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Conference of Andean Community Ministers of Foreign Affairs and of Defense


June 17, 2002

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Lima, Peru
June 17, 2002

The Ministers of Foreign Affairs and of Defense of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela,  

Meeting in the city of Lima for the purpose of analyzing the proposal put forward by President Alejandro Toledo to promote a shared conception of security, peace, perfection and the expansion of confidence-building measures, together with the implementation of initiatives designed to help limit foreign defense spending;  

Bearing in mind the proposal to create an International Humanitarian Fund which, financed by savings from reduced defense spending, among other things, would help to boost efforts by Andean Community countries to meet their social needs;  

Believing that the existence of democratic regimes in the region strengthens mutual peace, friendship, understanding and cooperation among the peoples and governments of the Andean Community;  

Being convinced that peace and stability are values that are reinforced by the existence of the rule of law, democracy and respect for human rights;  

Conscious that economic and social development tasks, particularly the challenge of reducing the poverty in our societies, are shared national objectives that require limits to be set on foreign defense spending;  

Highlighting the Andean Commitment to Peace, Security and Cooperation, contained in the Declaration of Galapagos of December 17, 1989 ;  

Recalling that the Andean Presidents instructed the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers to draw up the guidelines for a Community policy of security and confidence-building with a view toward establishing an Andean Peace Zone;  

Bearing in mind that the common foreign policy involves a broad degree of political cooperation that is opening up a new stage in Andean integration and that it has identified as one of its priority lines of action the adoption of "joint measures to promote a culture of peace and peaceful settlement of disputes, confidence-building, particularly in border areas, arms limitation and the development of new regional conceptions of safety;"  

Considering that in the Declaration of Santa Cruz de la Sierra of January 30, 2002, the Andean Presidents welcomed the initiative of Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo to hold a Conference of Ministers of Foreign Affairs and of Defense of the Andean Community Member Countries in Lima for the purpose of examining the proposal to reduce spending on defense so that more resources may be allocated to social investment and the war on poverty, bearing in mind domestic security needs and existing levels of spending,  

Have agreed to approve the following:  

LIMA COMMITMENT
ANDEAN CHARTER FOR PEACE AND SECURITY 
AND THE LIMITATION AND CONTROL OF THE EXPENDITURE  ON FOREIGN DEFENSE
 

I. PRINCIPLES FOR FORMULATING AN ANDEAN COMMUNITY SECURITY POLICY  

The Member States of the Andean Community reaffirm their commitment and adherence to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter and the Charter of the Organization of American States and to the formulation of a Community policy on security and confidence-building based on the following principles:  

  1. Preservation of the rule of law and democracy as the system of government

  2. Promotion and protection of human rights

  3. Application of humanitarian international law

  4. Abstention from the use or threatened use of force in their reciprocal relations

  5. Peaceful settlement of disputes

  6. Respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of each Member State

  7. Non-intervention in internal affairs

  8. Respect for international law and international obligations

  9. Observance of UN and OAS collective security systems

  10. Cooperation for development

  11. Strengthening of the integration process

II. COMMITMENT TO THE FORMULATION OF AN ANDEAN COMMUNITY SECURITY POLICY  

The Member States of the Andean Community agree to:  

1. Reaffirm their commitment to peace, security, renunciation of the use or threatened use of force, the peaceful settlement of disputes and respect for international law.  

2. Present at the Fifteenth Andean Presidential Council a common Andean security policy proposal framed within a context of democracy and non-offensive external security, based on the principles established in the Charters of the United Nations and the Organization of American States.  

3. Convene a series of seminars on the subjects of hemispheric security from the Andean perspective, the regional war on terrorism, military spending and security and confidence-building measures, before December 2002.  Both military and civil representatives from the five Member Countries will participate in those seminars, whose purpose will be to touch off discussions on aspects of basic importance for the formulation of an Andean Community security policy.  

