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Bureau of International Organization Affairs
September 30, 2010

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Bureau of International Organization Affairs

UNITED STATES PARTICIPATION IN THE UNITED NATIONS 2009

INTRODUCTION

 

POLITICAL AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

Geographic Issues

Africa

Central African Republic and Chad: UN Mission (MINURCAT)
Cote d’Ivoire: UN Operation (UNOCI)
Darfur: African Union-UN Mission (UNAMID).
Democratic Republic of the Congo: UN Organization Mission (MONUC)
Liberia: UN Mission (UNMIL)
Sudan: UN Mission (UNMIS)
Western Sahara: UN Mission for the Referendum (MINURSO)

East Asia and the Pacific

Burma (Myanmar
Timor-Leste: UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

Europe

Cyprus: UN Peacekeeping Force (UNFICYP)
Georgia: UN Observer Mission (UNOMIG)
Kosovo: UN Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK)

Near East

Arab-Israeli Situation
Iraq

Regional Missions
UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

South and Central Asia

Afghanistan
India and Pakistan: UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

Western Hemisphere

Haiti: UN Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH)

Thematic Issues

Civilians and Conflict
Children and Armed Conflict
Protection of Civilians and Responsibility to Protect
Women, Peace, and Security

Disarmament and International Security

1540 (Nonproliferation) Committee
Conference on Disarmament (CD
Disarmament Commission (UNDC)
General Assembly First Committee and Plenary
Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Disarmament
Peacebuilding Commission (PBC
Peacekeeping

Non-Self-Governing Territories
Security Council Reform

Terrorism and Sanctions

1267 (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee
Counterterrorism
Counterterrorism Committee (CTC)

 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS

Economic and Development Issues

Commission on Population and Development (CPD)
Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
Environment Program (UNEP)
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
Population Fund (UNFPA)

Humanitarian Issues

Children’s Fund (UNICEF
Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and Other Rights
General Assembly Third Committee and Plenary
High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
Human Rights Council (HRC)
Special Procedures

Social Issues

Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (Crime Commission)
Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) and UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)
Democracy Fund (UNDEF)
International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)

 SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND OTHER BODIES

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
International Labor Organization (ILO)
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Universal Postal Union (UPU)
World Health Organization (WHO)
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

 

LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

International Court of Justice (ICJ)
International Criminal Court (ICC)
International Law Commission (ILC)
International Tribunals
Cambodia Khmer Rouge Tribunal
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
Special Court for Sierra Leone
Special Tribunal for Lebanon

 

BUDGET AND ADMINISTRATION

Accountability
Budget and Management Issues
Capital Master Plan (CMP)
Financial Situation
Human Resources
Oversight
Program Planning
Scale of Assessments, 2010-2012


INTRODUCTION

What follows is a summary of the activities of the U.S. Government in the United Nations and its agencies, as well as the activities of the United Nations and UN agencies themselves. It seeks to assess in brief UN achievements during 2009, the effectiveness of U.S. participation in the United Nations, and whether U.S. goals were advanced.

The year 2009 marked an important and dramatic evolution in U.S. multilateral diplomacy. Acting on President Obama’s call for an “era of engagement,” the United States invigorated and expanded its leadership at the United Nations and in a host of international organizations.

This document summarizes efforts made by the United States during 2009 to advance its interests in the UN system within the following categories:

Links to related material have been inserted throughout the report to assist readers in exploring issues of interest. Key web resources employed include:

Previous versions of the United States Participation in the United Nations report can be found here. Many of the linked documents in this report are in PDF format. If you do not have the necessary software installed on your system to read these documents, you can find it here. Unless otherwise noted, all references to a particular year are for calendar year 2009.

POLITICAL AND SECURITY AFFAIRS

Geographic Issues

AFRICA

The UN Security Council adopted several statements relating to Africa, which focused on issues including the evolving situations in the Central African Republic, Eritrea, Guinea, Somalia, Sudan, piracy off the coast of Somalia, and other situations. Additional thematic resolutions also referred to Africa and its multifaceted issues. The United States was an active participant in the negotiation of all resolutions. The United States also frequently made bilateral statements in the Security Council regarding Africa.

ASSOCIATED WEB RESOURCES:

Central African Republic and Chad: UN Mission (MINURCAT)
Security Council Resolution 1861 authorized extension of MINURCAT’s mandate mission until March 15, 2010. The resolution also authorized deployment of a UN peacekeeping military contingent of 5,200 to replace the European Union Force (EUFOR) when it began to draw down in March. On March 15, EUFOR handed over peacekeeping duties in the Central African Republic and Chad to the United Nations. Approximately 2,000 of the 3,360 members of EUFOR agreed to stay on under UN command and control, and there was no gap in security reported during the transition.

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Cote d'Ivoire: UN Operation (UNOCI)
The United States supported efforts to keep the Ivorian peace process on track, in particular to make progress on organizing and conducting nationwide elections. These efforts included Security Council Resolutions 1865 and 1880, which each respectively extended UNOCI’s mandate an additional six months.

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Darfur: African Union-UN Mission (UNAMID)
The United States continued its efforts to promote UNAMID’s full and effective deployment. By year’s end, UNAMID had deployed 74 percent of its authorized military strength, and was contributing to increased regional security and stability in Darfur. Security Council Resolution 1881 extended UNAMID’s mandate for one year. On May 8, the Security Council issued a Presidential Statement condemning the renewed military incursions in eastern Chad of Chadian armed groups, and calling on Sudan and Chad to implement fully their commitments under the Doha and Dakar Agreements.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo: UN Organization Mission (MONUC)
Despite important gains, the security situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) remained fragile. Security Council Resolution 1896 extended the arms embargo and its related sanctions regime, with some modifications, until November 30, 2010. MONUC continued to play an indispensible role in the stabilization and democracy-building of the entire DRC.

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Liberia: UN Mission (UNMIL)
The United States supported Security Council actions to continue to help Liberia build a stable, secure environment and to prepare for country-wide elections in 2011. These actions included Security Council Resolution 1885, drafted by the United States, which renewed UNMIL’s mandate until September 30, 2010, authorized UNMIL support for the 2011 elections, and made conflict-free, free, and fair elections a benchmark for the mission’s drawdown.

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Sudan: UN Mission (UNMIS)
Security Council Resolution 1870, drafted by the United States, extended UNMIS’s mandate for another year. While the mandate remained the same, the Resolution clarified UNMIS’s role in elections assistance, protection of civilians, and support for the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The resolution also highlighted the importance of ensuring humanitarian assistance, and in an explanation of vote following adoption, the United States noted the negative impact on the civilian population of the Government of Sudan’s expulsion of non-governmental organizations providing such assistance.

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Western Sahara: UN Mission for the Referendum (MINURSO)
Security Council Resolution 1871 extended MINURSO’s mandate through April 30, 2010. MINURSO continued to monitor the cease-fire and prevented a return to open conflict between the Royal Moroccan Army and the Polisario. On October 9, the Secretary-General appointed Hany Abdel-Aziz (Egypt) as his Special Representative for Western Sahara and Head of MINURSO.

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EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC

Burma
Seeking Security Council action on Burma continued to be a challenge. In May, the United States drafted a Security Council press statement expressing concern over Aung San Suu Kyi’s re-arrest on spurious charges, and another press statement in August after her conviction and sentencing. In the General Assembly, the United States played a key role in adopting a resolution on the human rights situation. Secretary Clinton previewed the conclusions of the U.S. Burma policy review, the first such announcement of the long-awaited conclusions, at UN Secretary-General Ban’s Ministerial-level Group of Friends meeting on Burma.

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Timor-Leste: UN Integrated Mission (UNMIT)
Security Council Resolution 1867 extended UNMIT’s mandate for one year. Resolution 1867 also mandated that UNMIT support local elections and prepare to hand over primary policing responsibilities to the Timorese National Police (PNTL).

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EUROPE

The Security Council authorized continuation of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), the UN Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG), and the EU-led multinational stabilization force (EUFOR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina in cooperation with NATO. Despite the February renewal of UNOMIG and diplomatic efforts to reach a mutually acceptable agreement on an additional extension of UNOMIG’s mandate, Russia vetoed in June a status-neutral resolution which aimed to extend the mandate. As a result of the veto, UNOMIG’s mandate expired and mission personnel began to depart Georgia shortly thereafter, depriving Georgia’s separatist regions of their only international monitoring presence. Meanwhile, the international talks on the situation in Georgia continued periodically with little progress.

During Security Council debates in March, June, and October, the United States and European members of the Security Council continued to highlight Kosovo’s advancement toward becoming an open, multiethnic, and democratic republic. They called on Kosovo and Serbia to find opportunities for pragmatic cooperation to improve life for communities – particularly in Kosovo’s north – and continued to welcome a robust European Union Rule of Law Mission to support such efforts.

