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Diplomacy in Action

II - Security Council Resolutions


Report
Bureau of International Organization Affairs
April 22, 2013

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The Security Council’s membership in 2012 consisted of the five permanent members — China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States — and 10 non-permanent members: Azerbaijan, Colombia, Germany, Guatemala, India, Morocco, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, and Togo. The following table summarizes the activity of the Security Council for the year and compares it with the previous 10 years.
 


YEAR


MEETINGS

RESOLUTIONS
CONSIDERED

RESOLUTIONS
ADOPTED

U.S.
VETOES

PRESIDENTIAL
STATEMENTS

2012

199

55

53

0

29

2011

235

68

66

1

22

2010

210

59

59

0

30

2009

194

49

48

0

35

2008

244

66

65

0

48

2007

202

57

56

0

50

2006

272

89

87

2

59

2005

235

71

71

0

67

2004

216

62

59

2

48

2003

208

69

67

2

30

In 2012, the Security Council adopted all but two of 55 resolutions it considered. It again was heavily engaged in efforts to resolve conflicts, and to give direction to UN peacekeeping missions. Much of the Security Council’s attention continued to focus on Africa and the Middle East.

RESOLUTIONS

Substantive resolutions formally considered by the Security Council during the year are listed and described below. They are grouped alphabetically by country or topic, and, within each group, by date. Each listing provides the number of the resolution, date of the vote, a brief description, and associated Internet resources. Each non-unanimous vote is noted (Yes-No-Abstain).

In 2012, two draft resolutions were vetoed. On February 4, a draft resolution demanding that Syrian government forces and all armed opposition groups stop all violence and reprisals was vetoed by China and Russia. On July 19, a draft resolution to extend the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) was vetoed by China and Russia; Pakistan and South Africa abstained.

There were four other resolutions that were not adopted unanimously: For Resolution 2058 (Cyprus), Azerbaijan and Pakistan abstained. For Resolution 2063 (Sudan), Azerbaijan abstained. For Resolution 2068 (Children in Armed Conflict), Azerbaijan, China, Pakistan, and Russia abstained. For Resolution 2081 (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia), Russia abstained.

COUNTRY AND REGIONAL RESOLUTIONS

The official record of all Security Council actions in 2012 is available in chronological order here: http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/scact2012.htm.

AFRICA

2033 (January 12): UN-African Union (AU) cooperation in peace and security — Focused particularly on the importance of UN-AU consultation and cooperation, and encouraged continuing involvement by regional and sub-regional organizations to settle disputes peacefully. Reiterated the importance for the Security Council and the African Union Peace and Security Council to work together more effectively. Stressed the need to improve UN financing for regional organizations undertaking a UN peacekeeping mandate, while asserting that regional organizations have the responsibility to secure needed resources for their organizations.

AFGHANISTAN

2041 (March 22): Afghanistan — Extended the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) for a year. Designated UNAMA to continue leading international efforts to strengthen Afghan institutions in democratic governance, the rule of law, drug control, human rights, and humanitarian aid.  Web Resource: UNAMA

2069 (October 10): Afghanistan — Extended authorization of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) until October 13, 2013. Authorized member states to take necessary measures to fulfill ISAF’s mandate. Welcomed the commitment of the Afghan government, with ISAF support, to build a strong Afghan National Security Force. Welcomed further development of the Enduring Partnership of the Government and NATO.  Web Resource: ISAF

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

2074 (November 14): Bosnia and Herzegovina — Authorized renewal of the European Union (EU) multinational stabilization force (EUFOR ALTHEA) until November 15, 2013. Stipulated that EUFOR ALTHEA would have the principal role in stabilizing the peace. Welcomed EU intent to maintain the military operation to fulfill its missions. Reiterated that EUFOR ALTHEA could take all necessary actions to ensure compliance with existing agreements, including the use of force.  Web Resources: EUFOR; SFOR

COTE D’IVOIRE

1967 (January 19): Cote d’Ivoire – Extended the temporary redeployment of three companies of troops and two military utility helicopters from the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) to the UN Operation in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) for four additional weeks. Authorized the temporary transfer of three armed helicopters with crews from UNMIL to UNOCI for four weeks. Authorized deployment of 60 formed police unit personnel to replace 60 UN police officers.  Web Resource: UNOCI

2045 (April 26): Cote d'Ivoire — Renewed and modified sanctions and extended an expert panel’s mandate to monitor the Ivorian situation. Modified arms sanctions set to expire in May and, through April 2013, directed states to prevent the supply, sale, or transfer to Côte d’Ivoire of arms and any related materiel, with some exceptions.