4. Form the High-Level Group on Security and Confidence-Building with the participation of senior Foreign Affairs and Defense officials from the five Member Countries, who will be responsible for coordinating studies with a view toward drawing up the common Andean security policy.  The first meeting of the Group should be held during the first half of 2003 as the following step to the holding of the seminars.  

III. COMMITMENT TO ESTABLISH A PEACE ZONE IN THE ANDEAN COMMUNITY  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Establish the mechanisms and criteria for instituting a Peace Zone in the Andean Community in conformity with the agreement adopted by the Heads of State in the Act of Carabobo, as a guarantee of the peace and security of which the Andean governments assure their nations.  

2. The Andean Community Peace Zone covers the area comprising the territories, airspaces and waters under the sovereignty and jurisdiction of Bolivia , Colombia , Ecuador , Peru and Venezuela .  

3. In the Andean Community Peace Zone:  

--The use or threatened use of force between Member States is prohibited, pursuant to the applicable provisions of the United Nations Charter and the Charter of the Organization of American States.  

--The deployment, manufacture, transport and use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons is banned in conformity with the provisions of the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the international conventions on chemical, biological and toxin weapons.  

-- All nuclear testing is banned.  

-- A system for gradually eliminating anti-personnel landmines is instituted that will lead to their total eradication shortly as stipulated in the Ottawa Convention.  

-- The development, manufacture, possession, deployment and use of all weapons of mass destruction, as well as their transit through the countries of the subregion, are prohibited.  

-- Cooperation for Development and Integration is promoted.  

4. The Andean countries will submit draft Resolutions to the General Assemblies of both the United Nations and the Organization of American States to promote recognition of the Andean Peace Zone by the International Community.  

IV. REGIONAL COMMITMENT TO THE WAR ON TERRORISM  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Step up national efforts that are underway in conformity with the provisions of the Security Council, particularly Resolution 1373 of September 28, 2001 ; the stipulations of the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism, approved on June 3, 2002 , and the provisions of the "Andean Commitment to Peace, Security and Cooperation" in the Galapagos Declaration of December 18, 1989 .  

2. Take the necessary additional measures to prevent the commission of acts of terrorism, even through the early warning of the pertinent authorities by exchanging information.  

3. Continue combating transnational criminal activities, particularly those connected with terrorism, such as: illicit drug dealing, asset laundering and illegal arms trafficking.  

V. COMMITMENTS TO LIMIT SPENDING ON FOREIGN DEFENSE AND THE CONTROL OF AND TRANSPARENCY IN CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Take joint measures to promote a credible and verifiable conventional arms limitation process within the region, in light of each country's domestic security needs and current spending levels, that would make it possible to allocate more funds to economic and social development, in keeping with the principles and aims on the subject set forth in the Charter of the Organization of American States and the Declaration of Ayacucho.  

2. Ban and/or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons that are considered excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects, in conformity with the regime contained in the United Nations Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, of 1980, and its additional protocols.  

3. Accede to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons and to its protocols, including Protocol II as amended, as well as Protocol IV to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons Which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, with reference to the use of blinding laser weapons.  

4. Sign and/or ratify the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacture and Trafficking in Weapons, Munitions, Explosives and Related Materials and make every necessary diplomatic effort to ensure that this convention enters promptly into force.  

5. Duly comply with the annual presentation of reports on imports and exports of conventional weapons to the United Nations Register of Conventional Arms, established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/36 L (1991).  

6. Duly comply with the presentation of standardized reports containing objective information about armaments, including the transparency of defense spending, in conformity with United Nations General Assembly Resolutions 35/142B (1980) entitled "Reduction of military expenditures" and 48/62 (1994) "Reduction of military budgets: transparency of military expenditures," and exchange information directly among their respective Foreign Ministries, which shall so inform their Defense Ministries.  

7. Encourage all of the Andean countries to ratify the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions approved by the Organization of American States in 1999.  

