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Diplomacy in Action

United States Report to the OAS on the Application of Confidence and Security Building Measures for 2007 and 2008


April 30, 2009

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Transmission Letter from W. Lewis Amselem, Deputy U.S. Permanent Representative to Ambassador Gustavo Albin, Chair on the Committee on Hemispheric Security: http://scm.oas.org/pdfs/2009/CP22504E.pdf

Information Presented by the United States With Regard to General Assembly Resolutions AG/RES. 2270 (XXXVII-O/07) and AG/RES. 2398 (XXXVIII-O/08), “Confidence- And Security-Building in the Americas”

The U.S. supports the adoption and implementation of measures identified in the Declarations of Santiago, San Salvador and Miami on Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs). This report is based on the measures identified at the Summit-Mandated Experts’ Meeting on CSBMs held in 2003 in Miami, Florida. The Miami CSBMs list consolidates all of the measures identified in previous OAS high-level meetings on CSBMs. In addition, on April 11, 2008 the U.S. provided to the OAS its revised list of experts on CSBMs for inclusion in the OAS Roster of Experts (CSH/FORO – III/doc.3/08 rev. 2).

1. Notification and observance of joint exercises and routine operations.

U.S. Southern Command (USSOUTHCOM) conducted joint exercises with U.S. Forces and Partner Nation personnel. Participating countries during 2007 and 2008 included: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay.

In addition, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) invited Mexican and Canadian officials to observe bilateral, planning, training and exercise events focusing on border issues, counterterrorism, Homeland Defense, and theater security cooperation. Mexican officials also observed events focusing on combat support, explosive ordinance disposal, force protection, interoperability, and military to military partnerships; Canadian officials observed events focusing on building partnership capabilities, crisis management, emergency response, Homeland Security, Information sharing, smuggling, transnational threats and weapons of mass destruction.

2. Defense visit programs to defense installations and military academies.

USSOUTHCOM supported this measure by sponsoring defense school and orientation visits to various defense installations, including USSOUTHCOM Headquarters, component headquarters, major medical centers, and service academies. During these visits, participation targeted the inclusion of a range of representatives from senior- to cadet-level. Activities included an Ecuadorian National War Institute visit to the U.S. Naval War College, and a visit by Peruvian cadets to U.S. Military Academy Inter-American Air Force Academy.

In addition, U.S. Marine Corps Forces, South (MARFORSOUTH) arranged several visits to U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) installations during 2007. For example, members of the Peruvian Marines toured USMC facilities on the west coast.

U.S. Coast Guard training and technical assistance teams provided technical training, to include over 25 mobile training iterations. During these training sessions, attendees learned skills for small boat operations, maritime enforcement, port security, leadership and professional military education.

The U.S. Navy and U.S. Air Force also sponsor military visits and military personnel exchange programs.

In 2007 and 2008, USNORTHCOM sponsored and/or participated in five bilateral and six multilateral conferences in Latin America, and hosted Mexican defense and security officials to multiple school and orientation visits to various defense installations such as: USNORTHCOM, Army North, JTF-North, Air Forces Northern, major U.S. medical centers, Air Force Institute of Technology, and U.S. Service academies. These visits were conducted at the senior officer level, as well as, at the cadet level to foster interoperability, cooperative development, cooperative strategic studies, and to promote professional development.

3. Exchange of civilian and military personnel for both regular and advanced training.

Through USSOUTHCOM, the United States sponsored 120 Subject Matter Expert Exchanges (SMEE) in 2007. These exchanges covered a variety of subjects, including:

  • Military Police Riot Control -- Suriname
  • T-37/T-38 Instructor –Uruguay
  • USCG and Dominican Navy Exchange on Alien Migration Interdiction Operation (AMIO) and Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA)
  • Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Training – Trinidad and Tobago

USSOUTHCOM also sponsored unit exchanges and familiarization programs for small units to enhance military training and professional growth. Three platoon exchanges were conducted with Brazil, Chile and El Salvador, and training for students was coordinated through the International Military Education and Training Program (IMET) as well as the Counterterrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP).

Through USNORTHCOM, the United States also sponsored numerous Mobile Training Team (MTT) events with the Governments of Mexico and Canada. These events include, but were not limited to, events focusing on countering illegal activities near and across our borders, increasing information sharing, and counterterrorism. Students were also trained in both countries through IMET, CTFP and Counternarcotics (CN) programs. There are also officers serving in both countries through the Personnel Exchange Program (PEP). In Mexico, expert exchanges were also conducted with the Mexican Army, Air Force and Navy.

