FY 2010 Foreign Assistance Goals
U.S. Government (USG) assistance to the Eurasian and Central Asian regions encourages and enhances cross-border cooperation in security, health, education, financial markets and energy, while supplementing bilateral programs with regional expertise on a wide range of topics. Regional programs work to further the political and economic independence of the regions’ countries, enhance their stability, and promote their integration into the global community and Euro-Atlantic structures. A substantial regionally funded effort is supporting the Administration’s Global Climate Change Initiative by improving energy-efficiency strategies and capabilities in the region.
Total FY 2010 Foreign Operations Appropriated Assistance: Eurasia Regional: $43.54 million*
Total FY 2010 Foreign Operations Appropriated Assistance: Central Asia Regional: $23.50 million*
(*Foreign Operations funding appropriated for FY 2010, not including centrally managed, multi-regional Foreign Operations funding that benefits, but is not specifically budgeted for the Eurasian or Central Asian region.)
Highlights of FY 2010 Performance by Area of Focus
Peace and Security
-- USG assistance helped established contacts between border guard officials in Moldova and Georgia. Law enforcement officers from Poland, Moldova, Georgia and Ukraine participated in training together in 2010.
-- During FY 2010, USG efforts helped clear 12.3 square kilometers of land contaminated by landmines or unexploded ordnance, destroying 122 landmines, 207 cluster munitions, and 733 other explosive items in Nagorno Karabakh (NK). Only 15% of mines and roughly 40% of battle areas still need to be cleared in order for NK to be declared mine-safe. In addition to landmine clearance, the USG supported training for 100 local staff in NK on demining techniques. These achievements will help promote increased normalization of activities in the region, allowing residents to focus more on their livelihoods instead of their survival. The accident rates have dropped from 27 in 2004 to two in 2010.
-- During FY 2010, the NATO-Russia Council drug control training project in Central Asia and Afghanistan continued to establish an educational base for Central Asian law enforcement agencies to become self-sufficient in countering drug trafficking. The program trained 271 officers during FY 2010.
-- The USG continued to contribute to the operational budget of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). The OSCE’s primary challenge in 2010 was continuing its work to help transition Caucasus, Eastern Europe and Central Asian countries to sustainable democracies, and reducing tensions in the region resulting from the June 2010 unrest in Kyrgyzstan. Three other regional conflicts also fall directly within the purview of the OSCE: Georgia, NK and Transnistria. The OSCE`s Minsk Group and the Personal Representative of the Chairman in Office continued their work to promote a permanent and peaceful settlement in NK. OSCE activities also supported efforts to build democracy through free and fair elections in Moldova, electoral reform in Azerbaijan, border management in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan, and human rights training in Uzbekistan. The OSCE conducted comprehensive training for Central Asian border officials and implemented a project promoting economic empowerment of women in Central Asia and the South Caucasus.
-- The USG, along with other donors supported the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Central Asian Regional Information and Coordination Center (CARICC). CARICC efforts helped law enforcement authorities of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and other countries to seize shipments of heroin, opiates and hashish and dismantle transnational smuggling channels, resulting in the arrest of 39 members of criminal organizations. Also, USG support for an international initiative targeting the smuggling of precursor chemicals (especially acetic anhydride, used for illicit heroin manufacturing in Afghanistan), resulted in the seizure of more than 40 tons of acetic anhydride since 2008 from the countries neighboring Afghanistan.
-- USG assistance to a computer-based drug law enforcement training (CBT) project expanded into Azerbaijan. The Kazakhstan Ministry of Interior’s Interagency Counternarcotics Training Center received ten CBT courses and 12 additional desktop computers.
Governing Justly and Democratically
-- During FY 2010, the USG actively engaged in civil society activities throughout the Central Asian region, bringing issues of regional importance into the focus of civil society organizations and mass media outlets. As national television stations provide very limited information on other countries in the region, U.S. assistance promoted the dissemination of information across the region. Through the production and broadcasting of social, political, and documentary programming, 43 private television stations in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan gained access to high-quality, socially oriented television products produced by journalists of the region and available in all main Central Asian languages. Another regional program, “the M@trix,” was rebroadcast by 35 stations - eighteen in Kazakhstan, ten in Kyrgyzstan, and seven in Tajikistan. “The M@trix” is a weekly regional youth technology program that exposed Central Asian youth to the latest Internet and cell phone technology.
Investing in People
-- USG assistance funding helped revise tuberculosis (TB) infection control policies and align them with international standards, and trained 60 people in infection control strategies and 37 people in the Directly Observed Therapy strategy. The e-TB Manager web-based management information system monitors surveillance performance to determine where interventions are necessary or need improvement. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Ukraine were trained on how to use e-TB Manager and integrate it with existing systems.