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Cyprus: UN Peacekeeping Force (UNFICYP)
UNFICYP provided security as peace talks continued between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot leaders. Security Council Resolution 1873 renewed UNFICYP’s mandate until December 14. Security Council Resolution 1898 renewed UNFICYP’s mandate through June 15, 2010.

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Georgia: UN Observer Mission (UNOMIG)
Security Council Resolution 1866 renewed UNOMIG’s mandate until June 15. Despite intense diplomatic efforts to reach a mutually acceptable agreement on an additional extension of UNOMIG’s mandate, Russia vetoed in June a status-neutral resolution that included previously agreed language. UNOMIG departed Georgia shortly thereafter.

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Kosovo: UN Interim Administration Mission (UNMIK)
During debates in March, June, and October, the United States and European members of the Security Council continued to highlight the steps that Kosovo had taken toward becoming a multiethnic, democratic republic; called on Kosovo and Serbia to find opportunities for pragmatic cooperation that could improve life for communities in Kosovo’s north; and continued to welcome a robust European Union Rule of Law Mission (EULEX) to support such efforts.

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NEAR EAST

Arab-Israeli Situation
The United States actively pursued the vision of a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace, including a two-state solution, with Israel and Palestine living side by side in peace and security. The United States continued to work in partnership with the other members of the Quartet (the United Nations, the European Union, and Russia) toward this objective. Ambassador Rice discussed the situation with the top leadership of the Israeli Government and the Palestinian Authority during an October visit to the region.

As renewed hostilities between Israel and Hamas in Gaza continued, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1860 on January 8, which referenced the “deepening humanitarian crisis” in Gaza and included calls for “an immediate, durable, and fully respected ceasefire, leading to the full withdrawal of Israeli forces from Gaza.” On January 21, the Security Council issued a press statement welcoming a ceasefire in Gaza, while again noting grave concern over the humanitarian situation.

The situation continued to be addressed in monthly Security Council sessions, where the United States made strong statements on the need for a two-state solution, the humanitarian situation in Gaza, and support for constructive actions by the Palestinian Authority and Israel. The Security Council also issued a Presidential Statement on May 11 that endorsed the Quartet’s work and called on the parties “to fulfill their obligations under the Performance-Based Road-map.”

Most of the discussions on the Arab-Israeli situation occurred in the General Assembly (UN General Assembly). The fall session voted on 21 resolutions concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, hostilities in Gaza, and related issues. The United States opposed many of these resolutions because they: prejudged final-status issues that Israelis and Palestinians must resolve through negotiations; advocated activities or language incompatible with basic principles of Middle East peace; or expended resources that could be used in more productive ways to improve the lives of Palestinians.

The United States opposed action on the UN Human Rights Council’s (HRC) deeply flawed Goldstone Report, noting the Report’s unbalanced focus on Israel, sweeping conclusions of law, excessively negative inferences about Israel’s intentions and actions, and failure to deal adequately with the asymmetrical nature of the Gaza conflict or to assign appropriate responsibility to Hamas for its decision to base itself and its operations in heavily civilian-populated urban areas.

U.S. representatives spoke out forcefully and frequently in numerous UN bodies to ensure that Israel was not excluded from or isolated at UN meetings and conferences, and to assure that Israeli interests were given the same fair consideration as any other member state. Unfortunately, as in previous years and despite strong U.S. opposition, a number of one-sided, anti-Israel resolutions were approved in UN General Assembly, the HRC, and various other UN bodies.

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Iraq
The UN Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) continued to pursue its expanded mandate as defined in Security Council Resolution 1770 (2007), and renewed in Resolution 1830 (2008). On August 7, the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1883 to extend UNAMI’s mandate for 12 months.

The Security Council extended arrangements for the Development Fund for Iraq and the International Advisory and Monitoring Board through Resolution 1905, issued a Presidential Statement in November reaffirming the work of UNAMI in Iraq, and a series of Press Statements on topics ranging from elections to bombings to Iraq-Kuwait issues. The Secretary-General also released three mandated UNAMI quarterly reports.

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Regional Missions

--UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
UNDOF continued to monitor the cease-fire between Israel and Syria, supervise the disengagement of Israeli and Syrian forces in the Golan Heights, and monitor the areas of separation and limitation between the two countries.

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--UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
UNIFIL continued to: monitor the cessation of hostilities between Israel and Lebanon; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces as they deployed throughout southern Lebanon; extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the safe return of displaced persons; and assist the Lebanese Armed Forces to establish an area free of armed personnel, materiel, and weapons other than those of the Government of Lebanon and UNIFIL. Through a tripartite mechanism, UNIFIL continued to engage with both Lebanon and Israel about Israel’s presence in northern Ghajar. Security Council Resolution 1884 extended UNIFIL’s mandate through August 31, 2010.

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-- UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
UNTSO continued to maintain a stabilizing presence in the region, including providing military observers and administrative staff to support the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) in the Golan Heights. UNTSO personnel continued to conduct regular patrols.

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SOUTH AND CENTRAL ASIA

Afghanistan
The UN Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) continued to pursue the mandate expanded in 2008 and renewed unanimously for 12 months as Resolution 1868. UNAMA strengthened its role as the lead coordinator of civilian assistance in Afghanistan and oversaw international assistance for Afghanistan’s presidential and provincial council elections. The NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) continued to provide security under a UN mandate, which the Security Council renewed for 12 months in Resolution 1890.

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India and Pakistan: UN Military Observer Group (UNMOGIP)
UNMOGIP’s presence continued to deter violence in Kashmir.

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WESTERN HEMISPHERE

Haiti: UN Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH)
The Security Council remained seized with Haiti-related issues throughout the year. While the Security Council primarily focused on the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), the Secretary-General produced two reports on Haiti, detailing the full scope of the security and socio-economic situation. A Presidential Statement on April 6 noted a non-UN-sponsored, April 14 donor conference, while stressing the need for security, the provision of basic services, social and economic development, and free elections.

Treatment of other countries in the Western Hemisphere was limited to Colombia, which was included in thematic reports by the Secretary General, as well as one oblique reference in a Presidential Statement.

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Thematic Issues

Civilians and Conflict

Children and Armed Conflict (CAAC)
Based on the monitoring and reporting of the Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict, the Security Council Working Group continued to review conflict situations and produce recommendations to the Security Council, parties to conflict, and others on actions to address the situation of children in specific conflicts. Attention to this issue by the Security Council and the Working Group sent a strong signal of determination to address this problem and focus an international spotlight on the issue. The United States fully supported the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1882 in August, which strengthened, among other things, the mandate of the Special Representative by including – in the “name and shame” lists – parties to armed conflict who engage, in contravention of applicable international law, in patterns of killing and maiming of children and/or rape and other sexual violence committed against children in situations of armed conflict.

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Protection of Civilians and Responsibility to Protect
The protection of civilians was a dominant theme throughout the UN system. The issue was raised during debates concerning the renewal of multiple peacekeeping mandates, as well as in a Security Council Presidential Statement on January 14, which was accompanied by an extensive memorandum to provide a basis for improved analysis and diagnosis of key protection issues. While both children and women were discussed as subsets of civilian populations to be protected during armed conflict, a November thematic debate on the protection of civilians writ large resulted in a comprehensive Resolution (1894) that addressed the full range of humanitarian and peacekeeping aspects for all vulnerable populations, and specifically tasked the Department of Peacekeeping Operations to support the protection of civilians by peacekeeping operations.

The Security Council specifically tasked protection of civilians as a primary component of a UN peacekeeping mandate in four instances. In cases where a peacekeeping mandate was included, though not as a principal task, the Security Council referenced a specific state’s responsibility to protect its own civilians in 11 instances (often ascribing an assistance role to a UN entity in that country). The Security Council did not deal specifically with the responsibility to protect, but the General Assembly did in several sessions. The U.S. position on this issue was presented to Security Council members and others at both the General Assembly and an event at the International Peace Institute.

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Women, Peace, and Security
Combating sexual and gender-based violence and empowering women’s participation in conflict resolution and peace processes stood as top U.S. foreign policy priorities throughout the year.

In September, the United States led negotiations on Security Council Resolution 1888, co-sponsored by a record 64 member states, which outlined steps to be taken by the Secretary-General to combat sexual violence in armed conflict, identified by the Resolution as a clear threat to international peace and security. The Resolution called for a number of specific actions to address conflict-related sexual violence against women, including the appointment of a Special Representative of the Secretary-General, a team of experts, more regular reporting, and the identification of women’s protection advisers. In October, the Security Council passed Resolution 1889, calling for the development of a set of indicators to track implementation of Resolution 1325, as well as a report on women’s participation in peacebuilding and planning, including recommendations for improving international and national responses.

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Disarmament and International Security

1540 (Nonproliferation) Committee
The United States continued active support of the 1540 Committee’s efforts to help member states deter proliferation by non-state actors of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons and their means of delivery. The United States supported a highly successful Comprehensive Review of Resolution 1540 implementation by the 1540 Committee, September 30-October 2, which included the U.S.-proposed approach of an open-ended meeting. All UN member states and relevant organizations were invited to participate. The review was accompanied by a civil-society event that included dozens of nongovernmental organizations and industry leaders, resulting in a wide variety of suggestions for best practices on how best to support 1540 implementation.