4. Participate in the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, including the provision and exchange of information on national production of conventional arms.

On an annual basis, the U.S. participates in the UN Register of Conventional Arms and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. The United States submitted its most recent report on July 17, 2008 (CP/CSH 1020/08).

5. Participate in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military expenditures and exchange this information with others.

On an annual basis, the United States participates in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and transmits a copy of its submission to the OAS Secretary General, the Committee on Hemispheric Security, and Member States. The U.S. submitted its most recent report on July 17, 2008 (CP/CSH – 1017/08).

6. Develop common standardized methodologies for measuring defense expenditures among neighboring states.

The U.S. supports universal participation in the UN Standardized International Reporting of Military Expenditures and, as complementary measures, sub-regional and bilateral efforts to provide increased transparency regarding military expenditures.

7. Develop and exchange defense policy and doctrine papers (Defense White Papers)

USSOUTHCOM actively supports and participates in a number of activities designed to assist in the development and exchange of defense policy and doctrine papers. Activities in 2007-2008 included:

  • Civil-Military Response to Terrorism – South America & Caribbean Regional
  • Mobile International Defense Management Course
  • Civil-Military Response to Terrorism – Central America & Caribbean Regional
  • USNORTHCOM actively supported and participated in a number of activities designed to assist in the development and exchange of defense policy and doctrine papers. Activities in 2007-2008 included:
  • Senior Executive Dialogue co-hosted with the National Defense University’s Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS) in July 2007
  • Caribbean Defense and Security Course (CDSC) at CHDS in May 2008
  • Tri-National Pandemic Influenza Conference with Canadian and Mexican participation in September 2007 and July 2008
  • Participation in biannual meetings of the Homeland Security and Defense Consortium (HSDEC)

The U.S. annually transmits to the OAS General Secretariat and Member States a copy of the Secretary of Defense’s “Annual Report to the President and Congress,” which details the size, structure, and capabilities of the U.S. Armed Forces, as well as information on their deployment, and major military programs.

8. Exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of the defense department and armed forces.

USSOUTHCOM hosts annual conferences to allow Chiefs of Defense from each sub-region to meet and exchange ideas.

USNORTHCOM invited senior Mexican military officers to visit the United States to exchange information on the roles, missions, and organization of the DOD. The CHDS also facilitated a Senior Executive Dialogue (SED) in July 2007 with members of the Mexican legislature, which highlighted USNORTHCOM’s role. Senior USNORTHCOM officers also visited their Mexican and Canadian counterparts to learn the same of the Mexican Armed Forces and Canada Command. In addition, the first ever Mexican Naval Liaison Officer (Captain) has been attached to USNORTHCOM starting in 2007.

Joint Task Force-North hosted members of the Mexican media and Mexican military, and participated in the U.S. - Mexico Border Commander Conference (BCC), which helped exchange information on the functions, procedures, and institutional organization of the defense departments and armed forces of all participants.

Information exchanges occur on several levels between Canada and the United States. The Permanent Joint Board on Defense (PJBD) provides strategic advice on defense issues for Canada and the United States. The U.S.-Canada Military Cooperation Committee (MCC) meets twice a year and serves as the senior military advisory bilateral meeting. At the operational level, Canadian Regional Joint Task Forces responsible for domestic operations meet annually with their USNORTHCOM counterparts at HQ U.S. Army - North.

The U.S. Army Foreign Attaché program provides support to foreign military attaches residing in Washington, DC and accredited to the U.S. Army.

The U.S. Army also offers a Foreign Liaison Officer (FLO) Program that facilitates cooperation and mutual understanding between the U.S. Army and armies of allied and friendly nations.

9. Invite the Chair of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises in the Western Hemisphere.

USNORTHCOM and USSOUTHCOM will work with the U.S. Permanent Mission to the OAS to identify an appropriate opportunity to invite the Chairman of the OAS Committee on Hemispheric Security to observe joint exercises hosted by USNORTHCOM and USSOUTHCOM as part of their outreach programs.