8. Annually exchange at the Andean subregional level, in February of each year, and until the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions of the OAS enters into force, information about imports and exports of the following conventional weapons:  tanks, armored combat vehicles, heavy caliber artillery systems, fighter planes, attack helicopters, warships and missiles or missile systems.  

9. Report their military expenses of the past fiscal year to the UN Secretary General annually before April 30 of each year, based on available information and using the pertinent forms, in keeping with United Nations General Assembly Resolution 35/142 (1980) entitled "Reduction of military budgets."  

10. Exchange information about military expenses at the Andean subregional level annually before presenting it to the UN and the OAS, and coordinate and standardize that information.  

VI. COMMITMENT TO GET LATIN AMERICA DECLARED A ZONE FREE FROM AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES BEYOND VISUAL RANGE AND MEDIUM AND LONG-RANGE STRATEGIC MISSILES  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

Accept the invitation extended by the Government of Peru to hold a meeting of experts in Lima in September 2002 to start consultations with a view to establishing a zone free from air-to-air missiles beyond visual range and medium to long-range strategic missiles in Latin America.  

VII. COMMITMENTS TO CONSOLIDATE THE BAN ON NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS  

The Andean Community Member States reiterate their commitments to:  

1. Use the nuclear material and facilities under their jurisdiction for peaceful purposes exclusively and to comply scrupulously with the Treaty of Tlatelolco and its protocols.  

2. Demand, pursuant to the agreement set out in the Final Communiqu� of the Ministerial Meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement Bureau, held in Durban, South Africa in April 2002, that countries possessing nuclear weapons duly report to the Andean countries on the transit of any nuclear material or waste off their coastlines.  In this connection, the Andean Community countries shall continue to apply the International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials.  

3. Prohibit the manufacture, reception or transit of fissile material and refuse to allow any nuclear weapons or other explosive nuclear devices to be transferred, either directly or indirectly, within their respective territories.  

4. Coordinate their positions at the United Nations General Assembly and Conference on Disarmament and the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in order to boost the effectiveness of the nuclear non-proliferation system.  

5. Not to develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, conserve or use biological and toxin weapons under any circumstance whatsoever, in keeping with the Convention On the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and On their Destruction, of 1972.  

6. Concertedly apply in the Andean subregion the confidence-building measures established at the Third Review Conference of the Convention on Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and On Their Destruction and coordinate the presentation of the corresponding declaration forms.  

7. Not to develop, use, produce, acquire in any other way, stockpile or conserve chemical weapons, or transfer such weapons to anyone else, directly or indirectly, in conformity with the Convention on the Prohibition Against the Development, Production, Storage and Use of Chemical Weapons and On their Destruction, of 1993.  

8. Facilitate, among their competent national agencies, the fullest possible exchange of chemical substances and scientific and technical equipment and information about the development and application of chemistry to purposes not prohibited by the respective conventions.  

9. Duly present the Annual Declarations on Chemical Substances and Pertinent Facilities to the Organization for the Banning of Chemical Weapons and send copies of these declarations simultaneously to the Andean Community Member States through their respective Foreign Ministries.  

VIII. COMMITMENTS TO ERRADICTE ILLICIT TRAFFICKING IN WEAPONS, MUNITIONS, EXPLOSIVES AND RELATED MATERIALS  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Take urgent measures to combat the illicit trafficking in weapons, munitions, explosives and related materials, given its association with the world problem of illegal drugs, terrorism, organized transnational delinquency and mercenary activities and other criminal behavior, because of its direct effect on the security of the citizens and because it worsens domestic conflicts and hinders peace processes.  

2. Also adopt urgent measures to combat illicit trafficking in weapons that are intended to disrupt the democratic order of State institutions.  

3. Establish an Andean Working Group to develop a plan of action and follow-up on specific bilateral and subregional cooperation projects to combat and eradicate illicit arms trafficking.  

4. Rapidly implement the recommendations contained in the United Nations 2001 Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eliminate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, particularly the recommendations for the region. 