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Conference on Disarmament (CD)
The Geneva-based Conference on Disarmament (CD) is the principal multilateral forum for negotiating arms control and disarmament agreements. Its agenda includes the issues of nuclear disarmament, the prevention of nuclear war, weapons of mass destruction, conventional armaments, negative security assurances, the prevention of an arms race in outer space, and transparency in armaments.

The CD is autonomous, but is supported through the budget of the UN Office of Disarmament Affairs. The United States is assessed 22 percent of the approximately $4 million devoted to CD costs annually. The CD held 45 formal plenary sessions and 20 informal plenary meetings. The CD adopted its annual report to the General Assembly on September 17.

In May, nearly 13 consecutive years of stalemate was broken when the CD agreed on a program of work that included negotiation of a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT), a primary U.S. nonproliferation objective.

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Disarmament Commission (UNDC)
The UN Disarmament Commission (UNDC), a subsidiary of the General Assembly, is a deliberative body intended to consider in depth, and make recommendations on, disarmament issues. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) historically has tried to focus UNDC discussion almost exclusively on nuclear disarmament issues. As in past years, the United States maintained a balance between, on the one hand, work on nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation and, on the other, conventional arms control and other issues. The UNDC last issued consensus recommendations in 2000.

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General Assembly First Committee and Plenary
The Disarmament and International Security Committee deals with disarmament and related international security questions. It meets as a committee of the General Assembly and reports out draft resolutions to the Assembly for approval.

Changes in U.S. voting on key resolutions on nuclear disarmament and conventional arms control highlighted the 64th General Assembly. In place of the 10 negative votes it cast in isolation in 2008, the United States was not isolated once, and instead reduced U.S. negative votes from 23 to 10 while continuing to protect and promote U.S. interests. The Committee’s work revolved mainly around nuclear disarmament and related subjects. Additional focus on nuclear matters was facilitated by the Security Council Summit on nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation, and the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference.

The most prominent General Assembly resolution on conventional disarmament was 64/48 on a proposed Arms Trade Treaty (ATT). Intensive high-level contacts between the United States and the United Kingdom, the principal supporter of the ATT, resulted in a U.S. decision to support the resolution and the negotiation of an ATT, provided that the negotiations would be conducted on a consensus basis. Another positive development was the successful U.S. turnaround of Resolution 64/50 concerning illicit trade in small arms and light weapons. In 2008, the United States was the lone dissenter. This time the United States persuaded lead sponsors to make minor changes that enabled it to co-sponsor and vote for the resolution.

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Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Disarmament
A seminal U.S. achievement was the unanimous adoption of Resolution 1887, in which the Security Council, presided over by President Obama, expressed grave concern about the threat of nuclear proliferation and the need for international action to prevent it. The Resolution reaffirmed that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery constitute threats to international peace and security, and showed agreement on a broad range of actions to address nuclear proliferation and disarmament and the threat of nuclear terrorism.

In response to North Korea’s announced nuclear test in May 2009, which violated Resolution 1718, the Security Council adopted Resolution 1874, strengthening financial measures and arms embargos, and authorizing interception operations, including seizure and disposal of prohibited items.

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Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)
The United States is a member of the PBC. The United States continued to participate actively in the PBC’s work on the countries on its agenda (Burundi, Central African Republic, Guinea-Bissau, and Sierra Leone), as well as the activities of the PBC’s Organizational Committee. The United States worked with other member states and the United Nations to lay the groundwork for a productive five-year review in 2010 of the PBC’s mandate. The United States continued to encourage greater UN interoperability with major bilateral donors and multilateral financial institutions in post-conflict countries.

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Peacekeeping
UN peacekeeping operations continued to face serious challenges in carrying out Security Council mandates. These included a lack of skilled personnel and material resources, slow deployments, and a need for clearer goals and benchmarks for success. The United States made a commitment early in the year to seek clear, effective mandates for peacekeeping missions, improved consultations with troop contributors, and sustained political support for peace processes. The United States also worked toward a new field support strategy, improved UN guidance, and addressing political support and patronage.

The President invited major troop/police contributors to a meeting in New York on the margins of the General Assembly on September 23, the first such meeting of its kind. The UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Field Support Services began developing a set of proposals to address these challenges, including specific steps to improve coordination among the various actors, streamline services to the field, and improve efficiency.

The Security Council and General Assembly addressed a range of issues, including the development of guidance on the protection of civilians, and earlier and better consultations with troop contributors. The Security Council adopted a Presidential Statement in August and held a series of discussions both in formal session and in a Working Group on these issues.

At year’s end, more than 120,000 men and women from 116 countries were serving in 15 peacekeeping operations and two special political missions led by the DPKO. More than 98,000 of these were uniformed police and military personnel, including more than 2,900 women. As of December 31, the United States had 55 police officers, six military observers, and 12 troops serving in five peacekeeping operations. The assessed cost of UN peacekeeping operations was approximately $7.32 billion; the U.S. share was nearly $1.94 billion.

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Non-Self-Governing Territories
The United States is the administering power of three non-self-governing territories, as defined by the Special Political and Decolonization Committee (Fourth Committee) of the General Assembly: American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (Puerto Rico was removed from the Committee’s consideration in 1953). The United States continued to vote against or abstain on Committee-sponsored resolutions addressing the governance and independence of non-self-governing territories. The United States continued to question the underlying assumption that economic and military activity by the Administering Power necessarily harms the interests of an administered territory’s people, and maintains that resolutions based on this premise are unnecessary and tend to inflame rather than settle the issue in question. In addition, the United States abstained on Resolutions 64/97 and 64/99, which interfered with the authority of Administering Powers, because U.S. policy states that Administering Powers alone have the authority to determine when obligations under Article 73e of the UN Charter have ceased.

The United States does not object to Fourth Committee reporting on specific non-self-governing territories, including those under U.S. administration, and has consistently cooperated with the Committee in supplying requested information. The United States joined consensus on four resolutions regarding the questions of the Western Sahara (64/101), New Caledonia (64/102), Tokelau (64/103), and the “Questions of American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Guam, Montserrat, Pitcairn, St. Helena, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands” (64/104 A-B). However, the United States continued to vote against Resolutions 64/105 and 64/106, “Dissemination of Information on Decolonization” and “Implementation of the Declaration of the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples,” which historically have been used by Cuba and its allies in the Fourth Committee to denounce the United States.

The United States does not participate in the Fourth Committee’s Special Committee on the Situation with Regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, also known as the Committee of 24 or C-24.

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Security Council Reform
Intergovernmental negotiations on Security Council reform began in February during informal plenary sessions of the General Assembly. Three full rounds of negotiations were held; a fourth round began in December. During the negotiations, member states reiterated their long-held positions on five key issues: categories of membership, the question of the veto, regional representation, size of an expanded Security Council and its working methods, and the relationship of the Security Council to the General Assembly. The United States maintained its support for reforms that preserve and strengthen the Security Council’s effectiveness and efficiency.

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Terrorism and Sanctions

1267 (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee
The United States drafted Security Council Resolution 1904, which was adopted in December, to extend the mandate of the 1267 Monitoring Team and, among other fairness and transparency reforms, establish an ombudsman office to facilitate the 1267 Committee’s review of delisting petitions. The United States also supported the successful listing of seven individuals to the Consolidated Sanctions List of individuals and entities associated with al-Qaida, the Taliban, and Usama bin Laden.

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Counterterrorism
The United States continued to support efforts in the Security Council’s three counterterrorism committees – the Counterterrorism Committee (CTC) created pursuant to Resolution 1373; the 1267 (al-Qaida/Taliban Sanctions) Committee; and the 1540 (nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction to non-state actors) Committee – as well as the General Assembly’s efforts to address terrorism.

Counterterrorism Committee (CTC)
The CTC, established by Security Council Resolution 1373 after the events of September 11, 2001, continued its work as the leading counterterrorism body of the Security Council. The United States actively supported efforts by the Committee’s Counterterrorism Executive Directorate to assess and address gaps in member state implementation of Resolution 1373, and to encourage greater coordination in facilitating counterterrorism technical assistance to member states. The United States further supported thematic discussions in the CTC of all major areas of implementation of Resolution 1373, including issues related to border security, arms trafficking, law enforcement, and best practices in the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1624 (2005).

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ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS
Economic and Development Issues

Commission on Population and Development (CPD)
The CPD advises the UN Economic and Social Council on population changes and their effects. The CPD also monitors, reviews, and assesses implementation of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), adopted in 1994 in Cairo.