10. Establish, use, and exchange common procedures among units deployed in border regions.

Canada and the United States regularly establish, use, and exchange common procedures among units assigned to NORAD, which is primarily focused upon aerospace defense operations. In addition, USNORTHCOM and Canada Command have exchanged liaison officers. Additionally, the three Commands have begun discussions on how to improve cooperation in the NORAD - USNORTHCOM - Canada Command Tri-Command Study, dual- chartered by the Canadian Chief of the Defence Staff and the U.S. Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff.
- The Basic Defense Document, signed on 8 July 2006 by the Chief of Defence Staff of Canada and the U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, provides defense planning guidance to NORAD, USNORTHCOM and Canada COM.
- The Civil Assistance Plan was signed 14 Feb 2008 by Commanders of USNORTHCOM and Canada Command, to enable military-to-military support of civil agencies, when directed.
- This bilateral Civil Assistance Plan (CANUS CAP) describes methods of military support, cooperation, and interoperability along the U.S. – Canadian border.
- A Combined Defense Plan (CDP) is in the initial stages of development, and will outline the method and process for the combined defense of Canada and the United States.

The U.S. Government, through U.S. Army - North, regularly meets with Mexican military officials concerning increased information sharing along our border to counter transnational threats. Joint Task Force-North and U.S. Air Forces-Northern are active participants in these discussions, and at the 2008 BCC, U.S. Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA) were included in the information sharing venue. JTF-N also provides MTTs to U.S. and Mexican LEAs that focus on improving information-sharing and developing common operational procedures.

11. Consider establishing, as appropriate, mutual confidence or security zones in border areas.

USSOUTHCOM is actively pursuing cooperation on border security with Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. Initiatives include fielding compatible small unit radios and potential infrastructure to support border security.

U.S. Army North hosts a Border Commanders’ Conference with Mexico annually that offers a forum for improving mutual understanding, communications, and cooperation between area headquarters on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico. As a result, an increase in shared information between the two armies and enhanced cooperation and interoperability along the border has begun to help both nations’ effectiveness in the fight against the criminal drug cartels.

12. Encourage necessary coordination among all OAS bodies and specialized agencies.

The United States strongly supports the work of the organizations, agencies and entities of the Inter-American system related to defense and security. The U.S. encourages these bodies to continue to contribute to greater transparency and confidence building between and among OAS member states.

13. Intensify cooperation in increasing security for transport by land, sea, and air.

The DOD - USSOUTHCOM Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. CNIES data recipients currently include Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Trinidad & Tobago. USSOUTHCOM is working with DSCA to install CNIES into operations centers in Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Eastern Caribbean (Barbados).

Partner nation liaison officers at the Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S) in Key West, Florida provide their home governments with information that enables law enforcement interdiction.

USNORTHCOM has a liaison agreement with Canada to share information focused on land, sea, and air domains. The two countries also are cooperating to increase security of key transportation nodes including harbors, ports, airports, personnel and cargo border-crossing points of entry, and bridges over waterways between the U.S. and Canada. The U.S. Navy and Coast Guard are working with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Canadian Forces Navy to monitor and protect maritime approaches to both nations. The recently renewed North American Aerospace Defense Command Agreement was expanded from the traditional aerospace mission to include maritime warning. The NORAD maritime warning mission promotes a comprehensive exchange of intelligence and information to ensure a shared understanding of potential threats to either country approaching via the maritime domain.

U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) International Port Security Program personnel visited ports in Belize, El Salvador, Guyana, and Suriname to learn how International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code measures have been implemented in other countries. The goal of the program is to visit all countries that trade with the U.S. by maritime means to observe and share best practices for implementation of the ISPS Code. The Caribbean Support Tender GENTIAN conducted maintenance and technical assistance, logistic support, and joint training, and it fostered regional cooperation and improved the capabilities and operational readiness/effectiveness of the maritime services in Haiti, Jamaica, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

14. Intensify cooperation in the fight against terrorism, drug interdiction, preventing illicit small arms and light weapons trafficking, combating piracy, preventing smuggling, search and rescue operations, and the protection of natural resources and archaeological goods.

USSOUTHCOM’s Enduring Friendship is a maritime initiative to establish interoperability and facilitate regional cooperation in Central America and the Caribbean, by promoting effective sovereignty of remote maritime locations, facilitating partners’ command and control capabilities as well as assisting partners to build a maritime component to their counter terrorism capability. Through JTF-Bravo, USSOUTHCOM actively conducts Operation Central Skies, a focused multilateral and interagency counter-drug effort in Central America. Through the Counter-Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP), USSOUTHCOM has administered the DOD program to educate and train foreign military leaders in the common cause of combating terrorism by sponsoring several sub-regional events focused on interagency and multinational approaches to combating terrorism.

