printable banner

U.S. Department of State - Great Seal

U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

FY 2007 U.S. Assistance to Eurasia


Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
FY 2007 U.S. Government Assistance to and Cooperative Activities with Eurasia
Report
Share

Country Overview

U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND FOREIGN ASSISTANCE OBJECTIVES & PRIORITIES

Tajikistan is a small country in a region rife with challenges. Surrounded by Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, and China, Tajikistan shares ethnic and cultural ties with Iran and retains a historic bind with Russia. Emerging from Soviet rule in 1991 and a brutal civil war from 1992-1997, Tajikistan has yet to decide the model for its future development. It seeks to balance the interests of powerful regional forces, and above all, to maintain stability. Tajikistan hopes to play a key role in a new “Silk Road” linking Central and South Asia for trade in energy and goods, while simultaneously confronting the transit of narcotics and terrorists. Despite economic growth averaging 10% of GDP over the last 10 years, about 60% of the population lives below the poverty line; over 600,000 Tajik citizens – nearly 10% of the population – seek work abroad, mostly in Russia. Vigorous U.S. foreign policy and assistance engagement at this important moment in Tajikistan’s history are not only critical for the future success of our bilateral relationship, but for Tajikistan’s future as a stable and independent state. U.S. assistance can help Tajikistan to remain stable, secure, independent, and focused on economic growth and democratic reform.

U.S. Government (USG) priorities in Tajikistan mirror the U.S.’s approach in Central Asia: security cooperation, particularly in Afghanistan, economic development, and democratic reform. Disrupting extremist and criminal organizations and ensuring peace and stability is a primary goal. The Tajik Government firmly supports coalition forces in Afghanistan and provides over flight rights; it rightly sees peace and stability in Afghanistan as essential for its own security. Tajikistan wants to work with the USG to fight the spread of narcotics, terrorism, and trafficking in persons (TIP). USG programs strengthen border control, build defense and law enforcement capacity, prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and promote the rule of law.

Promoting economic growth and development is another priority. Creating jobs and promoting stable economic growth will allow more citizens to find work in Tajikistan and enhance stability. The USG supports the growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and reduction of barriers to investment.

Improving governance and strengthening democratic practices is an important goal. While Americans understand that democracy leads to stability and prosperity, many people in Tajikistan believe that democratic reform can lead to instability because they believe that demonstrations caused their devastating civil war.

Promoting a healthy, educated, and skilled work force facilitates economic growth, reduces the risk of youth turning to extremism and crime, and serves as a building block for sustainable institutions of democracy. USG assistance seeks to improve the public health system, to meet existing and emerging threats and to counter epidemics such as tuberculosis (TB) and HIV/AIDS. It is working to improve the educational system, through the introduction of new teaching and management methodologies. The USG also allows Tajik students to study in the U.S. Success in education reform and arranging people-to-people contacts through exchanges will affect the success of all other efforts. With half the population under 25, the United States should improve the quality of English language teaching to the fullest extent possible. Fluency in English will provide opportunities to study in the United States and introduce a future generation of leaders to democratic values.

OPERATING ENVIRONMENT

The OSCE judged the November 2006 election in which President Rahmon was elected to a new seven-year term to be less than free and fair. Thanks in large part to USG assistance, the logistics of the election were better than any held in Tajikistan before and received international praise for progress in the areas of procedural reform and voter and poll worker education. However, the election itself was an inadequate test of Tajikistan’s commitment to democracy. True opposition parties, including Central Asia’s only registered Islamic party, did not feel that the environment was sufficiently open to allow their participation. Nomination procures were irregular and some felt that the election itself was unconstitutional. Following the election, President Rahmon ushered in a wave of even greater political consolidation, filling nearly all of the government’s powerful positions with his allies. The Government of Tajikistan (GOT) creates significant challenges for USG partners implementing Governing Justly and Democratically programs. Two were not able to operate at the end of FY 2007 and others that promote independent media, face stifling GOT harassment and obstacles.

A second key to advancing Tajikistan’s long-term stability is improving its capacity to defend its borders and fight organized crime and terrorism. Since the abrupt Russian withdrawal from the Tajik/Afghan border in 2005, Tajikistan has struggled to meet its sovereign responsibility for border control, even with substantial USG assistance. Since 2005, the USG has provided over $40 million for the reconstruction, renovation, and equipping of 15 outposts on the Afghan border as well as for training and equipping Tajik border forces. Tajikistan sees strengthening the security of its border with Afghanistan as key to providing for its own stability, which offers the USG important opportunities to increase engagement on cross border cooperation. However, in November 2006, the Border Guards were merged into the Ministry of Security, losing their previous semi-autonomy. This move has hindered USG efforts at cooperation with the Border Guards because of the Ministry of Security's distrust of all engagement with Afghanistan. The USG provides most of the funding for the Drug Control Agency whose past successful seizure rate has made it a model for other countries in the region. Unfortunately, Drug Control Agency seizures declined markedly with the merger of the Border Guards into the Ministry of Security. Despite past success with seizures, the Tajik authorities have made little progress in prosecuting and disrupting trafficking organizations. The addition in 2007 of a State Department Narcotics Affairs Officer as well as Drug Enforcement Agency and Department of Justice positions dramatically enhances the USG’s ability to support engagement with the GOT.

The biggest challenges to Tajikistan’s economic development and foreign investment are pervasive corruption and the staggering bureaucratic obstacles that discourage foreign and domestic capital. Although President Rahmon created a new anti-corruption agency in November 2006, it has become yet another layer in a corrupt system. The USG sends a consistent message to Tajikistan that U.S. companies decide whether to invest based on their own economic analysis, not USG political pressure. However, China’s provision of over $800 million in non-conditional, largely concessional loans for infrastructure development provides an additional challenge to the international community’s efforts to promote more transparent business practices.