The CPD held its 42nd session, March 30-April 3, in New York, with a focus on the contribution of the ICPD Program of Action to internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. The U.S. statement highlighted its renewed and deep commitment to the Program of Action's goals and aspirations. The United States joined consensus on the resolution adopted on that theme.

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Commision on Sustainable Development (CSD)|
The CSD provides a forum for exchanging best practices and lessons learned on a number of sustainable development challenges, including climate change, energy, food security, the green economy, and environmental degradation. It serves as a policy-setting mechanism for sustainable development matters.

The CSD addressed six agriculture-related themes. With input from more than 10 U.S. agencies, the United States contributed formal interventions throughout CSD's annual session, highlighting U.S. partnerships and submitting a national report with information on U.S. domestic and international land-use and agricultural programs. The United States sponsored over a dozen learning centers, side events, and partnership fair events, and co-hosted a weekend showcase with the local non-governmental organization community. The Departments of State and Agriculture, with the Netherlands, the EU, and the UN Environment Program, launched a Global Nutrient Management Partnership to reduce nitrogen and phosphorous contamination of freshwater through improved agricultural practices.

The U.S. Delegation also negotiated an outcome document on the six themes that incorporated value-added lessons learned, best practices, and technical recommendations for practical use by organizations and stakeholders. These actions included important U.S. priorities, such as strong references to land tenure and improving agricultural and rural development information by use of information technologies, and programs such as the U.S. Extension Service.

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Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
UNCTAD remains the UN focal point for integrated treatment of trade and development issues. The United States worked with other member states to ensure that member states drive UNCTAD's work plan. Member states decided on topics for intergovernmental and expert-level meetings; UNCTAD budget and staffing requests reflected member-state priorities; and UNCTAD's research and publications target areas of importance to member states. These and other steps enhanced transparency and improves UNCTAD's alignment with U.S. policy.

The United States reinforced UNCTAD's role in promoting development by adding additional tracking metrics. UNCTAD now tracks whether countries include trade as part of their national development strategies and their UN Development Assistance Frameworks, and uses inclusion of trade in those plans as a measure of UNCTAD's own effectiveness.

The United States continued to work to incorporate gender as a cross-cutting issue in UNCTAD's trade and development programs, to increase the number of female beneficiaries of UNCTAD's technical assistance, to include gender as a factor in UNCTAD research, and to track intergovernmental meeting participation and UNCTAD staffing by gender. These efforts aligned UNCTAD more closely with U.S. development priorities.

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Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
The UNCCD addresses fundamental causes of famine and food insecurity. The United States played a critical role in the Convention's progress toward an effective new implementation phase, which began in 2007 with the adoption of the 10-Year Strategic Plan, and which also emphasizes a transition to a results-based management (RBM) approach. At the 9 th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP-9), the United States engaged with other delegations to realign and prioritize the Convention's program and budget according to the RBM approach.

Also at COP-9, the United States joined other parties in focusing on implementation of the convention, including by adopting scientific indicators of impact and performance, as well as redesigning the mandate for the Committee to Review Implementation of the Convention (CRIC). The United States facilitated agreement on budget-neutral mechanisms for regional coordination to implement the Convention, a key issue for combating desertification in developing countries. The United States also supported the development of, and sent experts to, the first CST Scientific Conference.

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Environment Program (UNEP)
UNEP coordinates and develops global environmental policy, assesses environmental conditions and trends, develops environmental agreements and legal instruments, builds national and regional capacities to address environmental degradation, publishes reference tools, and provides technical expertise. At the February Governing Council (GC) meeting, the United States worked with other delegations to launch international negotiations toward a legally binding agreement on mercury, a harmful substance with significant transboundary impacts. The United States continued to strongly support UNEP's work under the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), which brings together governments and civil society to improve management of chemicals and wastes. The Second Ministerial Session of SAICM successfully addressed priority issues. The United States also supported the GC launch of a process on international environmental governance (IEG), to address international concerns over the efficiency, effectiveness, and coordination of international institutions working to preserve the global environment. The IEG group met twice and agreed on several steps for incremental reform.

The United States participated actively in both UNEP's Natural Resources Panel and the process to consider strengthening the science policy interface on biodiversity and ecosystem issues. The United States encouraged UNEP both to strengthen its links with scientific institutions, and to assist developing nations to implement multilateral environment agreements and improve their ability to monitor and assess environmental change. The United States partners with UNEP to use geospatial data in environmental planning through work in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, with the U.S. Geological Survey, Forest Service, EPA, and NASA.

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Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
UNFCCC is a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, specifically to “achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.”

The United States engaged actively in negotiations culminating at the 15 th Conference of Parties (COP-15) in Copenhagen in December. The resulting Copenhagen Accord, a political instrument that was negotiated by multiple heads of state, including the President, outlined provisions on mitigation, financing, transparency, technology, adaptation, and reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation. At Copenhagen, the mandates of the Ad Hoc Working Groups established by the 2007 Bali Roadmap at COP-13 were extended to COP-16, scheduled to take place in Cancun, Mexico, in December 2010.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The IPCC conducts comprehensive and inclusive assessments of the literature on scientific, technical, and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts, and options for mitigation and adaptation. The IPCC has three working groups: climate change science; impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability; and mitigation. The IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report, published in 2007, is the scientific basis for current action.

The United States attended the 30 th and 31 st Sessions of the IPCC, as well as a scoping meeting for the Fifth Assessment Report. At these meetings, the United States worked with other delegates on the outlines and schedule for the contributions to the Fifth Assessment Report, expected to be published in 2014. In addition, two Special Reports remained under preparation: “Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation,” which was scheduled to be released in 2010, and “Managing and the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation,” to be released in 2011. The United States also hosted the Working Group II Technical Support Unit, which facilitated the Group's work on “Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability.”

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Population Fund (UNFPA)
UNFPA supports and funds maternal, child, and reproductive health care and family planning programs in over 140 countries, and works on issues of gender empowerment, child marriage, and violence against women.

The United States is a member of the Executive Board of UNFPA and participated in its decision-making processes to promote U.S. interests. The United States provided $46.1 million to UNFPA, reinstating funding after a multiple-year hiatus.

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Humanitarian Issues
The United States worked closely with several UN agencies to respond to humanitarian crises worldwide, by providing assistance and facilitating humanitarian access that saved lives and helped to protect refugees, displaced persons and other vulnerable populations, as well as victims of sexual exploitation and abuse. The Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) stands at the core of UN humanitarian efforts. The State Department and USAID contributed a combined $20.5 million to OCHA.

The United States remained by far the largest donor to the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, contributing over $640 million. UNHCR worked in 120 countries and assisted over 34.4 million refugees, internally displaced persons, stateless persons and other persons of concern. The United States also remained the largest donor to the UN World Food Program (WFP), the preeminent provider of emergency food assistance. WFP provided life-saving food and nutrition to 101.8 million beneficiaries in a year that saw the highest level of recorded hunger in history: one billion people. Including the value of in-kind donations, the United States contributed $1.767 billion.

The United States remained the largest state donor to UNICEF, giving $300 million.

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Children's Fund (UNICEF)
UNICEF continued to provide children in more than 190 countries with health care, clean water, nutrition, education, protection, and emergency relief. UNICEF remained active in post-disaster and post-conflict situations, as well as in working with governments to create systems to ensure that all children are safe, protected, and have access to quality basic education and health care.

The United States continued to be the largest government donor to UNICEF, and the second-largest overall donor, with nearly $300 million. The largest amount, $146 million, came from the State Department. Other contributions, for specific projects, came from the Agency for International Development (almost $100 million) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ($54 million).

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Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and Other Rights
The United States reengaged in discussions concerning a wide range of economic, social, and cultural rights, and other rights. The United States was able to achieve modifications to several resolutions at the General Assembly and the HRC that it had previously opposed, including the right to food, HIV/AIDS, access to medicine, water and human rights, the global financial crisis, toxic waste, water and human rights, and the rights of the child. As modified, these resolutions were consistent with U.S. policy, and the United States joined consensus. Most notably, after years of isolation, the United States joined consensus on a General Assembly resolution on the right to food and three resolutions on the rights of children.

The United States also made progress regarding the right to development, though recurring resolutions on this topic were not yet consistent with U.S. policy.

General Assembly Third Committee and Plenary
The United States achieved important successes in the General Assembly Third Committee, with the passage of resolutions on the human rights situations in Iran, North Korea, and Burma. The resolutions on Burma and Iran passed by wider margins than in 2008. In a marked improvement over past years, no country attempted to block these resolutions through a “no action” motion.

Support weakened for the problematic General Assembly resolution on defamation of religions, which calls for mandatory restrictions on freedom of expression. Due to U.S. efforts, support for the resolution declined from 101 for, 53(US) against, and 20 abstentions in 2006 to 86-53(US)-42.

UN General Assembly Resolution 64/10 endorsed the HRC Goldstone Report, 114-18(US)-44, and called for implementation of some recommendations. Nevertheless, it received less support than almost any other Israel-related issue.

