially divested since 1994 include the National Fisheries Company, BWIA International Airways, National Flour Mills (NFM), the Trinidad and Tobago Electricity Commission (what is this?) (T;TEC), TT Methanol Company, Trinidad Cement, TT Iron and Steel Company, and the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA). In May 1997, the government sold it remaining 69% interest in the Trinidad and Tobago Methanol Company to a consortium consisting of the local firm CL Financial and Germany's Ferrostaal and Helm consortium. NFM was divested by an additional 14% in 1997, bringing the government's holding down to 51%. The government is currently considering creating a holding company to bring its remaining shares in several formerly wholly government-owned enterprises to market.
Trinidad and Tobago's infrastructure is adequate by regional standards. The national airport has recently been expanded. There is an extensive network of paved roads, and utilities are fairly reliable in the cities. Some areas, however, especially rural districts, still suffer from water shortages, power failures, and inadequate drainage. Some companies presently constructing large industrial plants at the Point Lisas Industrial Estate in central Trinidad are concerned that water supply to their plants will not be adequate. The government is addressing this problem with the construction of a desalinization plant. Infrastructure improvement, especially rural roads and bridges, rural electrification and telephone service, and drainage and sewerage, are among the government's budget priorities,and are generously supported by the multilateral development agencies and the European Union.
Telephone service is relatively modern and reliable, although higher priced than comparable U.S. service, since the government feels contractually bound to the monopoly supplier Cable and Wireless (UK). Cellular service is available, but coverage is limited to more densely populated areas. A recent tendering offer for cellular licenses is expected to add several new cellular carriers to Trinidad and Tobago, thus expanding coverage and lowering fees. The Internet has come into widespread use, although service can be slow at peak times.
Trinidad and Tobago is a democracy that maintains close relations with its Caribbean neighbors and major North American and European trading partners. As the most industrialized and second-largest country in the English-speaking Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago has taken a leading role in the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and strongly supports CARICOM economic integration efforts. It is also active in the U.S.-initiated Summit of the Americas process and fully supports the establishment of the Free Trade Area of the Americas.
As a member of CARICOM, Trinidad and Tobago strongly backed efforts by the United States to bring political stability to Haiti, contributing personnel to the Multinational Force in 1994.
After its 1962 independence, Trinidad joined the UN and the Commonwealth. In 1967, it became the first Commonwealth country to join the Organization of American States (OAS). In 1995, Trinidad played host to the inaugural meeting of the Association of Caribbean States and has become the seat of this 35-member grouping, which seeks to further economic progress and integration among its states. In international forums, Trinidad and Tobago generally supports U.S. and EU positions, while guarding an independent voting record.
U.S.-TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO RELATIONS
Trinidad and Tobago and the U.S. enjoy cordial relations. U.S. interests focus on investment and trade, and on enhancing Trinidad's political and social stability and positive regional role through assistance in drug interdiction and legal affairs. A U.S. embassy was established in Port of Spain in 1962, replacing the former consulate general.
Indicative of this strong relationship, Prime Minister Panday joined President Clinton and 14 other Caribbean leaders for the first-ever U.S.-regional summit in Bridgetown, Barbados in May 1997. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright visited Trinidad and Tobago in March 1998. The summit strengthened the basis for regional cooperation on justice and counternarcotics, finance and development, and trade issues.
In 1999, bilateral assistance from all sources to Trinidad and Tobago amounted to over $3 million, mostly Department of State grants, counternarcotics assistance, and International Military Education and Training (IMET) funds and Foreign Military Financing (FMF) funds. Assistance to Trinidad from U.S. military and law enforcement authorities remains important to the bilateral relationship and to accomplishing U.S. policy objectives.
U.S. commercial ties with Trinidad and Tobago have always been strong and have grown substantially in the last several years due to economic liberalization. U.S. firms have been investing approximately $1 billion a year over the past several years -- mostly in the petrochemical, oil/gas, and iron/steel sectors. More than 50 of America's largest corporations have commercial relations with Trinidad and Tobago, and more than 30 U.S. firms have offices and operations in the country. The U.S. embassy actively fosters bilateral business ties and provides a number of commercial services to potential investors and traders. Extradition and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties signed in March 1996 came into force in November 1999. A Maritime Cooperation Agreement was also signed in March 1996. A tax information exchange agreement was signed in 1989, and a Bilateral Investment Treaty and an Intellectual Property Rights Agreement were signed in 1994. The Bilateral Investment Treaty entered into force in December 1996. Trinidad and Tobago is a beneficiary of the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI).
There are large numbers of U.S. citizens and permanent residents of Trinidadian origin living in the United States (mostly in New York), which keeps cultural ties strong. About 20,000 U.S. citizens visit Trinidad and Tobago on vacation or for business every year, and over 2,700 American citizens are residents.
Principal U.S. Embassy Officials
Ambassador--Roy L. Austin
Deputy Chief of Mission--Vacant
Economic/Commercial Officer--Albert Nahas
Political Officer--Imre Lipping
Consul General--Richard Sherman
Administrative Officer--Cherie Jackson
Public Affairs Officer--Stacey Rose-Blatt
The U.S. Embassy in Trinidad and Tobago is located at 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain (tel. 868 622-6371, fax: 809 628-5462).
Other Contact Information
U.S. Department of Commerce
International Trade Administration
Trade Information Center
14th and Constitution, NW
Washington, DC 20230
American Chamber of Commerce of Trinidad and Tobago
Hilton International-Upper Arcade
Lady Young Road
Port of Spain, Trinidad, WI
Tel: (868) 627-8570/7404, 624-3211
Fax: (868) 627-7405