USSOUTHCOM/USNORTHCOM sponsored several exercises and activities, including Panamax and the Partnership of the Americas, with the objective of improving cooperation and interoperability in combating a variety of transnational threats.

USNORTHCOM is a participant in Project NORTHSTAR, a joint U.S./CANADA law enforcement information exchange forum, which, through JTF-N, supports U.S. Federal law enforcement operations along the U.S and CANADIAN border.

In 2007-2008, Mexico received Section 1206 Counterterrorism (CT) funding. These CT funds are programmed to procure specialized CT training and modern CT personal protective equipment.

In 2007-2008, USNORTHCOM, through the Office of Defense Cooperation – Mexico, coordinated annually in Counternarcotics (CN) training for Mexico. In 2009 the USG will repair and provide logistics support to the Mexican Air Force C-26 Metroliner fleet. In addition much needed NVDs for the Mexican military will be procured. During these years, USNORTHCOM also coordinated annual International Military Education and Training courses for the Mexican military, provided attendance to the various U.S. War Colleges and other professional military education, and coordinated Regional Defense Combating Terrorism Fellowship Program courses to include understanding of the terrorist threat and means to counter such threats.

In 2007-2008, USNORTHCOM sponsored several senior civilian officials and military officers to attend and study at DOD’s Regional Centers in Europe (Marshall Center), in the Pacific (Asia – Pacific Center for Strategic Studies), and within the U.S. at CHDS through OSD’s Regional Defense Combating-Terrorism Fellowship Program (CTFP). These tailored seminars at the Regional Centers provide a forum for senior international and U.S. officials to discuss current CT and security topics, and to build social networks of CT professionals that span the globe.

CHDS supported USNORTHCOM by hosting a CT course for senior Mexican civilian and military officials in June 2008.

15. Establish national points of contact regarding natural disaster response, environmental security, transportation security, and critical infrastructure protection.

USSOUTHCOM is progressing with the development and installation of regional information-sharing networks in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. This tool will allow states and regional coordination centers to share real-time information relating to natural disasters.

USSOUTHCOM has completed Phase 1 installation and training in support of the Central American Coordination Center for the Prevention of Natural Disaster (CEPREDENAC), with the operational handover to CEPREDENAC in April 2008. Phase 2 of the regional information-sharing network in the Caribbean, working with the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), installation and training for regional disaster managers has initiated. Phase 3 of the project will provide the regional information-sharing tool to the Andean Committee for the Prevention and Handling of Disasters (CAPRADE). Work with CAPRADE is scheduled to begin in 2009.

USSOUTHCOM also sponsors national regional disaster management conferences, which provide a forum for senior military and civilian disaster preparedness and humanitarian assistance officials to address disaster loss reduction through a Comprehensive Disaster Management Strategy. The events strengthen the relationships already established with the National Disaster Offices in each country and support the efforts of the three regional mechanisms in the AOR – CDERA, CEPREDENAC, and CAPRADE.

Bilateral multi-agency (USCG/EPA) hazardous material response plans have been agreed upon for responses that fall on the U.S.-Mexico border, with logistical agreements in place for mutual assistance and mitigation.

USNORTHCOM civil-military engagements with Mexican authorities in 2007-08 included sponsorship for Mexican senior federal and border state civil protection participation in the Colorado Governor’s Emergency Management Conference; participation by the Director General of Civil Protection in a USNORTHCOM/CHDS Senior Executive Dialogue; Mexican Department of Health and military participation in a Pandemic Influenza Conference; and a Pandemic Influenza Table Top Exercise; as well as participation in an Agro-Terrorism Conference.

USNORTHCOM, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), conducted hazardous materials knowledge exchanges in 2008 in the Arizona/Sonora and California/Baja California border areas. USNORTHCOM, EPA and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) co-sponsored a focus group knowledge exchange including Mexican federal and state Civil Protection officials to discuss objectives and appropriate content for a bi-national Mexico/U.S. Sister City Integrated Emergency Management Course/Knowledge Exchange to be held in 2009.

USNORTHCOM, FEMA, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the Sandia National Labs held a tri-national catastrophic earthquake roundtable in 2008 that addressed national and international implications of high-magnitude earthquakes in southern California and the Pacific Northwest.