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High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)
The United States continued to support the work of the OHCHR as the principal UN official responsible for advancing human rights. The OHCHR provided technical assistance and advisory services activities, including monitoring human rights situations, assisting human rights capacity-building of governments, building networks with local and regional civil society groups, and promoting ratification and implementation of key human rights treaties.

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Human Rights Council (HRC)
The HRC's main purpose is to support human rights, address human rights violations, and make related recommendations. It replaced the UN Commission on Human Rights in 2006.

After reengaging in the Council as an observer, the United States co-sponsored several resolutions during the March and June sessions, including on maternal mortality and trafficking in persons. After seeking and winning election to the Council in May, the United States became a full member for the September session. During that session, the United States joined with Egypt and 50 co-sponsors to introduce and pass a consensus resolution affirming the fundamental universal values of freedom of opinion and expression.

The United States also co-sponsored resolutions on the right to truth, the independence of judges and lawyers, the elimination of discrimination against women, and access to water and sanitation. In addition, the United States joined consensus approving resolutions on transitional justice, extreme poverty, the right to food, the global financial crisis, toxic wastes, and access to essential medicines. The United States voted against resolutions on unilateral coercive measures, human rights and international solidarity, and foreign debt, and abstained on the right to development. The United States was not isolated on any of these resolutions. Further, the United States supported renewal of the special procedures mandates and technical assistance for North Korea, Burma, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, and Cambodia.

The HRC continued its unbalanced treatment of Israel, issuing numerous resolutions condemning Israel and conducting two special sessions focusing solely on Israeli actions. During the special session called to review the deeply flawed Report of the UN Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict led by Justice Richard Goldstone, the United States sought support for a balanced, minimalist resolution. The United States strongly urged accountability for all alleged violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by any party in relation to the 2008-2009 Gaza conflict through thorough, independent, and credible domestic investigations and follow-up as the appropriate measures for addressing the allegations in the Goldstone Report. Nevertheless, the HRC resolution condemned Israel and endorsed the report, 25-6 (US)-11.

The Universal Periodic Review process reviewed the records of 48 countries. The United States offered statements and recommendations during the May and November-December sessions. For the review of North Korea, the U.S. Special Envoy for North Korea Human Rights Issues delivered the U.S. remarks.

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--Special Procedures
In its work of Special Procedures, the HRC mandates individuals (Special Rapporteurs, Independent Experts, Special Representatives, and Representatives of the Secretary General) and Working Groups to monitor human rights violations in specific countries or to monitor particular thematic human rights issues globally. The United States supported the work of Special Procedures, including advocating for the renewal of several country-specific mandates. The United States facilitated official country visits by the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries and Special Rapporteur on Housing, as well as informal visits by the Special Rapporteur on Torture, Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, and the Independent Expert on Safe Drinking water. The United States also received inquiries by Special Procedures on 75 specific allegations involving itself, and responded promptly and fully whenever possible.

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Social Issues
At the March UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) session, member states reached consensus on Agreed Conclusions on the session's theme, “Equal sharing of responsibilities between women and men, including care-giving in the context of HIV/AIDS.” The United States co-sponsored a resolution on Women and HIV/AIDS, and voted against an unbalanced Palestinian resolution on women, 30-3(US)-8, that did not take into account the suffering of all parties in the Middle East. The United States joined consensus on resolutions pertaining to a commemorative event for the 15 th anniversary of the 1995 Beijing Conference on Women; working methods of the CSW; and the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW).

Reform of UN gender-related institutions has become the centerpiece of the System-Wide Coherence exercise to increase efficiency and coordination throughout the UN system. U.S. efforts cumulated in consensus adoption of General Assembly Resolution 63-311. It called for consolidating the four existing UN gender-related bodies – Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, UN Division for the Advancement of Women, UN Development Fund for Women, and INSTRAW – into an entity headed by an Under Secretary-General. A primary goal for the new entity, not yet named , was to mainstream gender concerns and promote women's empowerment throughout the UN system. In July, the United States signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This treaty is rooted in the principles of equality and non-discrimination, emphasizing that persons with disabilities are to be treated “on an equal basis with others.” Signature of this Convention is the latest in a long series of U.S. actions on behalf of persons with disabilities, consistent with the U.S. commitment to advance human rights and fundamental freedoms at home and abroad.

In March, the United States declared its support for the December 2008 UN Statement on Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, and Gender Identity, which condemned private acts of violence and human rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity wherever they occur.

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Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (Crime Commission)
The Crime Commission is the principal UN policy-making body on criminal justice issues. The Crime Commission convened April 14-18. Through its statements, the United States succeeded in raising awareness of U.S. efforts to combat economic fraud and identity-related crime, and on penal reform and the reduction of prison overcrowding. The United States also hosted or co-hosted side events on identity theft from the victim's perspective, improving understanding of the U.S. Lacey Act (which facilitates criminal prosecution for illicit trafficking in forest products and wildlife), and on crime prevention and criminal justice responses to violence against women and girls.

The United States co-sponsored six of the 11 crime control resolutions adopted by the Commission, on the following topics: technical assistance for implementing international conventions and protocols related to terrorism; international cooperation on economic fraud and identity-related crime; supplementary rules for the treatment of women in prisons; support for regional programs of the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); international cooperation to combat kidnapping; and improving the finance and governance situation of UNODC.

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Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) and UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
The CND and the UNODC, both based in Vienna, support U.S. drug control objectives. UN drug control conventions provide the framework for international drug control. The CND met in Vienna, March 16-20. The CND adopted a Political Declaration and Action Plan on five broad themes, which will serve as an international roadmap to fighting drugs: demand reduction, supply reduction, chemical control and amphetamine-type stimulants, money laundering and judicial cooperation, and eradication of illicit drug crops and alternative development. The CND adopted 14 drug control-related resolutions, five of which the United States co-sponsored.

UNODC used more than $12 million in voluntary U.S. contribution funds to enhance global programs to control the flow of precursor chemicals, combat money laundering and terrorist financing, provide legal advice on treaty implementation of the UN drug conventions, prevent drug abuse and HIV/AIDS, and augment an international network of treatment and rehabilitation centers. The United States also supported a wide variety of UNODC activities, including to UNODC's Terrorism Prevention Branch and to UNODC programs in Afghanistan.

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Convention against Corruption (UNCAC)
UNCAC provides a framework for international cooperation against corruption, including prevention and law enforcement measures. It entered into force in 2005.

The 3rd UNCAC Conference of State Parties (COSP) was held in November in Doha. The United States successfully led the effort to adopt a new peer review mechanism that will credibly identify gaps and promote implementation of the comprehensive anticorruption standards enshrined in UNCAC, with the potential for strengthening the Convention. In addition, the United States led successful efforts to negotiate and adopt resolutions on asset recovery, prevention, and technical assistance. U.S. leadership played an integral role in achieving consensus on the review mechanism and in securing agreement on the additional substantive resolutions adopted by the COSP. The United States drafted resolutions both on technical assistance and asset recovery, and proved critical to developing an acceptable text for the resolution on prevention.

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Democracy Fund (UNDEF)
UNDEF's mission is to support democratization throughout the world by empowering civil society organizations.

The United States remained UNDEF's leading donor, contributing $3 million to the Fund's budget in Fiscal Year 2009.

The United States participated actively in the Fund's Advisory Board, aiming to ensure the high quality and relevance of the projects. UNDEF received more than 2,100 project proposals from 138 countries; 67 projects were chosen to receive a total of $19 million. The United States evaluated over 300 project proposals short-listed for funding and offered recommendations for support that were often adopted.

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International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
The INCB is an independent, quasi-judicial control body with a mandate to promote governments' compliance with the provisions of international drug control treaties and to assist governments in this effort. The United States continued its funding support for the work of the INCB to advance implementation of a 2006 U.S.-sponsored resolution to prevent the diversion of precursor chemicals to the illicit market. U.S. funds supported numerous regional projects, including border control in Central Asia and drug control capacity-building in East Africa. U.S. funding also aided country-specific programs, including providing for monitoring of illicit crop activities in Afghanistan; providing for alternative development in Laos; and implementing one program to monitor illicit crops and another to strengthen capacity to identify, seize, and recover illicit assets in Peru.

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SPECIALIZED AGENCIES AND OTHER BODIES

Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
UNESCO contributes to global peace and security through international cooperation in education, science, and culture. Priority programs included focused efforts to: foster and defend the free flow of ideas and information and open access to education for all; build understanding of democratic principles and practice; promote scientific knowledge; and protect cultural and natural heritage throughout the world.

The 182 nd Session of UNESCO's Executive Board primarily focused on the election of a new Director-General. The United States believed the ideal candidate should have strong managerial and consensus-building skills, political stature, a demonstrated commitment to UNESCO's core principles, and a compelling vision for carrying forth its important mandate. By secret ballot, the Board recommended Irina Bokova of Bulgaria. The 35 th UNESCO General Conference ratified the Board's decision to elect Bokova as Director-General.