IX. COMMITMENTS TO THE ERRADICATION OF ANTI-PERSONNEL LANDMINES  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Reaffirm their commitment not to use, develop, produce, acquire, stockpile, conserve or transfer anti-personnel landmines, directly or indirectly, under any circumstance whatsoever.  

2. Destroy or ensure the destruction of all stocks of anti-personnel landmines within a period of four years, as of the date on which the Ottawa Convention entered into force for each State party, with the exception of those that are withheld or transferred for the development of mine detection, clearance or destruction techniques and training in those techniques.  

3. Apply or continue to implement national, binational or multilateral programs to speed up the destruction of the anti-personnel mines sowed, so that they may be destroyed in keeping with the deadlines established in the Convention On the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-personnel Mines and On their Destruction, of 1997.  

4. Establish national programs to care for mine victims and for their social and economic integration, as well as for the prevention and creation of an awareness of the dangers of anti-personnel mines.  

5. Strongly urge other countries in the region that possess anti-personnel mines or have them sowed in their territory to destroy them as rapidly as possible.  

6. Emphatically call upon groups operating outside the law to comply with the provisions of International Humanitarian Law in this area.  

X. COMMITMENTS TO EXPAND AND STRENGTHEN CONFIDENCE-BUILDING MEASURES  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Continue to apply and strengthen confidence-building measures associated with:  

a. Agreements on prior notification of military exercises.  

b. Establishing mutual confidence or security zones in border areas, as needed, adjusting the number and strength of the military units and outposts, considering each country's domestic security and development needs. 

c. Promoting the preparation and exchange of information on defense policy and doctrine.  

d. Inviting observers to military exercises, visits to military facilities, facilities for observing routine operations and exchange of civilian and military personnel for basic and advanced training and development.  

e. Meetings and measures to prevent incidents and increase the safety of land, sea, river, lake and air transportation.  

f. Natural disaster prevention and cooperation programs based on the petition and authorization of the affected States.  

g. Seminars, dissemination courses and studies on mutual confidence-building and security measures and policies to promote confidence, with civilian and military participation.

h. Peace-oriented educational and cultural programs and programs for the promotion and defense of human rights. 

i. Cooperation among Andean legislators on confidence-building measures and issues relating to subregional peace and security, including meetings, exchanges of visits and an Andean Meeting of Parliamentarians on common security matters.  

j. Opening the seminars, courses and studies on confidence-building and safety measures, disarmament, and other issues connected with Andean peace and security to diplomatic training institutes, military academies, research centers and universities, with the participation of government, civil and military officials, as well as representatives of civil societies in those activities.  

k. Promoting bilateral talks among high-level military officers, the exchange of information and intelligence and incident verification mechanisms in the border areas.  

XI. FOLLOW-UP AND VERIFICATION MECHANISMS  

The Andean Community Member States agree to:  

1. Hold periodic meetings of the Andean Council of Foreign Ministers, together with the Community Defense Ministers, in order to deepen the dialogue and harmonization of common security and confidence-building policies.  

2. Call a meeting twice a year of the High-Level Group on security and confidence-building measures, as the executive body of this Community policy.  

3. Ensure that the Andean Community General Secretariat rapidly establishes a unit responsible for following up and effectively verifying the foreign policy measures agreed upon in this Lima Commitment.

Lima, June 17, 2002 

CALL UPON THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WITH REGARD TO THE LIMA COMMITMENT  

Conscious that this Andean Charter establishes the basic principles on security and peace that are shared by the hemispheric and international communities as common aspirations, the Andean Community Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Defense invite and urge all the governments of friendly countries to accede to this Charter freely and in a morally binding way.  To that end, the Foreign Ministries of the Andean Nations will promote such accessions through their Embassies and will also request the United Nations Secretary General to secure the universal dissemination of the Charter because of the noble ends it pursues.  International community accessions will be reported to the Government of Peru, which will inform the other Community governments accordingly.  

This call is an integral part of the "Lima Commitment."

Lima, June 17, 2002



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