USNORTHCOM opened discussions with the Mexican Protección Civil (FEMA equivalent) and the Mexican Navy on disaster and consequence management planning. Mexican officials visited USNORTHCOM and government installations to learn more about potential areas where the two countries may be able to increase security for our respective countries from natural or man-made disasters. The Border 2012 initiative includes bi-lateral US-MX Joint Response Plans and Joint Response Teams with each of fourteen sister cities along the border.
- A Civil Assistance Plan was signed in 2008 by Commanders of USNORTHCOM and Canada COM, to enable military-to-military support of civil agencies when directed. The CAP bridges the gap between the U.S. National Response Framework and the Canadian National Support Plan.

16. Exchange information on security issues, such as the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and nonproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, within the framework of the UN and OAS.

The U.S. provides to the UN detailed information on measures it has taken in support of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects (UNPOA) and UN Security Council Resolution 1540. The U.S. also provides copies of these reports to the OAS. The United States provided the OAS with a copy of its 2007 Implementation Report concerning the UNPOA on July 17, 2008 (CP/CSH 994/08 add.1 corr. 1).

The U.S. provides information regarding the proliferation of and the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weight weapons in all its aspects upon request by the general assembly. This report was last given on January 16, 2007.

17. Identify excess stocks of small arms and light weapons as well as seized small arms and light weapons and define programs for the destruction of said weapons to be witnessed by international representatives.

The U.S. is active in the hemisphere supporting cooperative measures to combat the illicit trafficking of arms in the region. For example, the USSOUTHCOM Rewards Program, in conjunction with the Nicaraguan National Police, has secured over 3,000 small arms for destruction. The Rewards program managers in Nicaragua have purchased equipment to aid in the destruction of small arms and disposition of weapons that the U.S. and Nicaraguan National Police personnel will witness.

The Department of State and Department of Defense also provide technical, financial and educational assistance regarding the destruction and stockpile management of small arms and light weapons to OAS member states. The Department of State provides assistance directly to states interested in the destruction of surplus and illicit stocks of small arms and light weapons. The U.S. also provides technical and financial assistance to support security infrastructure improvements. The U.S. reported information addressing illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapon stockpile management and security to the OAS on September 26, 2007 (CP/CSH – 918/07).

18. Enhance multilateral cooperation regarding issues that are identified by the small island states as concerns, threats, and challenges to their security.

There are two USSOUTHCOM endeavors which help to support this measure: Enduring Friendship and Tradewinds Exercise. Enduring Friendship is a developing program that established a partnership of willing nations working together to identify, monitor and intercept transnational maritime threats under international and domestic law. Countries currently participating include Dominican Republic, Panama, Jamaica and the Bahamas. The Tradewinds Exercise engages the Caribbean nations as a joint and combined training exercise with a goal to improve maritime and ground force responses to transnational threats.

Foreign Military Financing provided to the countries of the Eastern Caribbean totaled $990,000 USD.

USNORTHCOM is facilitating engagement between Mexico and Office of Global Maritime Situational Awareness for a Caribbean nation initiative titled “Spotlight on the Caribbean,” which provides enhanced awareness of maritime traffic within the region.

19. Consider actions for early implementation aimed at enhancing the security-building capabilities of the small island states.

USSOUTHCOM’s Partner Nations Network (PNN) provides this capability. It is an unclassified but protected multinational web, collaboration and e-mail portal. Its purpose is to share critical information among border control authorities to strengthen border control capacity in the fight against drug trafficking and terrorism. PNN is also designed to create joint training programs to allow existing entities to meet new challenges.

USSOUTHCOM also supports this measure through the Tradewinds exercise, which is a joint and combined regional training exercise engagement with the Caribbean nations that focuses on transnational threats. USSOUTHCOM promotes interoperability among the regional and inter-regional organizations to conduct unilateral and multilateral humanitarian relief and disaster response operations.

20. Exchange and share information on the special security concerns of small island states.

USSOUTHCOM shares information with the small island states via SMEE provided by the USSOUTHCOM Traditional Commander’s Activities. Eleven such events were held with these countries during 2007.

Joint Interagency Task Force (JIATF) -South provides regional and tactical intelligence and information support to small island states that are partners in counterdrug operations.

USNORTHCOM is facilitating engagement between Mexico and Office of Global Maritime Situational Awareness for a Caribbean nation initiative title “Spotlight on the Caribbean” providing enhanced awareness of maritime traffic within the region.

