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Diplomacy in Action

United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy


Since 1948, the United States Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy (ACPD) has been charged with appraising U.S. Government activities intended to understand, inform and influence foreign publics and to increase the understanding of, and support for, these same activities. The ACPD conducts research and symposiums that provide honest assessments and informed discourse on public diplomacy efforts across government. It reports to the President, Secretary of State, and Congress. Currently, the office of the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs supports it. On January 3, 2013, the ACPD was reauthorized and signed into law under H.R. 4310, Section 1280; the authorization is retroactive to October 1, 2010, and continues through to October 1, 2015. After a 19-month suspension, the ACPD officially resumed operations on July 15, 2013.

ACPD’s 2013 re-authorization language mandated the completion of a Comprehensive Annual Report Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting Activities, which breaks down public diplomacy and international broadcasting activity worldwide. The first iteration of this report was delivered to the President, Congress and the Secretary of State on December 11, 2014.

ACPD serves as a convener for the variety of practitioners in the U.S. government interagency who communicate and build relationships with foreign audiences, in addition to the researchers, practitioners and thought leaders outside of the government who can help us rethink the future of public diplomacy. In addition to the Comprehensive Annual Report, ACPD Members and Executive Director have decided to focus on three issues to help drive public diplomacy reform in 2014 and 2015:

Measurement and Evaluation: Knowing when public diplomacy is working can often be elusive, yet measurement and evaluation of public diplomacy programs and campaigns is essential for Congress, strategic planners and implementers, in addition to Congress and the White House. The first report in this series, Data Driven Public Diplomacy: Progress Towards Measuring the Impact of Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting Activities, examines current efforts underway in State Department public diplomacy bureaus and at the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) to assess the impact of their activities. It makes suggestions on structures and methodologies needed to make foreign audience research more robust, impact assessment more institutionalized, and feedback loops for strategy and tactics more systematic. The report is based on findings from a six-month study of nearly 100 State Department and BBG research and evaluation documents, in addition to dozens of interviews conducted between February and August 2014 with the staff responsible for them.

Public Diplomacy in High Threat Environments: In 1985, ACPD first examined this issue with its report, “Terrorism and Security: The Threat to Public Diplomacy” as a response to the Advisory Panel on Overseas Security at the State Department, also known as the Inman Panel after its Chairman Admiral Bobby Ray Inman. The panel was set-up after the 1983 and 1984 attacks on the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, during which 19 Americans were killed, to make recommendations to strengthen diplomatic security. The ACPD, which supported the now-defunct U.S. Information Agency at the time, protested that the panel did not take into consideration the unique role that public diplomacy plays in statecraft and the need for public diplomacy platforms to stay open to foreign publics. In an October 1985 op-ed in the Washington Post, “Don’t Let Security Hide Our Light,” Ed Fuelner, President of the Heritage Foundation and Chairman of the ACPD, wrote: “USIA’s public affairs officer knows that by retreating … the agency will become inaccessible to most of the people it is trying to reach…wholesale retreat to safe, but inaccessible, enclaves is not the answer. Personal contact with global opinion leaders is essential to the conduct of American foreign policy.”

Thirty years later, we are still grappling with this subject. With the support of the U.S. Institute of Peace, the McCain Institute on International Leadership and the Truman National Security Project & Center for National Policy, ACPD has been conducting research on the views of diplomats, public diplomats, development workers, NGO representatives, military officers, security professionals and Hill staffers of the opportunities and limitations for engagement in these areas. On Oct. 24, 2014, ACPD co-host the half-day event “Risk, Recruitment and Retention: Engaging Foreign Publics in High Threat Environments,” during which we discussed the early findings from this research and began to assess how, in an era where "zero-risk" environments abroad no longer exist, we can address the question of risk for American civilians working in public diplomacy, diplomacy and development. A later report will review the structures, processes and laws that govern U.S. officials' ability to engage with everyday people who are rapidly re-shaping the international system.

Future of Public Diplomacy: This umbrella theme allows the ACPD to explore a range of issues that affect how the U.S. government can understand, inform and influence foreign publics. In 2014, ACPD partnered with the Atlantic Council to look at how massive urbanization should let us recalibrate our public diplomacy strategy and tactics. The issue brief, Diplomacy for a Diffuse World, examines how key global trends—the diffusion of power and the rise of individual empowerment—significantly impact the way the United States government must conduct diplomacy and provides actionable recommendations to help build a more comprehensive and focused diplomatic strategy to better embrace the changes brought by these trends.

Another project in partnership with The George Washington University’s Institute on Public Diplomacy and Global Communications will review the concerns of current public diplomacy officers about the future of their practice. Other reports on public diplomacy training will be delivered in 2015.

We will update this page with information on our reports and 2015 planned activities as information is available. For any questions, please contact Katherine Brown at BrownKA4@state.gov and/or Chris Hensman at HensmanCD@state.gov.

The 2014 Comprehensive Annual Report on Public Diplomacy and International Broadcasting Activities itemizes major public diplomacy and international broadcasting activities conducted by the State Department and the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG). It is based on data collected from the BBG, every public diplomacy Bureau at the State Department, the six regional bureaus in the State Department, and Public Affairs Sections (PAS) at our U.S. embassies worldwide. In includes the cost per participant for 89 academic, professional, youth, cultural and sports programs; the cost and focus of PD activities at more than 180 embassies; in addition to the cost and programs for 74 international broadcasting services. The information focuses mainly on FY13 actual funds spent, as it provided the most complete accounting of public diplomacy and broadcasting activity at the time this was compiled. In FY13, the State Department spent $602.4 million of public diplomacy funding and the BBG spent $713.3 million. Wherever possible, the report also reviews FY14 actual and planned spending, in addition to FY15 budget requests, strategies, and activities. We include 13 key findings and 35 recommendations, which can be found on pages 14-28. This 2014 report is the result of the ACPD’s congressional reauthorization in 2013, which called for a “comprehensive report on public diplomacy and international broadcasting activities to Congress, the President, and the Secretary of State” that includes “a detailed list of all public diplomacy activities funded by the United States Government; a description of—the purpose, means, and geographic scope of each activity; when each activity was started; the amount of Federal funding expended on each activity; any significant outside sources of funding; and the Federal department or agency to which the activity belongs; the international broadcasting activities under the direction of the Broadcasting Board of Governors.” As the first iteration of this Comprehensive Annual Report and due to the ACPD’s very limited staffing and resources, this report is mainly a compilation and consolidation of program description and budget data to provide a benchmark for future reports. Wherever possible, we added analysis. Moving forward, the 2015 Comprehensive Annual Report will be delivered closer to the end of the FY15 and will provide a deeper treatment of worldwide activities.


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