FY 2007 Country Program Performance

Peace and Security

Tajikistan sits in the heart of Central Asia and its strategic mountainous region is at the front line in the struggle against terrorism, drug trafficking, and proliferation. Cooperation with the U.S. in the war on terror has been exemplary. Tajikistan has provided support for coalition forces in Afghanistan and has provided full and freebasing and aviation over flight rights. Tajikistan’s Armed Forces participate in NATO’s Partnership for Peace Program and look to the U.S. for assistance in training and equipping its military units. Securing the 1,400-kilometer border with Afghanistan continues to be a formidable challenge for Tajikistan’s under-trained, under-paid, under-supplied border and law enforcement agencies. After it assumed responsibility for its borders following the abrupt withdrawal of Russian border troops in 2005, Tajikistan with donor support has made considerable progress in creating more sustainable border patrol and infrastructure. However, the move of the Border Guards into the State Committee for National Security’s (SCNS), Tajikistan’s national intelligence service, damaged previously successful efforts to institutionalize trainings, exchange information on troop strength and command and control, and conduct joint training with Afghanistan.

Security Sector - Border Security - In FY 2007 the USG provided border security assistance to key security and law enforcement ministries, primarily the Border Guard Service, the MOI, and the DCA. USG-funded border control projects for Tajikistan’s Border Guards included outpost renovation and construction projects on the Afghanistan border and various technical assistance projects. The USG, through the United Nations and the International Organization for Migration, completed renovations of two border posts in Shurabad and the Border Guard Training Center in Khorog to support joint training between Afghan and Tajik border forces. The USG supplied trucks, fuel, spare parts, winter uniforms, police equipment, and communication and computer equipment for the main and regional operations centers. The USG also provided radio equipment, primarily single channel UHF, to the Tajik Border Guards to connect border outposts to each other and to headquarters in Dushanbe, enabling real time transmission of information and coordination of operations. This included solar power solutions for the majority of the radio sets delivered to address the lack of a reliable power grid in these remote areas.

USG border security initiatives have greatly improved the basic conditions for border guards at selected posts with dilapidated structures. Improving the facilities and technological resources of Tajik conscripts and officers along the Afghan-Tajik border assisted the Border Guards Department to better control remote locations by repositioning troops to key drug and terrorist trafficking areas along the Afghan border, in particular in Ishkashim, Khorog, and Shurabad. Law enforcement capacity has increased along the Tajik-Afghan border with increased arrests of those crossing the border illegally or with illegally smuggled goods.

Counter-Narcotics - In the area of counter-narcotics, the USG has invested in improving the GOT’s ability to interdict narcotics, dismantle drug trafficking operations and organized crime syndicates, and prevent the proceeds of drug smuggling from being funneled into regional narco-terrorist activities.

To support more effective counter-narcotics operations, the USG improved the Aviation Security Service by providing three computers to the Dushanbe airport. The USG supported the UN Office of Drug Control to provide counter-narcotics assistance training, including on advanced handling and recruiting of informants. Six officers who passed the train-the-trainer course held their first advanced informant handling training in May 2007, attended by participants from the DCA and MOI’s Drug Combating Department. This was the first time local trainers in Tajikistan facilitated such advanced training. The USG facilitated the renovation of the DCA gym and shooting range. With USG technical assistance and equipment, including providing two all terrain vehicles, three mobile interdiction teams became operational in FY 2007. The USG equipped the DCA Regional Branch in Sughd with criminal intelligence analysis software to support information sharing with other law enforcement agencies nationally and in the region. DCA analysts provided investigative analysis assistance to other Tajik enforcement agencies and the Kyrgyz Republic DCA.

USG assistance increased the ability of the multiple GOT agencies to coordinate information on sensitive drug and organized crime investigations. Several successful prosecutions of low- to mid-level couriers demonstrated this, including corruption cases against Customs and Border Guard officers involved in drug smuggling operations during FY 2007. Tajik agencies conducted multiple joint operations with neighboring states, Russia, and the U.S. on drug interdiction. These operations featured the sharing of actionable intelligence and demonstrated Tajikistan’s improved communication and data transfer capability. In addition, USG support allowed DCA officers to expand collaboration with Afghan drug control units. Tajik counter-drug liaison officers began rotating through Afghan law enforcement units in key northern Afghan areas and gathered a considerable amount of data for analysis. USG assistance to the DCA continues to result in actionable intelligence on transnational drug-traffickers and drug smuggling routes.

Total drug seizures by all law enforcement agencies from January to October 2007 decreased to 3,095,936 kg, compared to 3,747,705 kg (4.1 tons) during the same reporting period in 2006. Despite the overall decrease, the USG-supported MOI and Border Guard increased seizures. The MOI averaged the highest seizures and arrested some traffickers. The DCA made 117 seizures, but overall activity and amount of seizures decreased considerably in 2007 compared to 2006 due to reshuffling of mid-level personnel.

Corruption continues to be the primary barrier to successful law enforcement and rule of law, especially in the counter narcotics area. The GOT has not successfully investigated or prosecuted a major drug trafficker to date. Multiple investigations during 2007 that led to higher-level targets were terminated before adequate evidence or arrests could be made.

Security Sector - Law Enforcement Reform - In FY 2007 the USG helped Tajikistan improve its general law enforcement operations. USG assistance supported a forensic laboratory for the MOI, including forensic analysis equipment. The USG upgraded the software at the drug-oriented forensics laboratory the USG previously provided to the DCA. Now, both the MOI and DCA have the capacity to conduct complex investigations using modern forensics technology. The USG completed an MOI Analytical Center to allow it to collect and analyze information gathered nationwide during investigations. The USG also renovated facilities, purchased and installed necessary equipment and software that is compatible with the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) biometric information sharing system. As a result, the MOI and DCA can share biometric information real-time and provide it to other regional and international law enforcement agencies. The USG and GOT agreed to facilitate the exchange of this biometric information.

The USG continued key capacity building projects at the main MOI Police Academy training center, establishing a language center, computer-training center, equipping and training a TIP investigative unit and a counter-narcotics unit, and completed renovation of the MOI Police Academy classrooms. The GOT used these facilities during USG-funded training for over 300 specialized border, law enforcement, and drug control officers in several specialties related to undercover and operational capabilities for both counter-narcotics and counter-terrorism activities. MOI, DCA, and SCNS representatives also attended a two-week basic driver protective skills training course.

Stabilization Operations - Military and Defense Reform - In FY 2007 U.S. military forces provided four counterterrorism courses for the special tasks battalions of the Border Guards and National Guard. Each iteration trained approximately 60 soldiers, non-commissioned officers, and officers in basic marksmanship, troop-leading, small unit tactical operations, and use of specialized communications and night vision equipment. A series of information exchanges focused on civil-military responses to terrorism, non-commissioned officer and junior leader development, staff officer development, border security logistics, and personnel management. These activities provided information that will help the Tajik armed forces refine their counterterrorism programs. It will also help the U.S. to develop increased U.S.-Tajik interoperability.