Also renewed, through April 2013, measures preventing the importation of all rough diamonds from Cote d'Ivoire, as well as financial and travel measures previously imposed. Further requested the Group of Experts to continue its work.

CYPRUS

2058 (July 19): Cyprus — Extended the mandate of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) through January 30, 2013. Thirteen members approved the resolution, while Azerbaijan and Pakistan abstained. Urged Greek and Turkish Cypriot community leadership to attempt “decisive progress” on the core issues that divided them.  Web Resource: UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus

DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (NORTH KOREA)

2050 (June 12): Non-proliferation/Democratic People’s Republic of Korea — Extended until July 12, 2013, the mandate of a Panel of Experts established to analyze incidents of North Korea’s proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Directed the Panel to provide the sanctions monitoring committee with midterm and final reports on its work. Web Resource: UNSC Statement by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

2053 (June 27): Democratic Republic of the Congo — Extended the mandate of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) until June 30, 2013.  Web Resource: MONUSCO

2076 (November 20): Democratic Republic of the Congo — Strongly condemned the 23 March Movement (M23) armed group and demanded its immediate withdrawal from the Congolese city of Goma. Further condemned M23 for resuming attacks, including against civilians, UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) peacekeepers, and on humanitarian actors. Also denounced M23’s human rights abuses, specifying summary executions, gender-based violence, and large-scale recruitment of child soldiers.

Demanded the immediate end to “any and all outside support” of M23, and requested the Secretary-General to report on allegations of such support. Expressed readiness to consider targeted sanctions against M23 leaders and any external supporters. 

2078 (November 28): Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) — Renewed the arms embargo and related sanctions on the DRC until February 1, 2014, and requested the Secretary-General to extend the mandate of the Group of Experts monitoring those measures.

Further defined the criteria for application of targeted sanctions, expressing its intention to consider additional sanctions against the leadership of the 23 March Movement (M23). Reiterated deep concern over reports that M23 continued to receive troop reinforcements, tactical advice and equipment. Also noted concern for the persistence of serious human rights abuses committed by M23 and other armed groups against civilians in the eastern DRC. 

GUINEA-BISSAU

2048 (May 18): Guinea-Bissau — Imposed a travel ban, with certain exceptions, on coup leader General Antonio Injai and four other Military Command members who seized power on April 12. Established a committee to monitor the ban. Demanded that the Military Command immediately reinstate the legitimate authorities, ensure the return to barracks of all soldiers, and allow the disrupted electoral process to be completed.  Web Resource: UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS)

GULF OF GUINEA

2039 (February 29): Peace consolidation in West Africa — Urged states of Africa’s Gulf of Guinea region to counter piracy and armed robbery at sea, both nationally and regionally. Encouraged international partners to support regional patrols, coordination centers, and implementation of a regional strategy. Further encouraged regional states to convene a summit, as soon as possible, to develop a common maritime security strategy that included a legal framework to prosecute pirates. 

HAITI

2070 (October 12): Haiti — Extended the mandate of the UN Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH) until October 15, 2013, and reduced the size of its infantry, engineering, and police components in line with recommendations by the Secretary-General. Approved a reduction of military strength from 7,340 to 6,270 troops, as well as a reduction in police strength from 3,241 to 2,601 personnel, both by June 2013. Decided that MINUSTAH should continue to provide logistical and technical expertise to help develop rule of law institutions, particularly the Haitian National Police.  Web Resource: MINUSTAH

IRAN

2049 (June 7): Non-proliferation/Iran — Extended the mandate of the Panel of Experts of its committee to monitor implementation of the sanctions regime against Iran’s nuclear programs until July 9, 2013. Directed the Panel to provide several reports on compliance with the regime.

IRAQ

2061 (July 25): Iraq — Extended the current mandate of the UN Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) for 12 months. Called on the Iraqi government to continue providing security and logistical support to UNAMI, and on member states to continue providing enough resources for UNAMI to accomplish its mission. Stated that it would review UNAMI’s mandate if the government requested it.

