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Foreign Assistance


FY 2007 Budget in Brief
Bureau of Resource Management
February 6, 2006
Report
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Resource Summary

($ in thousands)

Appropriations

FY 2005

Actual

FY 2006

Estimate

FY 2007

Request

Increase/

Decrease

Migration & Refugee Assistance

884,240

783,090

832,900

49,810

Emergency Refugee/Migration Assistance

29,760

29,700

55,000

25,300

Total, Foreign Assistance

914,000

812,790

887,900

75,110



FY 2005 Actuals reflect the general rescission of 0.80% provided through the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 (P.L. 108-447).

FY 2005 Actual for MRA includes $120.4 million provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005 (P.L. 109-13).

FY 2006 Estimates reflect the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148).



MIGRATION & REFUGEE ASSISTANCE

Resource Summary
($ in thousands)


Activities

FY 2005

Actual

FY 2006

Estimate

FY 2007

Request

Increase/

Decrease

Overseas Assistance

649,152

562,765

547,988

(14,777)

Africa

229,351

245,486

235,920

(9,566)

Africa SUP

94,400

0

0

0

East Asia

22,778

22,594

20,405

(2,189)

Europe

48,189

44,335

40,040

(4,295)

Near East

98,442

97,215

113,325

16,110

South Asia

59,098

49,190

44,424

(4,766)

Western Hemisphere

23,775

24,335

21,978

(2,357)

Migration

13,425

12,889

11,640

(1,249)

Strategic Global Priorities

59,694

66,721

60,256

(6,465)

Refugee Admissions

163,664

159,440

222,694

63,254

Refugee Admissions

137,664

159,440

222,694

63,254

Refugee Admissions (Protection) SUP

26,000

0

0

0

Humanitarian Migrants to Israel

49,600

39,600

40,000

400

Administrative Expenses

21,824

21,285

22,218

933

Appropriation Total

884,240

783,090

832,900

49,810



FY 2005 Actual reflects the general rescission of 0.80% provided through the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005
(P.L. 108-447).

In FY 2005, $763.84 million was appropriated under P.L. 108-447. In addition, the MRA account received $120.4 million in FY 2005 from the FY 2005 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Tsunami Relief, 2005 (P.L. 109-13), of which $94.4 million went to the Overseas Assistance lines for Africa ($93.4 million), Strategic Global Priorities ($700,000), and Migration ($300,000) and $26 million went to Refugee Admissions. These figures are included in the FY 2005 column above.

Approximately $10.7 million appropriated in FY 2004 was carried forward into FY 2005 as follows: Overseas Assistance Europe ($1.8 million), Overseas Assistance Western Hemisphere ($1.6 million), Refugee Admissions ($4.3 million), and Administrative Expenses ($3 million).

Of the $768.84 million appropriated in FY 2005, approximately $5.1 million was carried forward into FY 2006, of which approximately $4.1 million was carried forward in Administrative Expenses and $1 million was carried forward in Overseas Assistance. These figures are included in the above chart in FY 2005, the year in which they were appropriated.

FY 2006 Estimate reflects the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148).


Explanation of Request

Humanitarian Response is one of the U.S. national interests outlined within the joint Department of State/U.S. Agency for International Development Strategic Framework. The Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) and the U.S. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance (ERMA) appropriations are two of the primary funding mechanisms for demonstrating American compassion internationally. These funds are provided primarily to multilateral organizations such as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), as well as to other international and non-governmental organizations. These funds support the following specific goals:

 • Protection and Durable Solutions - Ensure access to effective protection for refugees and conflict victims, and, in certain cases, internally displaced persons (IDPs). Prevent refoulement (involuntary return to a place where a person would face persecution), promote access to asylum, enhance physical protection (especially for women and children), and promote durable solutions (including voluntary return and local integration).

 • Assistance - Provide effective and efficient humanitarian assistance across geographic regions and according to internationally accepted standards.

 • Resettlement - Provide permanent resettlement in the U.S. to those refugees who need it, ensure that adequate security, health, and antifraud measures are fully implemented in processing these cases, and support adequate reception arrangements for these refugees so that they can begin the process of becoming self-sufficient, fully-integrated members of U.S. society.

 • International Migration - Support policies and programs for orderly international migration based on protection of human rights and respect for national sovereignty. This goal includes continued funding for a program that facilitates the integration of humanitarian migrants in Israel.