In FY 2007 Tajikistan sent six candidates to U.S.-based training. The trainee attending the Army Intelligence Officer Captains’ Course will help develop U.S.-Tajik military information-sharing programs in the future. The officer studying in the Defense Institute of International Legal Studies Legal Aspects of Peacekeeping course will serve as a Peacekeeping Planning Officer supporting Tajik inclusion in the Global Peacekeeping Operations Initiative. The participant in the Army Geodetic Survey course heads up GOT efforts to develop modern maps to replace the obsolete Soviet-era maps still used by Tajikistan’s military. Two Tajik military officers completed U.S. military training. One attended the Marine Corps Winter Mountain leader course; the other graduated from the Army Infantry Officer Basic course. Tajikistan hosted an English-language training team in Dushanbe in FY 2007. The team trained 22 Ministry of Defense and National Guard officers, improving their scores on the English Language Comprehension test by an average of 35%.

Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) - The USG conducted an information exchange on explosive ordnance disposal and demining and allowed the Tajiks to demonstrate the high degree of experience that they gained after the civil war.

A U.S.-funded, OSCE-managed program in Small Arms and Light Weapons security and disposition provided training to Tajik forces in proper storage and disposal of small arms and light weapons. Tajikistan now has a highly skilled work force inthese areas.

The USG trained the GOT on national control lists and commodity identification, hazardous materials response, and rail targeting/risk management to prevent the proliferation of dual use items. The USG assessed international bridge operations at the new bridge between Tajikistan and Afghanistan, increasing the GOT’s awareness of potential vulnerabilities there. The USG also assessed rail operations and customs procedures in Tajikistan, giving the GOT a more comprehensive understanding of rail operations and the benefits of cooperation between the railway authorities and Customs.

Transnational Crime - Human Trafficking - With USG support, the GOT continued to implement a detailed national action plan for implementing prevention, rehabilitation, and enforcement efforts to combat TIP. With USG support, the International Organization for Migration maintained two shelters for repatriated trafficking victims. The two shelters, which opened in 2006, provided a place of refuge for over 60 trafficking victims in 2007. The shelter in Dushanbe supported over 30 victims of trafficking, a lower number overall than in 2006. However, this may also be a result of increased cooperation between Tajik authorities to repatriate victims to their homes rather than arrest and detain them upon their return to Tajikistan.

Over the past year, through a variety of programs, the U.S. assisted 18 additional trafficking victims in Tajikistan. In cooperation with a network of local NGOs, the USG provided a range of counseling and other services to these trafficking victims, helping them to reintegrate into society. In addition, throughout Tajikistan, workers are gaining access to government services, legal information, and connection to networks to help them acquire safe work abroad.

To increase awareness of the dangers of trafficking, the U.S. funded leaflets, calendars, posters and videos, which were widely distributed. The USG improved opportunities and conditions for Tajik labor migrants by providing information technology knowledge and skills and increased public awareness of the issue through forums and online resources. With U.S. technical assistance, the MOI launched its official website, which contains over eleven sections including news, relevant legislation, interstate agreements, and legal procedures for travel and labor in country and abroad. Informational efforts have affected citizens; based on a nationwide poll conducted in fall 2007, more than 64% of respondents had heard of specific trafficking cases, and 83% were aware of the dangers of trafficking, particularly related to employment abroad.

GOVERNING JUSTLY AND DEMOCRATICALLY

One of the USG’s primary goals is to assist Tajikistan improve government systems and strengthen democratic practices. Assessments of Tajikistan’s political system and human rights record have identified the need for broad-ranging and significant reforms, which are particularly essential given the GOT’s general lack of transparency.

Rule of Law and Human Rights - The objectives of the rule of law and human rights activities included: promotion of legal reforms to ensure an effective and equitable justice system; improving the professional standards and trial advocacy skills of Tajikistan’s legal professionals; and increasing access to justice in criminal trials.

In FY 2007 Tajikistan advanced its Criminal Procedure Code (CPC) reform to improve compliance with obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and other international standards. The USG funded a comprehensive review of Tajikistan’s 1961 CPC, which will provide the GOT with an analysis of provisions that impede law enforcement’s ability to disrupt extremist and criminal organizations through effective and efficient investigation. The analysis also highlighted CPC provisions that do not properly protect due process rights or protect against corruption or abuse of power. USG experts drew on this analysis as they participated in the GOT working group to draft a new CPC that GOT officials expect to introduce in parliament in 2008. In addition, the USG conducted roundtables and training programs for prosecutors and the defense bar in which USG experts prepared for CPC reform by introducing the basic elements and benefits of an adversarial criminal justice system and trial advocacy skills, including cross-examination, that would be required of legal professionals in an adversarial system.

The USG also helped build support for CPC and legal profession reform in government and NGOs and among defense attorneys and judges. For example, the USG engaged GOT officials and legal professionals in the Criminal Defense Advocacy Group in a continuing dialogue on CPC reform. The USG supported the GOT’s Judicial Training Center’s two-day training on international standards in criminal procedure for 100 judges. With USG support, defense advocates prepared a draft ethics code that will be distributed for roundtable discussions with lawyers in three cities. Advancing uniform standards among defense advocates will enhance the professionalism of Tajik lawyers and will build momentum toward additional reforms needed to build the skills and advocacy capacity of the legal profession.

In support of human rights, the USG supported activities to improve the professional standards and trial advocacy skills of Tajik legal professionals, to build the capacity of legal professionals to defend detainee rights and to take on complex criminal cases, including those involving trafficking in persons (TIP). For example, USG supported seminars on pre-trial advocacy skills and prepared 18 criminal defense lawyers, including six women from Dushanbe and Khujand, to train 70 other legal professionals on how to advocate better for the rights of detainees in Dushanbe, Khujand, Kuloub, Kurban Turbe, and the Sughd region. USG-supported workshops in the Sughd region also prepared defense advocates to take on the role of victim’s counsel in TIP cases. These trainings enhanced the quality of victim/witness protection and treatment and will improve legal professionals’ and law enforcement’s adherence to national and international anti-trafficking legislation. They also increased access to justice for pre-trial detainees because of advocates being better prepared to represent them.

