More information about Mongolia is available on the Mongolia Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Mongolia in 1987. Located between Russia and China, Mongolia describes the United States as one of its “third neighbors.” Mongolia adopted democracy in 1990 and has since conducted six presidential and six legislative elections. The United States has sought to assist Mongolia's market-oriented reforms and to expand relations with Mongolia, primarily in the cultural and economic fields. The two countries have signed a cultural accord, a Peace Corps accord, and a consular convention. U.S. and Mongolian legislators participate in exchange programs, in which Mongolian and U.S. participants share information and experiences about democracy and institutional reform. Mongolia deployed troops to Iraq from 2003 through October 2008, and now has approximately 350 troops in Afghanistan supporting Coalition operations. There is increased interest among Mongolians in learning English and in studying in the United States. The government of Mongolia committed in $600,000 in 2011 to co-fund the Fulbright program to aid in its expansion, and each year approximately 30 Mongolians study in the United States under that program. Each year approximately 80 Mongolians travel to the United States for educational, professional, and cultural exchange programs sponsored by the U.S. government. In addition, over 1300 Mongolian students study at American colleges and universities, some via private scholarships.
U.S. Assistance to Mongolia
In the past years, Mongolia’s economic growth had been one of the highest in the world and the highest in Asia. Mongolia’s medium-term prospects are promising, with 2013 economic growth at 11.7 percent. Increased income for both the Mongolian government and the private sector, primarily from mining, brings increased opportunities for economic diversification, improvements in education, infrastructure, and social programs. U.S. government assistance seeks to promote private-sector-led growth and long-term capital investment, as well as other activities to aid the Mongolian government in strengthening the implementation of its laws, improving the business enabling environment, creating greater transparency and accountability, and promoting public private partnerships. Training and equipment provided by the U.S. government support the professionalization of Mongolia’s defense forces and their continued support for United Nations peacekeeping operations. Because of Mongolia’s long and highly porous borders, U.S. assistance also aims to support non-proliferation activities.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Peace Corps both have programs in Mongolia, and in the future, USAID will shift its focus to a legacy-based program while downsizing its presence and assistance. The United States and Mongolia implemented important, long-lasting development projects through a Millennium Challenge Compact between September 2008 and September 2013.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Just over a decade ago, the Mongolian economy barely exceeded $1 billion, with a national budget of $400 million, direct foreign investment of $43 million, and total annual foreign aid of approximately $300 million. By contrast, nominal 2012 GDP was $10 billion, the national budget was nearly $5 billion, direct foreign investment amounted to $2 billion, and foreign aid remained at $300 million (thereby declining to approximately three percent of nominal GDP). Businesses have been a part of the story of Mongolia’s economic expansion. U.S. exports to Mongolia grew from just over $40 million in 2009 to over $650 million in 2012, although 2013 saw a decline to $285 million due to the conditions previously cited. Major exports include passenger cars, excavating equipment, trucks and buses, industrial machinery, civilian aircraft and parts, telecommunications equipment, meat and poultry, and some consumer items such as household appliances, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, apparel, music, and films. U.S. imports from Mongolia include steelmaking and ferroalloying materials, sulfur, non-metallic minerals, art and antiques, knit apparel, and jewelry. The United States and Mongolia have signed a Bilateral Transparency Agreement which has yet to be ratified by the Mongolian Parliament, Bilateral Investment Treaty, and Trade and Investment Framework Agreement.
Mongolia's Membership in International Organizations
Mongolia and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, ASEAN Regional Forum, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Mongolia also is a participating state in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and is a NATO Partner Nation. From 2011 to 2013, Mongolia was the president of the Community of Democracies, a group of democratic nations focused on strengthening democratic institutions globally. S. Oyun, Minister of Environment and Green Development, has been elected chair of the UN Environmental Assembly, and in 2015, Mongolia will be the chair of the Freedom Online Coalition.
The U.S. Ambassador to Mongolia is Piper Anne Wind Campbell.
Mongolia maintains an embassy in the United States at 2833 M Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20007; tel. (202) 333-7117.
More information about Mongolia is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:
Department of State Mongolia Country Page
Department of State Key Officers List
CIA World Factbook Mongolia Page
U.S. Embassy: Mongolia
USAID Mongolia Page
History of U.S. Relations with Mongolia
Human Rights Reports
International Religious Freedom Reports
Trafficking in Persons Reports
Narcotics Control Reports
Office of the U.S. Trade Representative Countries Page
U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics
Export.gov International Offices Page
Millennium Challenge Corporation
Library of Congress Country Studies
Travel and Business Information