LIBERIA

2066 (September 17): Liberia — Extended the mandate of the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) until September 30, 2013. Authorized its military strength to be reduced in three tranches, beginning with a drawdown of 1,900 personnel between October 2012 and September 2013. Kept UNMIL’s primary tasks to support government efforts to solidify peace and stability, to protect civilians, and to strengthen the functioning of the National Police.  Web Resource: UNMIL

2079 (December 12): Liberia — Extended for 12 months the sanctions regime on Liberia, along with the mandate of the expert panel monitoring the measures. Demanded that the government freeze the financial assets of former President Charles Taylor and his associates.

LIBYA

2040 (March 12): Libya — Extended the UN Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) for a year and modified its mandate, subject to review in six months. Extended the mandate of the Panel of Experts that supports the related sanctions Committee. Adjusted the sanctions regime imposed by UNSC Resolution 1970 in February 2011.  Web Resource: UNSMIL

MALI

2056 (July 5): Peace and security in Africa — Called for creating a road map to restore constitutional order and state authority in Mali. Condemned the seizure of power in March and human rights violations by rebels. Expressed full support for efforts by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the African Union, and the Transitional authorities to face Mali’s several challenges. Strongly condemned the assault against the Interim President on May 21, and called for his speedy and safe return. Noted ECOWAS’ non-recognition of the coup leaders as a legal entity.  Web Resource: ECOWAS

2085 (December 20): The situation in Mali — Authorized deployment of an African-led International Support Mission in Mali (AFISMA), to support efforts by national authorities to recover the north from entrenched terrorist and criminal groups. It would be deployed for an initial period of one year.

Directed AFISMA to help enable Malian defense and security forces to protect the population, and then assist with stabilization and humanitarian activities after ending military operations. Emphasized the need to refine planning further before initiating offensive military operations.  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

MIDDLE EAST

2052 (June 27): Middle East — Renewed through 2012 the mandate of the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), which monitors the ceasefire in the Golan Heights between Israel and Syria. Expressed serious concern at violations by Syrian Armed Forces in UNDOF’s area of operations.

Stressed the obligation of the parties to ensure security and unhindered access to mission personnel, expressed grave concern over Syrian forces’ entry into the Area of Separation on March 1, and deplored the subsequent shootings at observer teams.  Web Resource: UNDOF

2064 (August 30): Middle East — Extended the mandate of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) until August 31, 2013. Strongly condemned attacks against UNIFIL personnel. Urged all parties to respect the safety of UNIFIL and other UN personnel, to respect the cessation of hostilities, to prevent “Blue Line” violations, and to make real progress toward a permanent ceasefire and a long-term solution. Called on Lebanon to complete its investigation of three 2011 attacks against UNIFIL.  Web Resource: UNIFIL

2084 (December 19): The situation in the Middle East — Extended the mandate of the UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), which monitors the ceasefire in the Golan Heights between Israel and Syria), until June 30, 2013.

Expressed grave concern over Syrian military violations in UNDOF’s area of operations. Stressed the obligation of each party to adhere in every respect to the terms of the Disengagement of Forces Agreement (1974). Underscored the prohibition of any military activity whatever in that area by either party. 

SIERRA LEONE

2065 (September 12): Sierra Leone — Extended the mandate of the UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office (UNIPSIL) until March 31, 2013. Requested UNIPSIL to assist the government and its electoral, democratic and security institutions in the preparation and conduct of presidential, parliamentary, and local elections on November 17. Also asked UNIPSIL to support dialogue among political parties to help conflict-prevention and mitigation efforts.  Web Resource: UNIPSIL

SOMALIA

2036 (February 22): Somalia — Called for the number of troops and formed police units contributed by the African Union Mission (AMISOM) to be increased by more than 5,000 reaching a total of 17,000-plus. Directed that AMISOM’s mandate should include establishing a presence and be authorized to take all necessary measures in those sectors indicated by its own strategic concept of January 2012, coordinating with Somali security forces.  Web Resource: AMISOM

2060 (July 25): Somalia — Extended the mandate of the group monitoring sanctions imposed on Somalia, and confirmed that the country’s political transition would not be extended past August 20. Explicitly targeted those who were obstructing the transition process. Relaxed funding and equipment restrictions that could have hampered delivery of humanitarian aid.  Web Resource: Statement by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2067 (September 18): Somalia — Called for forming an inclusive government in Somalia, to define post-transition priorities and bolster security, peacebuilding, anti-corruption, and anti-piracy efforts. Praised the selection by the new federal Parliament of its speaker and a new President. Encouraged speedy appointment of a Prime Minister and subsequent cabinet appointments. Reiterated the need for the Somali authorities to establish the rule of law and security and justice systems throughout Somali territory, and to establish a National Security Committee. Urged international support in those areas. 