21. Hold high-level hemispheric meetings to follow up the Second High-level Meeting on the Special Security Concerns of Small Island States.

On December 3, 2007, the U.S. and Caribbean Community (CARICOM) issued the “CARICOM-U.S. Initiative to Combat Illicit Trafficking in Small Arms and Light Weapons” joint statement pledging enhanced regional cooperation to prevent, combat, and eradicate the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons in the region.

This initiative responded to the agreement between the CARICOM and the U.S. on March 22, 2006 calling for a partnership against the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and reaffirmed during the U.S.-CARICOM Summit in the June 2007 Conference on the Caribbean in Washington. The United States and CARICOM member states issued a regional initiative outlining concrete and practical measures they will undertake to address the illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons throughout the region.

22. Cooperate closely to implement commitments agreed to at the 1998 Transportation Ministerial, active participation at the July 2003 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference on the safety of transport of radioactive material.

Nothing to report.

23. Hold high-level meetings involving the ministries of defense and foreign affairs at the bilateral, sub-regional, and regional levels.

USSOUTHCOM engages high-level officials through bilateral meetings held during the visits of Commanders and conferences of Chiefs of Defense. USSOUTHCOM also sponsors the participation of high-level visitors to the Colombia Coordination Center for Integrated Action.

The U.S. and Canada exchange information and military cooperation through the Ogdensburg Declaration and MCC, as outlined in Measure #8. In addition, senior personnel from Canada, Mexico and the United States participated in discussions during the North American Forum (NAF) in Washington, DC in 2008. The Secretary of Defense and Commanders of USSOUTHCOM and USNORTHCOM attended the 2008 Defense Ministerial of the Americas in Banff, Canada. They participated in bi-lateral, sub-regional and regional meetings related to defense issues. These talks facilitated military-to-military relationships and furthered the exchange of information concerning defense policy and doctrines. USNORTHCOM also conducted several high-level visits, including the Combatant Commander’s attendance at “El Grito” (Mexican Independence Day celebrations) in Mexico City in 2007-2008.

In 2006, the U.S. and Brazil held Political-Military Consultations in Washington, D.C. Similar consultations were held with Argentina, Chile, and Peru in 2006 and 2007. These talks have been held periodically.

24. Conduct combined exercises between armed forces and/or public security forces.

See response to measure #1.

25. Submit a comprehensive inventory of CSBMs annually to the OAS.

This report serves to support this measure.

26. Strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among police, law enforcement, and military authorities of neighboring states.

The DoD/USSOUTHCOM Cooperating National Information Exchange System (CNIES) is designed to improve maritime and air traffic awareness by providing participating partner nations with real-time data on potential trafficking targets of interest. CNIES data recipients currently include Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Trinidad & Tobago.

USNORTHCOM/ U.S. Army - NORTH created a venue for Mexican military to cooperate more closely and exchange information with U.S. LEA officials regarding illicit trafficking in weapons and drugs.

27. Promote dialogue among hemispheric legislators within existing fora on Confidence-Building Measures, including the exchange of visits and the convening of meetings.

USSOUTHCOM, in partnership with the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS), provides strategic education to partner nation senior decision-makers, to include executive and legislative leaders, and military service chiefs.

Mexican congressional delegations visited USNORTHCOM, JTF-North, and Washington, D.C. to discuss mutual defense goals, policies, and strategies.

NORAD, USNORTHCOM, and Canadian military organizations encouraged contact and cooperation between the U.S. Congress and the Canadian Parliament through legislative liaisons embedded in military headquarters and commands. Congress and Parliament have exchanged information on defense and security for the past 60 years, and continue to do so on a regular basis. CHDS also facilitated a Senior Executive Dialogue (SED) in 2007 with members of the Mexican legislature, which highlighted USNORTHCOM’s U.S. Homeland Defense role.

28. Recommend the possibility of holding a conference of hemispheric civil society representatives on Confidence-Building Measures and on matters of peace and hemispheric security, including the exchange of visits, in accordance with the Summit of the Americas process.

USSOUTHCOM has promulgated the Human Rights Initiative throughout the hemisphere. This initiative brings together government security and defense officials with members of civil society to discuss the importance of respect for human rights and the rule of law in pursuing democratic security and stability.

The National Defense University’s Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies held a sub-regional conference in 2008 that included participants from all nations in the Western Hemisphere.