The General Conference also approved the establishment of the United States' first Category II Center, the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management. Category II Centers are provided for and funded by member states while remaining under UNESCO auspices. The U.S. center focuses on practical science and technology development, readily transferrable to improve integrated water resources management in developing nations.

The UNESCO regular budget was approximately $315 million; the U.S. assessed contribution was approximately $82 million, about 26 percent of the total. In addition, the total U.S. voluntary contribution was $3.7 million.

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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC, part of the World Health Organization (WHO), is a leading cancer research institute whose mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of cancer and develop scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control.

The IARC Governing Council, with 19 member states, met at the headquarters in Lyon, France, May 14-15, discussed IARC's program of work and various collaborative research efforts, and took action on budgetary and administrative issues. U.S. regular budget contributions to IARC (based on an 8.5 percent assessment rate) were $1.91 million. The Department of Health and Human Services, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, provided voluntary contributions. IARC had a total staff of 166, of which 57 were professional posts; of those, six (10.5 percent) were held by U.S. citizens.

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International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
The IAEA advances critical U.S. interests related to nuclear nonproliferation, safety, and security, as well as the promotion of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy.

The United States contributed to the IAEA both through regular and extra-budgetary mechanisms. The assessed U.S. contribution to the IAEA regular budget was approximately $100 million, while the Department of State provided roughly $61.5 million in voluntary contributions.

The United States achieved gains on key policy priorities, including nonproliferation and promotion of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The United States underscored its support for the IAEA and the need to ensure that it is adequately resourced to fulfill its broad and diverse mandate.

The United States continued to push for the universalization of the IAEA Additional Protocol, which it again highlighted during the November Board of Governors meeting, and the United States brought its own Additional Protocol into force on January 6. T he U.S. Support Program (USSP) to IAEA Safeguards continued to provide extra-budgetary assistance for initiatives and projects designed to address technical safeguards issues, thereby assisting the IAEA in fulfilling its safeguards mission. For example, the USSP, in cooperation with the German Support Program, continued to fund development of the next-generation surveillance system, with the first camera systems to be field-tested in late 2010. Similarly, the United States continued to play an important role in training IAEA inspectors. In May, with U.S. support, India brought into force a safeguards agreement and signed an Additional Protocol. In September, outgoing Director General ElBaradei represented the IAEA at the historic UN Security Council summit meeting on nonproliferation and disarmament, chaired by the President.

The United States and its allies repeatedly called on Iran and Syria to address outstanding questions regarding their respective nuclear programs. At the March Board meeting, the United States reiterated the need for Iran to cooperate with the IAEA's investigation, stressing that Iran's unwillingness to comply with its nuclear obligations, in combination with continued enrichment, did not constitute an acceptable status quo . After the disclosure of the Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant in September, the Board passed a resolution at its November meeting condemning Iran over its nuclear program.

The United States strongly supported efforts by the IAEA to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. A continuing priority has been the development of a mechanism for ensuring reliable access to nuclear fuel, which can serve as an important incentive for states to forego indigenous development of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle technologies, such as enrichment and reprocessing capabilities. To that end, in November, with U.S. support, the Board approved the Russian fuel reserve proposal – the first such mechanism for assurance of fuel supply.

The United States continued its support of IAEA programs to assist countries considering the adoption of nuclear power to make intelligent decisions on whether to do so, and to develop the necessary national infrastructure. In addition, t he United States has been a strong and persistent advocate of the IAEA's Technical Cooperation (TC) Program, which helps member states use nuclear technologies to pursue sustainable development in a manner that is safe, secure, and does not raise the risk of proliferation . The United States contributed approximately $21 million to the IAEA TC Fund.

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International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
ICAO promotes international cooperation for the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation with the objectives of safety, security, and environmental protection. The United States contributes 25 percent of the ICAO assessed budget, totaling more than $76 million for 2010. The United States was actively involved in selecting the new Secretary-General, who is a recognized leader in the aviation security community.

The United States participated in 59 Technical Panels, Study Groups, and committee meetings, in addition to the Global Air Traffic Forum on Civil-Military Cooperation. In the Air Navigation Commission and the ICAO Council (ICAO's governing body), the United States played a leadership role in the effort to transition from periodic safety audits of member states to a Continuous Monitoring Approach, in order to provide a more risk-based safety analysis framework.

The United States chaired the annual Aviation Security Program Panel's Threats and Risk Working Group, which assists ICAO in identifying potential means and methods by which terrorists can target civil aviation. The United States made a voluntary contribution of nearly $1 million to ICAO's aviation security program. The United States also fully funded two high-level security positions, and contributed significantly to the Aviation Security Panel of Experts and all its working groups. Finally, the United States contributed significantly to the development of a proposed aviation security plan to be presented to the ICAO Assembly in 2010.

The United States worked to ensure that ICAO remained heavily engaged in developing and obtaining global support for environmental mitigation measures. The United States worked to ensure that the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change upholds ICAO as the appropriate forum for addressing environmental measures concerning aviation. In particular, the United States was successful at the High-Level Meeting on International Aviation and Climate Change in securing consent for continuing the ICAO process for developing medium-term and long-range goals for limiting aviation emissions, including development of a global emissions standard for aircraft. The United States was also active in the effort of the Group on International Aviation and Climate Change (GIACC) to develop a comprehensive plan on international aviation and climate change.

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International Labor Organization (ILO)
Through a process of negotiation among governments and workers' and employers' organizations, the ILO adopts international labor standards which are binding on governments that ratify them, and supervises their application, including by providing technical assistance to governments that request it.

At the International Labor Conference in June, the United States joined in adopting unanimously a Global Jobs Pact, a policy instrument providing an internationally agreed basis for policymaking designed to reduce the time lag between economic and employment recovery from the international financial and economic crisis.

The United States continued to be the largest contributor to ILO programs to eradicate child labor, providing $39.4 million. The ILO continued to provide assistance to the U.S. Government in the negotiation and implementation of labor provisions in trade agreements, by providing expert analysis of labor law and practice and implementing programs to build the capacity of tripartite partners in the labor area.

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International Maritime Organization (IMO)
The IMO promotes maritime safety, security, and protection of the marine environment. After a vigorous campaign, the United States was re-elected to the IMO Council (governing body) by the IMO Assembly of all member states. U.S. delegations were active in all five of the IMO's technical committees, plus nine subcommittees. In the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC) and its subcommittees, the United States provided significant input and support for the review of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, as well as other safety-related conventions, codes, and guidelines. With the United States playing a central role, the MSC also adopted a Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units and Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar Waters. In addition, the United States co-sponsored proposals calling for work to commence on a Polar Code that will prescribe mandatory requirements concerning ship design, training, and operations for ships operating in ice-covered areas in the Arctic and Antarctic areas.

The MSC is also responsible for maritime security, including piracy-related issues. U.S. delegations in the MSC focused on protecting vital shipping lanes of strategic importance against piracy, which resulted in the refinement of IMO guidance to governments and industry on preventing piracy and armed robbery at sea, the establishment of the Djibouti Code of Conduct on regional coordination to prevent piracy, and two Assembly resolutions (including one on the adoption of a Code of Practice for investigation of piracy). IMO implementation was also completed on the Long Range Identification and Tracking system, a U.S. initiative, to enhance maritime domain awareness and security.

In the Marine Environment Protection Committee and its subcommittees, the United States was active in reviewing and updating the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), as well as other environmental codes and guidelines. Of particular note, the IMO adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI to designate a North American Emission Control Area proposed by the United States, and co-sponsored by Canada and France, that will enter into force in August 2011. Ships will be required by August 2012 to meet stringent international emission standards when operating within 200 miles of U.S. and neighboring coastlines. These standards will dramatically reduce air pollution from ships and deliver substantial air quality and public health benefits extending hundreds of miles inland.

In the management field, the IMO made great progress in adopting a results-based budget that was acceptable to the United States, and approving Guidelines on the Application of the Strategic Plan and High Level Action Plan.

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International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
The ITU serves as a forum for governments and the private sector to facilitate the operation of international telecommunication networks and services.

The United States actively supported the ITU's establishment of a working committee to prepare for an ITU World Conference on International Telecommunications in 2012 to revise its treaty-level International Telecommunications Regulations (ITRs). The ITRs are used to settle international telephone traffic and have not been amended since 1988. The United States opposes expanding the ITRs to include Internet regulation or cybersecurity matters.

The ITU's mandate as it relates to implementation of World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) initiatives, as well as cybersecurity matters, continues to be a problem for the United States. Besides the ITU Secretary-General's activities on cybersecurity that have included the convening of high-level meetings with outside experts, the ITU has continued several programs focused on cybersecurity, a priority issue for the United States.