2072 (October 31): Somalia — Authorized the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) to maintain deployment for a single week, because of the storm that shut down UN Headquarters for three days. (The short term of the extension was caused by the combination of the expiration of AMISOM’s mandate and the effects of Hurricane Sandy.)  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2073 (November 7): Somalia — Reauthorized interim deployment of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) until March 7, 2013, while deciding to increase civilian personnel levels. Authorized AMISOM’s continued presence to maintain coordination with Somali national security forces in opposing Al-Shabaab and other armed opposition groups. 

2077 (November 21): Somalia — Condemned piracy and armed robbery against vessels off the Somali coast. Called for a comprehensive response to repress piracy. Reiterated the primary responsibility of Somali authorities to fight piracy and armed robbery at sea. Requested Somali authorities to pass a complete set of counter-piracy laws without further delay. Urged states to intensify efforts to investigate and prosecute key figures of criminal networks involved in piracy.  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Jeffrey DeLaurentis

SOUTH SUDAN

2057 (July 5): Reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan — Extended without change the mandate of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) through July 15, 2013. Reiterated, as essential priorities, protecting civilians and reporting on cross- border (with Sudan) movements of troops, weapons, and related material. Called for UNMISS to counter threats by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) through regional coordination. Stressed the importance of implementing its peacebuilding tasks.  Web Resource: UNMISS

SUDAN

2035 (February 17): Sudan — Extended until February 17, 2013, the mandate of the Panel of Experts monitoring the arms embargo and sanctions, and tightened the measures involved.  

2046 (May 2): Sudan — Decided that Sudan and South Sudan must immediately cease all hostilities, withdraw forces, activate previously-agreed security mechanisms, and resume negotiations under threat of sanctions. Condemned repeated incidents of cross-border violence between Sudan and South Sudan. Also decided that the Sudanese government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North must cooperate with the High-level Implementation Panel and the Chair of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development to negotiate a security settlement in Blue Nile and South Kordofan States.  Web Resource: Explanation of Vote by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2047 (May 17): Sudan — Extended the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) for six months, and demanded that Sudan and South Sudan demilitarize the disputed region and effectuate agreed administrative arrangements.  Web Resources: UNISFA; Statement by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2063 (July 31): Reports of the Secretary-General on the Sudan — Extended the mandate of the African Union-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) through July 31, 2013. Azerbaijan abstained. Approved the Secretary-General’s plan to reduce UNAMID’s size and concentrate its mission on areas where security threats were highest.

The plan would, over 12 to 18 months, decrease UNAMID’s military strength from 19,555 to 16,200, and shrink the number of police officers from 3,772 to 2,310.  Web Resource: UNAMID

2075 (November 16): Sudan — Extended the mandate of the UN Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) at current troop levels until May 31, 2013. Urged Sudan and South Sudan to implement agreed-upon border security mechanisms in the disputed area of Abyei.

Expressed intent to consider reconfiguring UNISFA, contingent on bilateral compliance with existing agreements concerning force redeployments from the Safe Demilitarized Border Zone, to implement fully the operation of the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism and complete Abyei’s demilitarization.

SYRIA

2042 (April 14): Middle East — Authorized an advance team to monitor the ceasefire in Syria, and repeated its call to the Syrian government to pull back its military forces from population centers, and to stop using heavy weapons there. Also authorized as many as 30 unarmed military observers to contact and coordinate with all sides, and to report on implementation of a full ceasefire. Emphasized the urgent importance of fully implementing the six-point proposal of Joint UN-Arab League Special Envoy Kofi Annan.  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2043 (April 21): Middle East — Augmented by a factor of 10 the UN monitoring team of unarmed observers to Syria because of continued armed violence in spite of the ceasefire. Established the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) for 90 days, initially deploying up to 300 unarmed military observers, including civilians and air transport, to monitor the ceasefire and the Annan proposal’s implementation.  Web Resources: UNSMIS; Explanation of Vote by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

SC/10714 (July 19): Syria — Failed to extend the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS). China and Russia cast vetoes; Pakistan and South Africa abstained.