-- In FY 2010, the USG produced the sixth edition of the Health Vulnerability Analysis, identifying where the transition to democracy and free market economies may be most vulnerable because of health factors. It has become a standard reference in Washington and the field. Tracking the region’s health vulnerabilities helps development experts make programming and funding decisions
-- As an HIV prevention strategy for injection drug use, USG funding was used to develop a regional “toolkit” to help advocates and policy makers identify policy and structural barriers that impede the implementation of drug addiction treatment services. It was presented at the International Conference on Harm Reduction and at the International AIDS Society Conference. The toolkit will be disseminated in the region and to interested parties in FY 2011.
-- In FY 2010, almost 450 health care providers (both family doctors and obstetricians/gynecologists) completed a cervical and breast cancer training course. Screening statistics from the National Screening Center showed a 90% increase in the average number of women screened monthly in the center. In total, between January 2009 and July 2010, 20,853 women were screened for cervical cancer. The project also conducted large-scale educational campaigns covering television, radio, targeted mailings and text messages and events such as the “Race for the Cure.” Of the women that underwent screening, 75% reported that they learned about the screening program through television or outreach/awareness-raising campaigns.
-- In FY 2010, the USG helped to expand the Athens Energy Community to include Moldova and Ukraine, with these governments making legally binding commitments to adopt European Union energy, competition and environmental directives. The USG’s Black Sea Regional Transmission System Planning Project helped produce the first ever regional electricity models extending five to ten years (2010, 2015 and 2020). The models were instrumental in helping Georgia and Turkey analyze their electricity grid capacity and justify developing a new 400 kV high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) back-to-back station, which is being financed by several European institutions. Going forward, the USG will incorporate greater renewable energy resources into the regional model and will use the models to test the ability of the network to support greater penetration of renewable wind power. A special “Power Bridge” collaboration among Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Turkey also completed static and dynamic analysis of various electricity development approaches.
-- The USG’s energy-efficiency efforts helped Moldova enact a national energy efficiency law, create the basis for a National Fund, and begin to prepare secondary legislation. The USG also helped analyze energy efficiency and renewable energy options in Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine as part of the strategic energy planning cooperation with Hellenic Aid and the Greek Center for Renewable Energy Sources. National planning teams were constituted, trained in a common software platform, and helped to construct an operational model for analysis of clean energy investment and technology options. This regional planning approach will be further expanded to include Armenia in FY 2011.
-- In FY 2010, USG funding assisted 28 firms to improve their management practices and 190 firms to invest in improved technologies. The USG also supported three public-private dialogue mechanisms in the form of regional competitiveness roundtables, conferences, and information-sharing networks. These interventions helped to improve firm efficiency, profitability, and make them more desirable partners for larger companies and investors. For example, companies in Europe and Eurasia that completed the 18-month information technology certification process realized almost immediate productivity improvements of 60 percent or more. A total of 37% percent of companies reported sales increases of 20-50%, and 58% reported a decreased time to market.
-- The World Bank Logistics Performance Index (LPI) 2010, released in January 2010, showed positive gains in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Kazakhstan ranked 62nd overall out of 155 countries surveyed, moving up 71 positions since the previous LPI survey in 2007. Kyrgyzstan ranked 91st, moving up from 103rd place, while Tajikistan ranked 131st, moving up from 146th place. Improvements were seen in the performance of customs and freight forwarders who have benefitted from USG-funded training and technical assistance.
-- Tajikistan continued to make progress on its WTO accession process. With extensive assistance from the USG, the Government of Tajikistan answered and clarified all 165 questions on trade regulations and practices submitted by the EU and the United States. Tajikistan continued its efforts to bring the legal system of Tajikistan into compliance with WTO rules and disciplines, and approved a new action plan to accelerate the process, prepared by USG projects in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade.
-- In FY 2010, USG assistance contributed to the purchase of air traffic control equipment by the air traffic management agency for Kazakhstan. This work began with a USG-funded feasibility study on air traffic control equipment and an orientation visit to the United States for Kazakh aviation officials. Upgrades to air traffic control communications equipment purchased from U.S. vendors resulting in over $7 million in U.S. exports in FY 2010. Also, these upgrades have significantly improved Kazakhstan’s air-traffic-control infrastructure, with improved operational efficiency, better air traffic services, enhanced accountability, greater revenue generation and improved safety benefits for both the aircraft operators and passengers.