29. Extend to diplomatic training institutes, military academies, research centers, and universities the seminars, courses, and studies envisioned in the Declarations of Santiago and San Salvador on Confidence- and Security- Building Measures.

This measure is supported by activities at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS). Its mission is to conduct education, research, outreach and knowledge-sharing activities on defense and security policy with civilian and military defense and security leaders.

30. Encourage exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies.

USSOUTHCOM participates in academic exchanges focusing on regional security issues, and has built a strong working relationship with Florida International University and the University of Miami, as well as several Department of Defense institutions focused on higher learning (the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, the National Defense University, the Army and Air Force War Colleges, and the School of International Graduate Studies at the Naval Postgraduate School).

Additionally, USSOUTHCOM coordinated training for over 2,225 students, through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) Program. With Counterterrorism Fellowship Program funds, USSOUTHCOM coordinated training for 947 students.

NORAD-USNORTHCOM/J7 Directorate has created a Homeland Defense and Education Consortium (HSDEC) consisting of over 200 colleges and universities from Canada and the U.S. The HSDEC encourages exchanges and contacts between students, academics, and experts in defense and security studies. USNORTHCOM extended an invitation to Mexican universities to participate in HSDEC, as well.

The U.S. Air Force conducts the Latin American Academy Cadet Initiative visit and U.S. Air Force Academy Cadet Exchanges.

U.S. Military Academy cadets conduct semester abroad training at Mexican civilian institutions.

The U.S. Army conducts the Army War College International Fellows Program, which provides opportunities for senior military personnel from allied and friendly countries to study, research, and write on subjects of significance and the security interests of their own and allied nations.

31. Use the OAS Information System (OASIS) for the exchange of defense and security information, data, and communications.

The U.S. is prepared to use OASIS along with other OAS member states.

32. Exchange and share experience and ideas on transparency and CSBMs with other regional security fora, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and the African Union (AU).

In 2004, the U.S. promoted the participation of other regional security fora in the First Meeting of the OAS Forum on CSBMs. The U.S. and Canada facilitated a round of consultations with OSCE in 1999. As OSCE members, the United States and Canada would be open to arranging future OAS-OSCE exchanges.

33. Implement the relevant aspects of the program Education for Peace in the Hemisphere (OAS CP/RES. 769/00).

The U.S. has hosted the Inter-American Defense College (IADC) for 44 years at Ft. McNair in Washington, D.C. The IADC mission is to develop and provide opportunities to military officers and civilian officials from OAS member states for advanced academic courses related to military defense issues, the inter-American system, and related disciplines. The IADC also strengthens cooperation and exchange of the information among police, law enforcement, civilian personnel and military authorities of member states. In 2006, the U.S. was elected as president of the IADC, and proudly continues to support its programs.

The IADC’s annual seminars covered such issues as Global Threats and Hemispheric Security, Peace Keeping Operations, Large-Scale Emergency and Disaster Situations, and Negotiation and Conflict Resolution.

34. Continue consultations and the exchange of ideas to advance the limitation and control of conventional weapons in the region.

USSOUTHCOM supports this measure via the Defense and Military Contacts Program, which includes conferences and Subject Matter Expert Exchange (SMEE). Examples of such exchanges include:

  • Demining SMEE—Nicaragua/Ecuador/Argentina
  • Military Police SMEE—Ecuador
  • HMA Senior Leaders Seminar – Ecuador and Peru

USSOUTHCOM directs the Department of Defense Humanitarian Mine Action program, which is closely coordinated with OAS activities. In 2006 and 2007, USSOUTHCOM received funds to plan and implement demining activities in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Honduras. In 2007, USSOUTHCOM supported the creation of Columbia’s National Mine Action Center. The center now houses personnel from the Colombian Military and civilians from the Colombian Presidential Program of Integrated Action Against Antipersonnel Mines (PP-AICMA) to manage day to day Humanitarian Deminind Operations. Additional projects in support of Colombia, Argentina, Chili, Ecuador, and Peru were planned for 2008 and 2009.

In 2005, the United States support for humanitarian mine action surpassed $1 billion since the inter-agency U.S. Humanitarian Mine Action Program, the worlds’ largest, was established in 1993. The U.S. has provided funds for demining in Nicaragua, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Honduras, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile.

35. Consider cooperative activities that develop regional peacekeeping skills and capacity through common training, combined exercises and exchange of information on peacekeeping.