The draft resolution proposed extending UNSMIS’ mandate for 45 days. It gave 10 days for Syrian authorities verifiably to withdraw military forces from population centers, and to stop using heavy weaponry. The draft threatened sanctions if violence did not end.  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

2059 (July 20): Middle East (Syria) — Extended the mandate of the UN Supervision Mission in Syria (UNSMIS) for 30 days. Noted that further renewal would depend upon confirmation that the regime had ceased using heavy weapons, and that violence had subsided sufficiently permit UNSMIS to implement its mandate. (UNSMIS suspended monitoring activities in June, because of an “increasingly dangerous security situation.”)  Web Resource: Remarks by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

TIMOR-LESTE

2037 (February 23): Timor-Leste — Extended the mandate of the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT) at current levels until December 31.  Web Resources: UNMIT; Remarks by Ambassador Jeffrey DeLaurentis

WESTERN SAHARA

2044 (April 24): Western Sahara — Extended the mandate of the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) until April 30, 2013.  Web Resource: MINURSO

YEMEN

2051 (June 12): Middle East — Demanded that all actions aimed at undermining Yemen’s Government of National Unity and political transition stop. Declared that if such actions continued, it would consider further measures, including under the Article 41 of Chapter VII of the UN Charter, which empowers the Security Council to use armed force carry out its decisions.  Web Resource: Statement by Ambassador Susan E. Rice

THEMATIC RESOLUTIONS

CHILDREN AND ARMED CONFLICT

2068 (September 19): Children and armed conflict — Condemned the recruitment, killing, maiming, sexual abuse, abduction, and denial of aid of children in armed conflict. Expressed readiness to adopt targeted sanctions against persistent violators. (Note: The Secretary-General’s report named 32 armed groups that have been listed for five or more years.)

The vote was 11 in favor and none opposed, with Azerbaijan, China, Pakistan and Russia abstaining.  Web Resources: Remarks by Ambassador Jeffrey DeLaurentis

JUDICIAL TRIBUNALS

INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

2034 (January 19): Filling a vacancy in the International Court of Justice (ICJ) — Noted the resignation of an ICJ judge at the end of 2011, and set April 27 for the election of a replacement.

RWANDA

2054 (June 29): International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) — Decided to permit four judges of the Tribunal trying serious crimes committed during the 1994 Rwanda genocide to serve beyond the expiry of their terms of office end of 2012 or earlier) to complete the work of the court, scheduled to end in December 2014. Requested the ICTR to report on the projected schedule for transferring its remaining functions to the “Residual Mechanism.” Extended the service of the Tribunal President, whose term was to have expired on June 30, until December 31, 2014.  Web Resource: ICTR

2080 (December 12): International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) — Extended terms of office for five judges of the Appeals Chamber of the ICTR, until December 31, 2014, or completion of their assigned cases, if sooner. 

FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

2038 (February 29): International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR): — Appointed a Prosecutor for the International Residual Mechanism of the International Criminal Tribunals for the ICTY and ICTR to “continue the functions” in anticipation of completion of the courts’ work. The appointment, for a four-year term, would begin March 1.  Web Resource: ICTY

2081 (December 17): International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY) — Extended terms of office for 21 judges of the ICTY through next year, or until the completion of their cases, if sooner. The vote was 14-0 in favor, with Russia abstaining. 

NONPROLIFERATION

2055 (June 29): Nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction — Citing an increased workload, increased membership in the group of experts that monitors implementation of UNSC Resolution 1540 (2004), enacted to prevent terrorists and others from obtaining weapons of mass destruction and their components. 

TERRORISM

2082 and 2083 (December 17): Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts — Refined sanctions regimes on Al-Qaida and the Taliban in separate resolutions. Strongly urged member states to consult with the Afghan government regarding listing and delisting requests.

Resolution 2083 further detailed criteria to designate an Al-Qaida-linked individual or entity and subject to an asset freeze, travel ban, and arms embargo. Also extended for 30 months the mandate of the Office of the Ombudsperson established to handle delisting requests and improve the regime’s transparency and fairness. Resolution 2082 applied the same measures to Taliban-associated individuals or entities.

Decided that the Al‑Qaida/Taliban sanctions team should help monitor implementation of those measures for 30 months, while addressing issues of non-compliance, and facilitating capacity-building to help ensure compliance.  Web Resources: Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee; Al-Qaida Sanctions List



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