Important specific priorities in FY 2007 include: respond to emergency requirements of Sudanese refugees and IDPs; support return and reintegration of refugees and IDPs in Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan, and other parts of Africa; provide durable solutions to Bhutanese refugees in Nepal; increase refugee admissions; continue efforts to enhance the protection of refugees and conflict victims, including programs that guard against the exploitation of beneficiaries of humanitarian assistance; and press other donors to provide their fair share of assistance to international humanitarian organizations.

Overseas Assistance

The FY 2007 request for Overseas Assistance is $547,988,000.

Requirements by region include:

 • Africa - $235,920,000. The FY 2007 request reflects the fact that because of recent peace agreements, return and reintegration opportunities currently abound in Africa. Burundi, DRC, and Liberian refugee repatriations are well underway and are expected to continue through 2007, with returns, estimated to exceed one million refugees over the next two-three years, including over 500,000 returns to Southern Sudan. At the same time, we anticipate continued protection and assistance needs for refugees who cannot return home, including the Darfur Sudanese, Somalis, and Western Saharans. The request includes USG contributions for UNHCR and ICRC, which help address the basic life support needs of vulnerable refugees and conflict victims in Africa and ensure that those who can return home are reintegrated into their home communities. Some funding is also included for other IOs and NGOs that work with UNHCR to fill gaps in basic relief and reintegration programs.

 • East Asia - $20,405,000. The FY 2007 request includes support for UNHCR and ICRC programs throughout the region as well as for the humanitarian assistance and protection needs of vulnerable North Koreans outside the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The request continues support for critical NGO programs that assist Burmese refugees in Thailand.

 • Europe - $40,040,000. Although Balkan countries have agreed to resolve refugee and IDP issues by 2007, depending on final status discussions in Kosovo and increased autonomy in Montenegro, decisions could lead to population movements. With the UNHCR and ICRC operational capacities in the region reduced, NGOs will be needed to help fill assistance gaps. As the peace processes continue in the South Caucasus, the FY 2007 request would provide some support for continued assistance to IDPs as well as preparations for IDP repatriation in case peace is achieved in either of the two conflicts - Abkhazia and Nagorno Karabakh. U.S. assistance in the North Caucasus region is seen as a measure of engagement and leadership on Chechnya, and continued PRM humanitarian assistance in FY 2007 is critical during the transition from relief to development in Chechnya. MRA will support UNHCR, other UN agencies, the ICRC, and NGOs to continue providing life-sustaining assistance to the most vulnerable refugees and IDPs in the Caucasus.

 • Near East - $113,325,000. UNRWA remains an important force for stability in Gaza and the West Bank. The FY 2007 request continues support for UNRWA's assistance programs, which benefit over four million Palestinian refugees in the region. UNRWA has a critical role in supporting relief and development in post-withdrawal Gaza. These funds will go toward meeting the costs of delivering education, health, and social services programs in a difficult environment and for critical security monitoring. The FY 2007 request continues support for the sustainable reintegration of the hundreds of thousands of returning Iraqi refugees and other vulnerable populations and for building the capacity of the Iraqi Ministry of Displacement and Migration to assist those returnees. The security situation has slowed the rate at which these efforts can be undertaken, and it is anticipated that the Government of Iraq, UN and NGOs will continue to rely heavily on strong U.S. support for humanitarian assistance. MRA funds will also support UNHCR and ICRC programs in the Near East.

 • South Asia - $44,424,000. With 2007 expected to be the final year of assisted Afghan repatriation, a significant number of Afghans are expected to avail themselves of this opportunity in its final months. In addition to repatriation assistance, the FY 2007 request will support UNHCR and NGO programs in Afghanistan and Pakistan in the areas of health, shelter, education, and livelihood to bolster sustainable reintegration of returnees. FY 2007 funds will also continue to support assistance for the most vulnerable of those who remain in asylum countries. Elsewhere in the region, the request includes continued assistance to Tibetan, Bhutanese and Sri Lankan refugees and support for monitoring of conflicts and assistance for conflict victims in Kashmir/Jammu, Sri Lanka, and Nepal.

 • Western Hemisphere - $21,978,000. Assistance to persons displaced by the conflict in Colombia will continue to be a priority for the United States. The FY 2007 request provides some emergency assistance to the more than two million IDPs inside Colombia and thousands of refugees outside Colombia. The request includes support to the regional programs of UNHCR and ICRC. It also includes funds to meet the Department's commitment to support the needs of migrants at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base who have been found to be in need of protection as well as their initial resettlement in third countries.

 • Migration - $11,640,000. The FY 2007 request will provide support, through IOM and its partners, to U.S. anti-trafficking initiatives, primarily to prevent the exploitation of women and children worldwide and provide assistance to trafficked victims, including through return and reintegration programs. It will also meet the requirements of the U.S. assessed contribution to IOM. MRA funds will be used to continue support for regional migration dialogues in Latin America, Africa, Europe, and Asia.