Two USSOUTHCOM endeavors that support this measure are Peacekeeping (PKO) North and Peacekeeping South exercises. PKO North exercises have an emphasis on multinational and regional cooperation and they establish regional PKO capability by addressing the Conference of Central American Armed Forces (CFAC) PKO battalion formation concept, as well asdeveloping consensus on force structures for the battalion. PKO South exercises are regionally-oriented command post exercises involving military and civilian agencies in South America and the United States. The exercises enhance military-to-military contacts and promote regional cooperation and engagement.

USSOUTHCOM has supported the New Horizons program, which includes joint exercises based on humanitarian assistance scenarios. These exercises have taken place in Honduras, Jamaica, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Suriname, Peru, and Guyana.

USSOUTHCOM also supported the Global Peace Operations Initiative by initiating refurbishment activities at the Central American Regional PKO Training Center in Guatemala. USSOUTHCOM also provided initial shipment of personal and communications gear to three of the four member countries of the CFAC PKO Battalion.

36. Increase cooperation in accordance with the guidelines of the Inter-American Committee on Natural Disaster Reduction and to mitigate the consequences of such disasters.

In October 2007, the maritime forces of the United States Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard came together to issue the United States’ first unified maritime strategy, A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower. Guided by the objectives articulated in the National Security Strategy, National Defense Strategy, National Military Strategy, and the National Strategy for Maritime Security, this new strategy stresses an approach that integrates seapower with other elements of national power, as well as those of our friends and allies. It describes how seapower will be applied around the world to protect our way of life, as we join with other like-minded nations to protect and sustain the global, inter-connected system through which we prosper.

Through A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower, the United States’ commitment to protecting the homeland and winning our Nation’s wars is matched by a corresponding commitment to preventing war. In turn, while building on relationships forged in times of calm, U.S. maritime forces will continue to mitigate human suffering as the vanguard of interagency and multinational efforts, both in a deliberate, proactive fashion and in response to crises. Human suffering moves us to act, and the expeditionary character of maritime forces uniquely positions them to provide assistance. Our ability to conduct rapid and sustained non-combatant evacuation operations is critical to relieving the plight of our citizens and others when their safety is in jeopardy. The Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower is available at:
http://www.navy.mil/maritime/MaritimeStrategy.pdf.

USSOUTHCOM supports a comprehensive Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Preparedness (HA/DP) Program through Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) funding. The HA/DP projects serve to improve the capacity of the host nations to provide essential services to its populace, including responding to disasters and other crises.

USSOUTHCOM focused its efforts on Partner Nation government requirements for humanitarian construction and training, disaster preparedness construction and training, disaster mitigation, and disaster response.

- 21 Humanitarian Assistance construction projects were completed providing structures such as schools, clinics and potable water systems
- 19 Humanitarian Assistance training projects were completed providing training for Search & Rescue teams, medical and nutrition, and firefighting
- 18 Disaster Preparedness construction projects were completed providing structures such as Emergency Operations Centers and Disaster Response Warehouses
- 7 Disaster Preparedness training projects were completed providing training for Emergency First Responders, disaster warehouse management, and Emergency Management training

USSOUTHCOM also supports Partner Nation requests for disaster mitigation and disaster response. In coordination with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance and Military Liaison Offices in the affected nation, USSOUTHCOM provided disaster mitigation and disaster responses for the following: Earthquake in Peru, Tropical cyclone events in Nicaragua, Dominican Republic, and Belize, Floods in Bolivia, Ecuador and Brazil, Volcano eruptions in Colombia and Ecuador, Yellow Fever outbreak in Paraguay, Food Insecurity in Haiti, Forest fires in Paraguay and Honduras

USNORTHCOM received funding in 2008 for its first project to provide HAZMAT training and equipment for Mexican civil responders. USNORTHCOM, in collaboration with EPA, FEMA, and USAID is in the process of executing this program for Mexican border region first-responders and of providing associated equipment to five border cities. The intention is to expand this program to several additional cities in border and in non-border states within the next two years.

USNORTHCOM is coordinating with the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City to provide up to 100,000 personal protective equipment kits from the Defense Security Cooperation Agency to Mexican Civil Protection authorities.

The USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance has been actively providing humanitarian assistance in response to international crises and disaster supporting OAS member states throughout the region. A full report accounting for USAID activities for 2007 in the region can be found on the web at: http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/publications/annual_reports/index.html



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