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Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
PAHO (established in 1902 as the Pan American Sanitary Bureau) is the world's oldest intergovernmental health organization. The PAHO Directing Council met September 28-October 2, at its headquarters in Washington. U.S. officials participated in that meeting, as well as in meetings of the Subcommittee on Planning and Programming in March and the PAHO Executive Committee in June. Strategic priorities included work toward achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals, strengthening preparedness for and response to disasters, improving immunization coverage, addressing the growing burden of non-communicable diseases, and strengthening health systems and services.

The PAHO Directing Council of 38 participating states discussed and adopted resolutions on pressing health issues, including: mental health, primary health care, avoidable blindness, active and healthy aging, elimination of neglected diseases, health research policies, and a framework for Human Organ Donation and Transplantation. The United States provided $59.1 million to the PAHO regular assessed budget in 2009, as well as voluntary contributions of approximately $6.1 million. PAHO's total staff was 798.

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Universal Postal Union (UPU)
The UPU is the primary forum for cooperation among postal-sector players. It helps to ensure a universal network of up-to-date products and services, provides technical assistance where needed, sets the rules for international mail exchanges, and makes recommendations to stimulate growth in mail volumes and to improve the quality of service for customers.

The United States supported deployment and further development of the UPU Global Monitoring System, a worldwide service measurement system for letters. The United States also supported expanded pay-for-performance systems for letter post.

The Department of State and U.S. Customs and Border Protection work in conjunction with the World Customs Organization to promote Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for mail items. The UPU is modifying its international postal system, used by 150 countries, to allow for customs declaration data to be added.

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World Health Organization (WHO)
WHO, based in Geneva, Switzerland, was established in 1948 with the objective of “the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health.”

U.S. representatives participated in World Health Assembly (WHA) and WHO Executive Board meetings. U.S. officials also participated in meetings of the management committees of WHO's major voluntarily funded programs, and other intergovernmental processes, including a final Working Group on Public Health, Innovation, and Intellectual Property, and an Intergovernmental Meeting on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. The WHO Director General gave priority to achieving health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG), strengthening health systems, and reinvigorating primary health care.

The H1N1 outbreak, which particularly impacted Mexico, the United States, and Canada, required an intensive WHO response worldwide. The Director General declared H1N1 the first-ever global pandemic under the International Health Regulations (2005). Collaborating closely with all partners, WHO sought to provide assistance to affected countries on effective control measures, laboratory support, outbreak communications and, later, distribution of donated H1N1 vaccines, aiming to stop the spread of H1N1 at the source.

The WHA in May focused on the H1N1 outbreak and pandemic-influenza preparedness, approval of the 2010-11 budget, implementation of the International Health Regulations, and other issues including primary healthcare, climate change and health, and monitoring the achievements of health-related MDG.

The WHA again took up the issue of “Health conditions of, and assistance to, the Arab population in the occupied Arab territories, including Palestine.” The proposed resolution was unacceptably one-sided against Israel. The United States emphasized humanitarian and medical assistance to the Palestinian people, and opposed using the WHA as a political forum. The resolution was adopted, 92-6(US)-5, with a number of countries absent.

The WHA adopted by consensus WHO's $4.54 billion budget for 2010-2011, including no increase in assessments and a 10 percent increase in voluntary contributions. The United States strongly supported the budget and WHO's results-based management framework. The United States provided $106.5 million (22 percent) to the WHO regular assessed budget, as well as approximately $110 million in voluntary contributions. The total WHO staff on long-term appointments was 5,821. In addition 2,378 individuals were on short-term contracts.

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World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
WIPO promotes the protection of intellectual property rights throughout the world through cooperation among member states. Thousands of U.S. patent and trademark filers depend on WIPO-administered systems for patent and trademark protection around the world.

The United States worked closely with member states to secure adoption of the 2010-2011 Program and Budget that establishes the Director General's strategic realignment initiative, which aims to streamline the WIPO Secretariat and enhance its efficiency. This budget, funded almost entirely by fees paid for WIPO services, was set at 618.6 million Swiss francs (approximately $598 million) for the 2010-2011 biennium, 1.6 percent below the prior biennium.

The United States also strongly engaged WIPO member states to secure an ambitious work plan for the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources' Traditional Knowledge and Folklore, aimed at producing a legal instrument for protection, but one not necessarily requiring a legally binding treaty.

During the WIPO Assemblies, the U.S. delegation vigorously supported the addition of the patent offices of both Israel and Egypt as International Searching Authorities and International Preliminary Examining Authorities under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT), which funds nearly 75 percent of WIPO's total budget. The U.S. delegation was instrumental in overcoming political objections to the Israel Patent Office raised by some delegations.

The United States consistently promoted the adoption of improvements to the WIPO filing and registration systems for patents (PCT), trademarks (Madrid Treaty), and designs (Hague Treaty), which continue to provide critical benefits and services to U.S. businesses reliant upon international protection of their intellectual property. In addition, the United States supported continued implementation of a set of recommendations and projects aimed at enhancing WIPO's focus on development goals. Also, the United States worked with member states to move the WIPO Advisory Committee on Enforcement (ACE) to an agreed statement of future work for the first time in two years.

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World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
The WMO facilitates free and unrestricted exchange of weather- and climate-related data, products, and services in real or near-real time among members. The U.S. Permanent Representative participated in the 61 st Session of the WMO Executive Council. Significant issues addressed by the Council included developing a framework for disaster risk reduction and a strategy to deliver environmental services to all sectors of the economy. As a result of U.S. efforts, the Council also adopted decisions on transparency and management issues, including approving policies concerning financial disclosure reports for certain staff, an audit committee, and deciding to open the Executive Council and its relevant working group meetings to all WMO member states.

A U.S. delegation participated in the World Climate Conference in Geneva in August. A major outcome of the Conference was an intergovernmental agreement to develop a Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).

In addition to supporting WMO programs through assessed dues, the United States is the largest donor to the WMO Voluntary Cooperation Program (VCP).

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LEGAL DEVELOPMENTS

International Court of Justice (ICJ)
The ICJ is the principal UN judicial organ. The Court decides cases submitted to it by states and has the authority to give advisory opinions on legal questions at the request of authorized organs or UN specialized agencies. The General Assembly had previously requested that the ICJ deliver an advisory opinion on the accordance with international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The United States submitted written briefs in the Kosovo case, and the State Department's Legal Adviser delivered the U.S. position in an oral statement before the ICJ in December.

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International Criminal Court (ICC)
The ICC is not a UN body, and the United States is not a party to the Rome Statute, the treaty establishing the ICC. The ICC is a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity.

In November, the United States participated as an observer delegation at the Eighth Session of the Assembly of States Parties in The Hague, and afterward attended meetings of the New York Working Group and The Hague Working Group.

The annual ICC General Assembly resolution was adopted without a vote on November 2. The United States said that it was not in a position at that time to join in the adoption of the resolution, explaining that if a vote had been called on this resolution, the United States would have abstained. The United States emphasized, however, its steadfast commitment to promoting the rule of law and helping to bring violators of international humanitarian law to justice, wherever violations may occur, and to continue playing a leadership role in righting such wrongs.

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International Law Commission (ILC)
The General Assembly established the ILC to promote the codification and progressive development of international law.

The ILC did not have a U.S. member during its most recent 2006-2011 five year term. At the fall UN General Assembly session, the United States delivered its statements on the ILC Report during the Sixth Committee discussion of that report.

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International Tribunals

Cambodia Khmer Rouge Tribunal
After protracted negotiations that began in 1999, UN and Cambodian Government officials in June 2003 signed an agreement to establish Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (Khmer Rouge Tribunal), composed of international and Cambodian judges, to try senior leaders of the Khmer Rouge.

The United States supported the Tribunal in several ways, including contributing $1.8 million to the UN-led side of the court and providing assistance in the negotiation of an agreement between the United Nations and the Cambodian Government to establish an effective anticorruption mechanism at the court. During the course of the year, the United States participated in meetings of the Tribunal's Steering Committee, which is based in New York, and at the end of the year the United States formally became a member of the Steering Committee.

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International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
The UN Security Council established the ICTR in November 1994 to prosecute individuals accused of committing genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law in Rwanda, January 1-December 31, 1994.

The United States continued to work within the Informal Working Group on International Tribunals (IWGIT) to ensure that the ICTR has the resources, especially personnel, to reach closure efficiently and effectively. For example, the United States has worked to ensure that the durational terms for Tribunal judges allow them to complete their cases successfully. Further, in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1503 (2003), which provided an endorsement of the Tribunal's first completion strategy, the United States has worked within the IWGIT and on a bilateral basis to design an effective and efficient Residual Tribunal that would carry out those functions of the ICTR (and ICTY), such as witness protection, that must continue after the tribunal closes. As part of that effort, the United States has worked with the ICTR, Rwanda, and other stakeholders to strengthen the capacity of the Rwandan judicial system, in part so that Rwanda may eventually receive and prosecute cases transferred to it from the ICTR. U.S. funding for ICTR was $42.5 million.