In FY 2007 a USG program trained 35 professors of the Islamic University in Dushanbe and several local madrassa teachers in law and civics. Areas of focus included: fundamentals of constitutional structure; legal status of individuals and citizens; order of organization and activities of bodies of state power; definition and types of public organizations; legal status of religious organizations; and participation of religious organizations in public life. As a result of these activities, the Islamic University will offer a permanent, full-time course at the University for an estimated 100 students per term beginning with the 2008 winter/spring semester. This course will include the topics listed above along with courses on international human rights law, comparative international law, and comparison of Sharia and civil law in Tajikistan. Courses will utilize USG-supplied textbooks in these areas.

Good Governance - The objectives of good governance activities included: increasing decentralization of government; improving the capabilities of local governments; and increasing local government’s accountability to citizens. The USG continued to help Tajik officials delineate the roles and responsibilities of central and local government authorities. The USG also suppported the first-ever survey of the structure, functions, finance, and organization of local governments.

The USG assisted 67 local governments to strengthen their management and technical capacities, and to improve service delivery, accountability and responsiveness to citizens. The USG introduced municipal authorities to modern techniques of cost accounting for services, trained them to analyze current local budget procedures, exposed them to international practices in budgeting processes, and trained them in low technology solid waste management. The USG also trained the municipal authories in how to increase citizen involvement in setting priorities and oversight. The USG also supported social partnership projects developed by local governments and citizens' groups to improve water delivery and access to information.

The USG conducted training for more than 200 local government officials from more than two dozen local jurisdictions regarding their rights and duties under applicable law, in both Dushanbe and throughout the Sughd Region. Courses included ethics, responding to citizens' complaints and applications, combating corruption, housing law, labor law, land use law, and family law. In addition, the USG prepared a 580-page hardbound reference manual covering the topics and distributed it to about 300 officials.

The USG worked with a Presidential Working Group (PWG) assigned to advance the Local Government Reform as outlined in the Public Administration Reform Paper signed by the President in March 2006. The work included the collaborative research and development of a legal study on current Tajik Legislation affecting Local Government Reform, as well as a broad survey of 33 local governments across the country to assess current practices undertaken in collaboration with the PWG. The first year’s work provided the GOT with high-quality and thoroughly researched data on which to base their local government reform decisions.

In FY 2007 the USG also worked with the State Unitary Enterprise, the national level body responsible for providing water, sewerage, garbage, and housing maintenance services in the country, on a plan for the reform of Communal Services in Tajikistan. The plan, which will be submitted formally to the GOT by the end of the year, recommends the decentralization of service provision away from the central level to the local government level. This represents a major step forward for local governments in gaining the functions, finances, and property provide effective services and to build institutions that are accountable for providing quality services to the local population. Local governments will have responsibility for providing services to local populations instead of the current centralized system of service provision via subsidiaries of the SUE/KMK.

As a result of USG local government support, over 1000 local government officials, civil society leaders, and citizens were trained to improve management capacity including financial management, operational service delivery, and cooperate to solve local issues. A total of 686 local government officials received training in financial management, service delivery improvement, and citizen participation and media methods. In addition, 224 local government officials received training in budgeting, cost, and fee setting. This training led to increased revenue in 32 sites and expanded coverage of key services such as water and solid waste in 19 sites.


Civil Society - In FY 2007 local NGOs promoted amendments to a draft NGO law and conducted an advocacy campaign that resulted in the removal of various restrictive registration provisions. USG experts reviewed drafts of the law and provided recommendations, as well as organized seminars and roundtable meetings for NGOs, drafters, and government officials to discuss the process. Dozens of NGOs were able to contribute to the participatory drafting process.

As a result of this campaign, the ultimate law was less restricitve than the drafts that preceded it. Some of these postive changes included: creation of public association without permission of government agency; a decrease in the minimum number of founders required to establish a public association from five persons to three; and, the removal of overt prohibition of informal organizations.

The USG helped youth take a more active role in society by funding local NGOs to educate school children about human rights and democracy. NGOs also initiated successful discussion forums for students and local politicians. The USG also helped local NGOs address the complicated challenges facing women. The National Association of Businesswomen Kadbonu published a book featuring inspirational essays from 50 female entrepreneurs covered topics such as combining a career with a family life, political experience, and gender equality in education. These activities enabled many young women to obtain the qualifications necessary to attend university through USG-sponsored education programs.

Media Freedom and Freedom of Information - USG media efforts concentrated on increasing citizens’ access to objective news and information and improving the capacity of journalists to provide objective reporting and analysis. The operating environment for independent media - whether broadcast, print or Internet - remained difficult during FY 2007. The USG assisted 15 individual journalists and media organizations to resolve cases of defamation or libel, providing a greater level of protection for freedom of expression and of the press. USG programs helped journalists improve the quality and quantity of reporting through technical training and intensive consultations. One program beneficiary published a groundbreaking series of articles critical of the Anti-Corruption Ministry, arguing that instead of focusing on high-level government officials, the Ministry was targeting teachers and other low-paid workers.

USG funding for a Central Asia-wide satellite broadcasting capacity increased Tajikistan’s access to informational programming from the region and other sources. Partner televisions stations in Central Asia produce approximately half of the media content, so the satellite program provided both an impetus for improving local journalistic skills as well as a more effective means for distributing programming. Six local stations are re-broadcasting programming from the satellite, reaching a potential audience of one million Tajik viewers.

ECONOMIC GROWTH

Economic growth in Tajikistan remained strong in 2007, with real GDP increasing by over 6% through September 2007, a second consecutive year of strong expansion. Inflation, which had stepped up markedly in 2006, remained over 12% in FY 2007 due to a combination of relatively loose monetary policy and continued demand growth fed by substantial remittance income. Tajikistan’s financial sector progress remained slow, with banks undercapitalized, lacking transparency and capacity. However, commercial bank deposit growth was very high in 2007, with deposits up by 175% from the end of 2006. Deposits in 2007 were 24% of GDP. Public and private cooperation with the USG to strengthen the government’s fiscal policy and the banking sector remains strong.