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International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
The ICTY was established in May 1993 pursuant to Security Council Resolution 808 to investigate and try individuals accused of committing genocide, crimes against humanity, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law on the territory of the former Yugoslavia.

The United States has worked within the UN Informal Working Group on International Tribunals (IWGIT) to ensure that ICTY has the resources, especially personnel, to reach closure efficiently and effectively. For example, the United States has worked to ensure that the durational terms for Tribunal judges allow them to complete their cases successfully. Further, in accordance with Security Council Resolution 1503 (2003), which provided an endorsement of the Tribunals' first completion strategy, the United States has worked within the IWGIT and on a bilateral basis to design an effective and efficient Residual Tribunal that would carry out those functions of the ICTY (and ICTR), such as witness protection, that must continue after the tribunal closes. The United States also continued to support domestic courts in the region in their efforts to adjudicate war crimes cases and supported the processing of cases that had been transferred from the ICTY to domestic courts. The United States provided direct assistance to domestic judicial mechanisms and promoted regional cooperation among judicial professionals. U.S. funding for ICTY was $50.75 million.

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Special Court for Sierra Leone
UN Security Council Resolution 1315 (2000) called on the Secretary-General to conclude an agreement with the Government of Sierra Leone to create an independent special court to prosecute persons who bore the greatest responsibility for serious violations of international humanitarian law and Sierra Leonean law committed in Sierra Leone since November 30, 1996.

The United States contributed approximately $9 million to support the work of the Special Court, bringing its total contributions since 2002 (when the Court began its work) up to approximately $69 million. The United States intends to make additional contributions to ensure that the Court completes its important work. The United States also plays a substantial role on the Court's Management Committee in New York, comprised of major donors to the Court, and provides an important administrative oversight function for the Court.

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Special Tribunal for Lebanon
Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1664, the United Nations and the Government of Lebanon negotiated an agreement on the establishment of a Special Tribunal for Lebanon. Further to Security Council Resolution 1757, the provisions of the document annexed to it and the Statute of the Special Tribunal thereto attached, entered into force in June 2007. The Tribunal's mandate is to prosecute persons responsible for the attack of February 14, 2005, resulting in the death of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, and those responsible for certain connected cases.

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon began operating on March 1. The United States pledged $6 million to support the Tribunal's work, in addition to $14 million that had been previously contributed.

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BUDGET AND ADMINISTRATION

 

 

Accountability
The United States continued to play a leading role in efforts to strengthen accountability. In the spring, the General Assembly considered the Secretary-General's proposals on the UN accountability framework, enterprise risk management and internal control framework, and results-based management framework. During discussion of the report, several member states expressed concern that the proposed accountability framework did not adequately address matters of personal accountability within the Secretariat and institutional accountability toward member states. While agreeing that the accountability proposals could be improved, the United States supported the general direction of the report.

The United Nations continued to make incremental improvements to its procurement practices. The United States had hoped that an independent bid protest system, designed to promote transparency and fairness in awarding of contracts, would be implemented fully. However, progress on this initiative was limited, though a pilot program continued. The United States continued to work to improve the vendor registration process, as well as coordination between the Secretariat and the UN Funds and Programs, to disqualify violators of the UN supplier code of conduct from the bidding process.

The United States continued to advance its UN Transparency and Accountability Initiative (UNTAI). As a result of sustained and intensive diplomacy, most UN entities have made considerable progress to reform financial management and program oversight. Several agencies have also started making significant progress toward establishing ethics frameworks. A few specialized agencies and related organizations have lagged behind in their efforts and do not have formal policies for the disclosure of internal audits and/or a system to promote integrity and ethical conduct.

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Budget and Management Issues
In December, the General Assembly approved a 2010-2011 budget of $5.16 billion (Resolution 64/244). That budget reflected an increase of 7.5 percent over the final 2008-2009 budget. Priorities included strengthening the Department of Safety and Security (DSS), launching the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system, and increasing staffing related to counterterrorism and anticorruption.

The United States succeeded in limiting the overall increase, while ensuring resources were provided for priority activities. In Resolution 64/243 , the General Assembly approved $242 million for security needs to enable the DSS to begin implementing a new security management plan to augment risk/threat analysis, deploying additional security personnel, and enhancing staff training. In this same resolution, the General Assembly approved $24 million from the 2010-2011 budget to move ahead with ERP , to replace obsolete and redundant information and communication technology with a single, comprehensive system.

The General Assembly also adopted Resolution 64/245 , approving $569.5 million for 27 Special Political Missions for 2010, including the UN Assistance Missions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Resolution 64/245 also addressed the administrative expenses of the UN Joint Staff Pension Fund and called upon the Secretary-General to ensure the financial security of the Fund's assets.

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Capital Master Plan (CMP)
The General Assembly adopted Resolution 64/228, approving $42.1 million to continue implementing the CMP, including design and construction of the new broadcast facility, construction security, and managing archival activities. UN General Assembly also requested that the United Nations continue to make every effort to absorb these costs within the CMP's overall approved budget. The United States successfully worked to reduce the additional resources approved for the CMP in 2010.

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Financial Situation
The United States made significant progress in paying UN arrears for both the regular and peacekeeping budgets. Overall, the United Nations was owed $2.25 billion for assessments relating to the UN regular budget, the international war crimes tribunals in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, UN peacekeeping operations, and the CMP. (That figure is $1.16 billion lower than in 2008.)

The figure primarily reflects amounts owed for UN peacekeeping operations, which accounted for $1.9 billion. The total owed for the UN regular budget was $335 million; the amounts owed for the tribunals and the CMP were $37 million and $22 million respectively. The United States owed $860 million, or 38.2 percent of the total arrears for all UN members. Most of the U.S. arrears, $523 million, related to peacekeeping operations.

For the UN regular budget, the United States paid $478 million toward its annual assessment of $598 million. The United States also paid recently accrued regular budget arrears of $85 million, resulting from appropriation shortfalls in Fiscal Years 2007 and 2008. The total U.S. payment in the course of the year, for all UN assessments, was $2.65 billion. Most of the U.S. payment, approximately $1.77 billion, related to peacekeeping.

Human Resources
The comprehensive reform of the UN internal justice system for resolving employment-related disputes adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution 63/253 was fully operational on July 1. By year's end, all elements of the previous formal system ceased operations and the new system that provides for a two-tier judicial review was operational. On March 2, the U.S. candidate to the seven-member new UN Appeals Tribunal was elected by UN General Assembly.

The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) is responsible for making recommendations on salaries, allowances, benefits, and other conditions of service for UN employees and its specialized agencies. Though Resolution 63/250 had harmonized and streamlined the ICSC's antiquated and complex contractual hiring arrangements, UN General Assembly requested that the Secretary-General not appoint any staff to continuing contracts before January 1, 2010, pending UN General Assembly's consideration of additional information concerning the implementation of continuing contracts. Many member states – including the United States – believed that revisions of the Secretary-General's proposed Staff Rules were needed. Therefore, UN General Assembly adopted Decision 64/546, which established that the new Staff Rules would remain provisional through December 31, 2010.

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Oversight
The primary UN oversight bodies are the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS), the Board of Auditors, and the Joint Inspection Unit (JIU). In addition, the Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is a subsidiary of UN General Assembly that assists it in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities and provides advice on the effectiveness of OIOS.

In the fall, the General Assembly considered the OIOS annual report and that of the IAAC. The General Assembly also began its five-year review of OIOS's mandate. The United States called for a number of measures to strengthen OIOS. Due to differences among member states on issues such as disclosure of internal audit reports and OIOS's operational independence, as well as the already heavy schedule in the Fifth Committee, the General Assembly decided to defer consideration of OIOS' mandate until spring 2010. Nevertheless, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 64/242 on the OIOS annual report and the corresponding report of the IAAC. In December, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 64/227, which endorsed the Board of Auditors' audit of the voluntary funds administered by the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the Board of Auditors' report on the implementation of recommendations from the 2006–2007 biennium.

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Program Planning
The Committee for Program and Coordination (CPC) is the main subsidiary organ of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) and UN General Assembly for planning, programming, and coordination. The United States, a CPC member from 1974 to 2006, has since served as an observer. The CPC accomplished little of substantive value, and minimal progress was made to improve its working methods, despite requests in past General Assembly resolutions. During the General Assembly Fifth Committee's consideration of the CPC report, the United States stressed that the CPC must do more to ensure that maximum use is made of the resources provided by member states, and that much work remains to improve the CPC's focus and work.

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Scale of Assessments, 2010-2012
The General Assembly adopted Resolutions 64/248 and 64/249 , approving the UN scale of assessments for 2010-2012 to apportion expenses among member states for both regular and peacekeeping budgets. The United States succeeded in maintaining the 22-percent ceiling for the regular budget. For both scales adopted, the basic methodologies for apportioning expenses were retained, with the assessment rates of member states recalculated to reflect current economic data. The U.S. rate for UN peacekeeping increased, due to this recalculation.

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