Macroeconomic Foundation for Growth and Financial Sector - The USG supported Tajikistan’s macroeconomic foundation for growth and the financial sector by working with GOT counterparts to improve budget formulation, tax policy and administration, and banking supervision. The USG assisted the Ministry of Finance’s (MOF) Budget Department and the Central Treasury to develop software for compiling the Annual Republic Budget Report, with suitable format, structure and content specifying all government agency missions, goals and objectives. Line agencies developed instructions for 2008 budget preparation, and the budget software allows for amendments to the budget as they are being introduced. The completion of budget automation and production of the 2008 Budget with narrative marked a significant change in the budgetary process in Tajikistan, with Ministry budgets following a common format, structure and content, including agencies’ missions, goals and objectives. The budget process lacks transparency and dissemination to the public, despite these improvements.

Support to the MOF also strengthened its forecasting of tax revenues, capital stock, and investment. The Ministry used this new capacity to analyze key issues of recurrent expenditure (e.g., public investment program; wage and pension fund costs) for the Medium Term Budget Framework and to assess the cost of reactivating the T-bill issue. The USG advised the preparation of the reorganization of the MOF’s Tax Committee. The Tax Committee designated two inspectorates for pilot reorganization along functional principles, starting in 2008 and created job descriptions for the major functions of audit, collections, taxpayer service, and accounting for taxes. The Tax Committee also made significant progress in developing detailed instructions for the Tax Code enacted in January 2005.

The USG strengthened supervision capacity of the National Bank of Tajikistan (NBT), promoted key legal and policy changes and supported extension of international accounting standards in businesses. Achievements in FY 2007 regarding bank supervision included introducing a new off-site surveillance system at the NBT with all systemic reports now fully automated, strengthening risk-based supervisory skills that improved on-site examination processes and issuing a Consolidated Supervision Regulation that allows the NBT to identify the ownership structure of banks. As rapid deposit growth shows, public trust in domestic banks is improving and microfinance institutions are growing quickly, providing support mostly in rural areas.

In FY 2007 USG assistance strengthened the microfinance sector through institutional capacity building of the Association of Microfinance Organizations of Tajikistan (AMFOT) and of commercial banks to lend to micro and small businesses, including agricultural lending. Assistance to AMFOT resulted in its successful lobbying for a credit bureau law, which will help to reduce risk and increase lending by financial institutions. In addition, AMFOT provided training to the microfinance sector in various aspects of microfinance operation, including taxation and accounting, financial ratio analyses, labor law issues, and loan officer duties. Improved quality of services has enabled AMFOT to increase its membership from 23 to 37 institutions, including one commercial bank. As of the end of FY 2007 the outstanding loan portfolio of AMFOT’s member institutions comprised $139 million, up from only $8 million at the beginning of 2007. Moreover, AMFOT secured financial support from other donors, which significantly reduced dependence on single donor support.

The USG joined other donors in funding the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to provide training and technical assistance to four commercial banks. As a result, the banks' outstanding micro and small business loan portfolio grew from $15 million in 2003 to $34 million at the end of 2007, of which $1 million were agricultural loans. The MicroInvest microfinance institution that the USG supported for four years became operationally and financially sustainable in November 2006 with $2 million in capital and 5,500 active clients. Its increased sustainability and transparency enabled MicroInvest to access new sources of commercial funding. The USG-supported banks include Phoenix+, Humo, Imkoniyat, Zar, AMFOT, ASTI and Phoruz. All microfinance institutions continued operation and increased their portfolio and number of active clients in FY 2007 by an average of three times.

The USG-funded work with commercial banks to improve professional skills of bankers and supervisors. This has led to increases in the productivity of microloan officers, improvement of portfolio quality, better product development and management, and monthly statistical tracking. Modern, professional accounting provided a solid foundation for enhanced economic growth while it reduced the scope for corruption, tax fraud, and money laundering. Over 220 accountants in Tajikistan have qualified for the Russian-language Certified Accounting Practitioner (CAP) and Certified International Professional Accountant (CIPA) certification, including 15 new accountants in 2007. Ninety percent of these accountants are working in retail businesses, manufacturing firms, international organizations, consulting and audit companies or have become entrepreneurs.

Trade and Investment and Infrastructure – Modern Energy Services - In FY 2007 the USG focused on building Tajik business capacity, improving the business enabling environment, and promoting Tajik-Afghan trade in order to promote overall regional stability. The USG supported legal and regulatory reforms to stimulate private investment, and facilitate Tajikistan’s participation in a transparent and competitive electricity market in Central Asia. The USG completed a review on a key draft law defining standards, a central issue in trade policy related to technical barriers to trade. The USG also reduced barriers to trade, transport, transit, custom clearance and border crossing with mechanisms consistent with international standards. These actions included providing comments on a resolution on simplification of export/import procedures developed by the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade to simplify import/export procedures. The USG also provided guiding materials on Risk Management to the Customs Service, which is currently developing its own Risk Management Strategy for import/export border control.

The USG provided market access information to U.S. companies interested in Tajikistan. The USG also sent 24 Tajik professionals to the U.S. on specialized internships in their respective areas, including health care administration, airport development, road construction, hotel management, food processing, and mining. Alumni from USG business exchange programs in 2007 continued to lobby to improve business legislation and build strong companies. One alumnus worked on a bill that will permit land ownership and give foreign citizens the right to own land in Tajikistan in the context of investment projects. Another alumnus began using U.S. equipment to develop a telecom company. Since 2002, business has doubled each year and currently employs 500 workers.

The USG-funded $37-million-dollar bridge linking Tajikistan to Afghanistan on the Nizhny Pyanj river links Central Asian markets to South Asia and can carry up to 1,000 vehicles daily, shortening the distance from Tajikistan to the nearest port in Pakistan by 2,500 miles. The USG funded a cross-border trade fair in Kunduz, Afghanistan, that provided Tajikistan businesspeople an opportunity to display their agricultural and light industry products to Afghan traders, who in turn showed their textiles, jewelry and carpets.

The USG supported Tajikistan’s efforts to pursue electricity trade to send Central Asian hydroelectricity via Afghanistan to the energy-hungry markets of South Asia. Although there are still many challenges, USG-provided technical assistance facilitated energy market reform and stimulated private U.S. investment in this critical sector. A USG-funded training and study tour to the U.S. for electric utility specialists from Tajikistan and other Central Asia Republics allowed both leaders and technical specialists to see how other systems function, to discuss obstacles and possible solutions, and to build relationships. The USG also gave the GOT the results and recommendations from its legal and regulatory reform review.

The USG facilitated discussions between Kazakhstan Market Operator on Electricity Capacity (KOREM) specialists and operators from Tajikistan’s national transmission system operator, Barqi Tojik. As a result, Barqi Tojik and KOREM signed a memorandum of understanding in which KOREM agreed to allow Tajik participation on the KOREM power exchange platform. KOREM also trained Barqi Tojik market operators in KOREM operations. The USG also facilitated the establishment of a regional transmission-planning model based on Power System Simulator for Engineers software. This software will assist Barqi Tojik to develop a national model for the generation, transmission, and distribution of electrical power in Tajikistan. Barqi Tojik has already completed modeling 75% of the Tajikistan’s high voltage system.

Agriculture - Agriculture and agribusiness remain vital to Tajikistan’s economic well being and its growth potential. In 2007 the USG helped Tajikistan improve its agricultural opportunities through land reform and increase agricultural sector productivity by improving water management through water user associations and developing critical components of the value chain. The USG assisted the GOT working group to draft amendments to the Land Code and draft new laws on property registration, mortgages, and land valuation. A key goal of these efforts was to strengthen farmers’ land use rights. Nearly 12,000 farmers, 22% of whom were women, received education on their land-related rights through legal aid offices. In a significant success, a USG-supported NGO assisted 100 women farmers to regain possession of land illegally seized from them.

USG support to water user associations helped farmers operate, manage, and make the investment decisions needed to maintain and improve the on-farm irrigation and drainage system. More than 5,200 participants in 26 different water user associations in four districts (Shartuz, Kabodiyon, Vahdat and Rudaki) received trainings over the past two years in association management, governance, business and water management. Participating farmers intensified production of high-value crops such as fruits, vegetables, and fodder crops. The 26 water user associations now prepare and implement water distribution plans and schedules, prepare and manage annual budgets and finances, collect fees from members to cover services and operating costs, organize irrigation system rehabilitation and maintenance, mobilize labor and in-kind contributions from members, use transparent and democratic processes for decision-making, and inform members about issues and activities. The water user associations increased their investment in the irrigation and drainage infrastructure from essentially nothing to $82,000.

Private Sector Competitiveness - In FY 2007 the USG’s main private sector competitiveness objectives were to improve the business environment and develop Tajikistan’s workforce. The USG and GOT developed a package of 34 normative legal acts to implement previous amendments to the Licensing Law. The GOT adopted 33 of the 34 normative acts. The USG also worked with provincial administrations to reform the notary processes to eliminate unnecessary steps during the exchange of land. In FY 2007 the USG created an extensive network of over 50 local partners to distribute 30 information products produced by the USG and Tajik partners such as the National Association of Small and Medium Businesses to over 8,000 businesspeople in Tajikistan, providing accurate information to navigate GOT processes effectively.

The USG is supporting the GOT to introduce the basic functions of a market economy in pilot schools. Efforts in FY 2007 expanded the economic and business education program for secondary school students. By the end of 2007, 700 new students joined the program, bringing the total number of students trained to 22,584. The number of trained teachers increased by 97 to 422, while the number of schools implementing economic education programs increased by 185, to 424. USG programs amended and published economics classroom materials, including 4,500 textbooks and student workbooks, and 200 teacher guides that were distributed to the teachers participated in the training. Participants of the programs demonstrated improved knowledge and skills in economic theory, establishment and management of an enterprise, management decision making, creative thinking, and financial reporting. The USG and Ministry of Education formalized a partnership to adopt of program materials and curriculum for all secondary schools.

INVESTING IN PEOPLE

Health - Health and education are essential for developing Tajikistan’s current and future work force and citizenry. Given Tajikistan’s high poverty rates, poor health indicators, infectious disease threats, the unmeasured use of illegal narcotics that occurs along trafficking routes and the severely limited capacity in the public health sector, the USG sought to improve the quality of health services and strengthen the health care system. The USG also institutionalized programs that expand health services and promote health. The Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education agreed to continue health promotion programs in 82 villages that were supported by the USG. The USG helped institutionalize innovations in medical education by supporting the addition of World Health Organization live birth criteria into curricula at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The USG and GOT developed norms in line with international standards to improve health with clinical guidelines and pilot projects on arterial hypertension and innovations in birthing practices.

HIV/AIDS - Approximately 80% of Tajikistan’s AIDS cases result from the use of intravenous drugs. With the rates of heroin use on the rise in Tajikistan, preventing and monitoring the spread of HIV/AIDS is increasingly important. The GOT is implementing a national program for AIDS control that the USG helped to develop in 2006. In 2006, the USG helped the Ministry of Health successfully complete the first round of HIV sentinel surveillance. In 2007, the World Bank and the USG funded the expansion of HIV sentinel surveillance to other parts of Tajikistan, financing a national HIV sentinel surveillance conference at which key partners and policy makers presented and discussed results from 2006 sentinel surveillance. Results revealed a significant increase in HIV among injecting drug users, particularly in Soghd province where HIV prevalence almost doubled, increasing from 14% to 22% among injecting drug users. The results of the sentinel surveillance for 2007 are not available yet.

USG partners conducted training in HIV counseling and testing, data entry training on the EPI-INFO software used to analyze epidemiological data, and sentinel surveillance training for 75 Ministry of Health staff, and quality control training for 17 lab specialists from all regional AIDS centers. A training on effective perinatal care for 160 health workers in eight maternity hospitals integrated HIV prevention information such as universal precautions to prevent infections and information on new interventions that reduce post-partum hemorrhage and the subsequent need for blood products.

The USG funded training for 23 trainers to work with injecting drug users (IDUs) to decrease drug use. Research at two sites in Central Asia revealed that a majority of injecting drug users surveyed had pressured drug-injecting siblings, cousins, or friends into showing them how to inject drugs. The 23 trainers will work with injecting drug users to explain the role that many of them are inadvertently playing in the initiation of drug use and give them skills to resist pressure from non-injectors. The USG also funded life skills training, rehabilitation and counseling for 1,350 IDUs, including 63 drug-using sex workers. USG-funded events reached more than 42,000 vulnerable youth through training, outreach, and counseling on HIV and drug use prevention. In the prison system, 145 prisoners received education and information on the risks of heroin use; 28 penal system staff received training on drug demand reduction and health promotion.

Tuberculosis - The USG provides critical assistance to control Tajikistan's tuberculosis (TB) epidemic. Tajikistan’s average TB rate for 2003-2006 has been 82/100,000. Preliminary data indicates that this will increase in 2007. In comparison, the rate during that period in the U.S. was two, and in Uzbekistan 52. In FY 2007 the USG continued to provide technical assistance to expand the coverage of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) program from 32% (2004) to 61% (2005) to 75% of the country in 2007, while maintaining good treatment outcomes. The USG continued to integrate and strengthen TB DOTS education at all levels of medical education. For example, the USG updated a six-month primary healthcare re-training curriculum with essential TB DOTS topics. Programs in Dushanbe and the Sogdh region retrained 390 health staff in the updated program.

After several years of developing capacity among local partners in microscopy, training seminars on diagnostics and drug sensitivity reached their first audience. The USG combined its funding with grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria greatly expanding quality assurance in laboratories. The USG implemented a small grants program to increase community knowledge and skills on TB control, and increase the capacity of local organizations to control the disease, greatly increasing the reach of information throughout the country. Together with the Ministry of Health, the USG designed, tested, and began implementation of a logistics management information system for drug management. The system helps assure that an uninterrupted supply of TB drugs is available throughout the country. The USG began a rational drug-use study, as experts believe that traditional practices are leading to an over-use of TB medication according to international standards, which is linked to drug resistance.

Other Public Health Threats - With USG support, the GOT began a capitated rate payment system for primary health care. The USG provided technical assistance on the regulatory framework, rate calculation, and budget formation as well as training to support implementation in eight pilot districts. Assisting with the introduction of a basic benefit package, the USG introduced a simple copayment structure of eight categories, significantly streamlining a previous proposal of 200 categories that was overly complex and difficult for beneficiaries to understand. From 2006 to 2007, the GOT went from zero primary health care facilities paid under the new provider payment systems 406 facilities. The USG also supported 15 hospitals to implement a new provider payment system for in-patient care

USG partners introduced family medicine, training eight family medicine trainers in a year-long program, supporting retraining and continuing medical education for health providers, and establishing a Family Medicine Association. The USG continued support to Centers of Excellence in Dushanbe City and Sogdh province as models and training centers for high-quality primary health care. A priority for the centers was quality improvement of arterial hypertension services. Results on a composite indicator measuring screening for hypertension, provider diagnostic practices, patient education, and blood pressure under control increased from 31% in 2006 to 44% in 2007.

The USG also trained two epidemiologists and supported program graduates to investigate an outbreak of leptospirosis, prepare protocols for a study on HIV infection among migrant workers and a study on perinatal mortality, begin a study on dengue fever, and report on TB prevalence in the Vose district. The GOT named a graduate of a USG-supported epidemiology training Deputy Minister of Health. Nonetheless, the GOT fails to report on outbreaks perceived to be politically sensitive making it difficult to control them.

Maternal and Child Health, Family Planning and Reproductive Health - The introduction and strengthening of family medicine continued to contribute to improved child health services with eight family medicine trainers completing a yearlong training and thirty-eight other primary health care workers continuing medical education courses. In FY 2007 the USG supported the Ministry of Health in implementing the World Health Organization-recommended live birth definition through training for medical staff on the use of live and stillbirth criteria in practice, including creation of a cadre of trainer-of-trainers. The USG supported the addition of the new criteria into medical curricula at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, which will lead to greater sustainability of the use of these criteria.

At the community level, the USG supported 134 villages in five pilot districts, training 100 health care workers in maternal/newborn health. Birth-planning activities benefited 9,861 pregnant women and their families. All 134 Village Development Committees (VDCs) reported using Emergency Transportation Plans and pooled funds to support pregnant women and children with serious illnesses and other health emergencies. VDC members and community volunteers organized 607 health education sessions on safe motherhood, sexually transmitted infections, family planning, and breastfeeding for 5,708 community members. Twenty schools and 300 students received indoctrination in a health education component called “Child-to-Child.” Follow-up visits in 70 schools saw that 1,027 CTC student promoters received refresher training.

The USG initiated safe motherhood activities by supporting effective perinatal care in five maternity hospitals and in two polyclinics. As a result, the use of non-medical pain relief during labor increased from 67% of deliveries to 86%; the percentage of normal vaginal deliveries increased from 68% to 75%; and the percentage of women with a partner present at the birth of the newborn increased from zero to 74%.

The USG continued to support the GOT to increase Tajik women’s access to quality family planning services. USG partners incorporated family planning into antenatal care at the primary health care level and into hospital-level training on effective perinatal care. Support project sites received donated contraceptives including 7,172 units of Depo Provera, 18,973 oral contraceptive tablets, 111,756 condoms and 1,997 IUDs among 185 health facilities in Khatlon Oblast. The same locations conducted health education and community outreach on family planning and safe motherhood. The Tajik Ministries of Health and Education this year formally assumed responsibility for all activities relating to community mobilization for 82 of the 134 VDCs and several of the CTC activities that the USG had supported.

Education - The USG helped the Republican In-Service Institutes for Teacher Training (RIITT) use USG-developed teacher training modules for teacher training funded by Tajikistan's Fast Track Initiative (FTI) Grant. The RIITT trained nearly 4,000 teachers while the USG trained another 909. Even though there was substantial teacher turnover, the teacher training quality index, used to measure how effectively teachers use the training they received in the classroom, continued to improve steadily, from .8 at baseline to 2.6 in 2007 for primary schools, and from 2.1 to 2.7 for secondary schools.

In the area of education finance, the USG advocated for a pilot per capita school finance model to increase efficiency and equity in the use of available education funding resources. The USG also provided training of trainers for Ministry of Finance staff to prepare them to deliver a training course for school accountants based on the USG pilot training and developed a manual for school accountants that will support expansion of the pilot during the next few years.

While primary and secondary education are guaranteed by the state, there are both economic and education quality arguments for enhancing the role of non-governmental players in education. The USG established appropriate roles for public and private sector actors in education, including inviting parents and grandparents to volunteer in their children's classrooms, developing community education committees in schools, and developing publications to support communities and schools interested in building school/community relations.

HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE

Tajikistan’s severe climate and geographic isolation contributed to problems in the humanitarian sector and the need for USG assistance for disadvantaged citizens continues. FY 2007 humanitarian programs in Tajikistan focused on improving the daily lives of the most vulnerable, often institutionalized, persons living in remote areas lacking necessities. The provision of medicines, clothing and adequate shelter remains the top priority for humanitarian efforts. In addition, the USG placed emphasis on bolstering local and USG disaster and crisis response capability.

FY 2007 was the final year of the U.S. PL-480 food assistance program in Tajikistan, which monetized funds to support an effective rural development program implemented by a consortium of U.S. NGOs. The program leveraged food and financial assistance to fund sustainable development activities that resulted in healthcare and nutrition for mothers and children, food for the hungry, improved livelihoods for the unemployed, especially women, and education for impoverished students.

In FY 2007 the Operation Provide Hope Humanitarian Program (HUM) funded private voluntary organizations to distribute commodities valued at $34 million in three airlifts and 45 surface shipments. In addition, HUM financed the renovation of a boarding school, and trained Tajik physicians and other medical personnel in emergency obstetrics and family medicine. The U.S. also provided emergency tents, blankets, and other items to earthquake victims in the Rasht valley in September 2007.

The Embassy’s local NGO partners who solicit donations from private U.S. pharmaceutical companies distribute HUM funding. These companies, in turn provide free medicine and equipment to local Tajik medical institutions. Commodities delivered in FY 2007 include anti-cancer medications, insulin, antibiotics, vitamins, audiology equipment, antibiotics, gastro-intestinal medicine and psychiatric drugs. Other donations included Hepatitis B vaccines (19,719 doses) for 6,500 medical workers.

A medical training delegation with local medical experts and emergency responders taught preventative health care to promote safe health practices. The USG also financed a project in Khatlon Province to renovate a children’s boarding school to improve hygienic and sanitary conditions. HUM funding also includes food, clothing, bedding, blankets and shoes. The USG provided food for work assistance to 175 households (900 people) through the UN World Food Program. The USG civil affairs program put in new roofs for a school in Moskovsky and a hospital in Sarichasma. While the U.S. has shifted its focus to more long-term development, HUM programs allow the GOT to focus on sustainable reforms. In addition, humanitarian programs can help the local government identify areas in need of improvement and act as a blueprint for how to begin solving social welfare problems.

FY 2007 Measures of Country Performance

The following data are based on the Monitoring Country Progress in Europe and Eurasia system developed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to measure and track progress in the region. The system uses four different indices to monitor progress, drawing on readily available standardized country-level data on economic reform, economic structure and performance, democratic reform, and human capital. The primary data sources are the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the World Bank, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and Freedom House. The data for each of the four indices are converted and standardized to a 1-to-5 scale, with a “5” representing the best performance of the Eastern Europe and Eurasia region, and a “1 the least advancement of the region.

Tajikistan’s Democratic Reform* Scores in 2006 compared to Romania and Bulgaria in 2002

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans democratic reform scores in 2006* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romanias and Bulgarias democratic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership. State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s democratic reform scores in 2006* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romania’s and Bulgaria’s democratic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership.

*Actual 2007 scores not yet available


Tajikistan’s Democratic Reform Scores in 2006 compared to its Reform Scores in 1999

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans democratic reform scores in 2006* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its democratic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line). State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s democratic reform scores in 2006* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its democratic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line).

*Actual 2007 scores not yet available

* Democratic reforms include the electoral process (the extent to which elections are free, fair and competitive), civil society (primarily NGO development), the independence of media, public governance and administration, rule of law (primarily judicial reform) and the scope of corruption as well as anti-corruption income.

Tajikistan’s 1st Stage Economic Reform* 2007 Scores Compared to Bulgaria and Romania in 2002

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans stage one economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romanias and Bulgarias economic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership. State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s stage one economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romania’s and Bulgaria’s economic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership.


Tajikistan’s 1st Stage Economic Reform 2007 Scores Compared to its Scores in 1999

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans stage one economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its economic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line). State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s stage one economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its economic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line).


Tajikistan’s 2nd Stage Economic Reform 2007 Scores Compared to Bulgaria and Romania in 2002

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans stage two economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romanias and Bulgarias economic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership. State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s stage two economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to the average of Romania’s and Bulgaria’s economic reform scores in 2002 (the bold line) when they were invited to join NATO and received favorable indications of future EU membership.


Tajikistan’s 2nd Stage Economic Reform 2007 Scores Compared to its Scores in 1999

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: The graph to the left shows Tajikistans stage two economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its democratic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line). State Dept PhotoThe graph to the left shows Tajikistan’s stage two economic reform scores in 2007* (the grey shaded area) as compared to its democratic reform scores in 1999 (the bold line).

* Economic reforms include “first stage” reforms of privatization, stabilization, and liberalization (domestic price liberalization and trade liberalization), and “second stage” reforms in the financial sector, infrastructure (physical and energy), corporate governance and competition policy.

Tajikistan’s Progress on the USAID Country Progress Indices between 1998 and 2007

Date: 01/01/2008 Description: Tajikistans Progress on the USAID Country Progress Indices between 1998 and 2007. State Dept Photo


(1) Economic reforms index include “first stage” reforms of privatization, stabilization, and liberalization (domestic price liberalization and trade liberalization), and second stage reforms in the financial sector, infrastructure (physical and energy), corporate governance and competition policy.

(2) The economic structure and performance index tracks indicators such as the size of the private sector as % of GDP, export share of GDP, and the size of the small and medium enterprise sector as % of GDP, economic growth, inflation, debt, and foreign direct investment.

(3) The Democratic reforms index include the electoral process (the extent to which elections are free, fair, and competitive), civil society (primarily NGO development), the independence of media, public governance and administration, rule of law (primarily judicial reform), and the scope of corruption as well as anti-corruption efforts.

(4) USAID tracks progress on the Human capital index by analyzing trends in health (life expectancy, under five mortality rates, and public expenditures on health), education (secondary school enrollment rates and public expenditures on education) and per capita income.



Back to Top
Sign-in

Do you already have an account on one of these sites? Click the logo to sign in and create your own customized State Department page. Want to learn more? Check out our FAQ!

OpenID is a service that allows you to sign in to many different websites using a single identity. Find out more about OpenID and how to get an OpenID-enabled account.