 • Strategic Global Priorities - $60,256,000. The FY 2007 request will provide critical funding to programs that provide protection to the most vulnerable populations, including women and children, maintaining a special focus on gender-based violence (GBV) through targeted funding for stand-alone GBV programs. It seeks to ensure that IOs and NGOs have the tools to respond quickly and effectively to emerging crises, protect populations in need, and their staffs in increasingly insecure environments. The request includes support for the headquarters budgets of UNHCR and ICRC, reflecting the crucial role these organizations play in providing protection and humanitarian assistance to refugees and conflict victims. Funding is also included to support UNHCR's emergency response capacity.

Refugee Admissions

The FY 2007 request for Refugee Admissions is $222,694,000. Higher admissions levels in FY 2004 and FY 2005 demonstrate that the increased security needed in the post-9/11 environment are being integrated in to the identification and processing of refugees. The FY 2007 request maintains the Administration's commitment to continue to grow this program. The FY 2007 global and regional admissions ceilings will be set by a Presidential Determination after the Congressional consultations process later in FY 2006.

Humanitarian Migrants to Israel

The FY 2007 request of $40,000,000 maintains the FY 2006 level of support for the humanitarian migrants program of the United Israel Appeal (UIA). It reflects the resource level necessary to support a package of services designed to promote integration of migrants into Israeli society, including transportation to Israel, Hebrew language instruction, transitional housing, education, and vocational training, and will support an acceleration of the movement of Ethiopian migrants to Israel that was started in FY 2006.

Administrative Expenses

The FY 2007 request of $22,218,000 for administrative expenses provides the Bureau with the resources to manage effectively and responsibly critical humanitarian programs funded through the MRA and ERMA appropriations.

With this administrative budget, the Bureau manages resources of approximately $900 million and an array of significant humanitarian policy issues as well as the refugee admissions program. PRM staff address program design and implementation, monitor and evaluate operational activities, and support other parts of the State Department in integrating refugee and humanitarian issues into broader foreign policy concerns. They play an equally important humanitarian diplomacy role. Costs related to the small staff dedicated to international population activities are included in the State Department's Diplomatic and Consular Programs account.

Program Description

The United States helps to meet the needs of refugees and conflict victims by supporting programs of overseas assistance implemented by international and nongovernmental organizations and by accepting refugees of special humanitarian concern for resettlement in the United States. Central to these efforts is recognition that refugee problems are matters of international concern, requiring multilateral solutions. UNHCR estimates that there are just over 17 million persons under its mandate worldwide, including refugees, returnees, certain IDP populations, and stateless persons. An additional 4.2 million Palestinian refugees are currently registered with UNRWA. ICRC's chief beneficiaries are conflict victims such as civilians caught in conflict zones and prisoners of war.

The focus of U.S. humanitarian foreign policy is:

 • providing life-sustaining protection and relief for persons who have fled persecution and conflict;
 • obtaining effective and timely responses from the international community to assist refugees and displaced persons;
 • seeking solutions to the origins of refugee problems; and
 • supporting voluntary repatriation, local integration, and resettlement.

Overseas assistance is carried out through voluntary contributions to:

 • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR);
 • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC);
 • United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA);
 • International Organization for Migration (IOM);
 • Other international organizations (e.g., UNICEF, OCHA, UNDP); and
 • Non-governmental organizations.

Refugee admissions are supported through funding to:

 • private voluntary agencies that conduct refugee processing and cultural orientation overseas, as well as state and private agencies that provide initial reception and placement services in the United States;
 • IOM, which provides transportation, refugee processing, medical screening services, and cultural orientation for refugees coming to the United States; and
 • UNHCR, which refers refugees in need of third country resettlement to the U.S. and other countries.

The Humanitarian Migrants to Israel program is implemented through a grant to the United Israel Appeal.

Benefits

Migration and Refugee Assistance funds:

 • maintain U.S. global leadership in humanitarian affairs and international refugee and migration policy;
 • help preserve first asylum in countries that might otherwise close borders to refugees;
 • provide for the protection of and direct humanitarian assistance to refugees, conflict victims, vulnerable migrants, and some internally displaced persons according to established arrangements with other USG agencies;
 • support voluntary repatriation and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons when political conditions allow;
 • develop multilateral support and burden-sharing for refugee and conflict victim needs; and
 • bring refugees who are of special humanitarian concern to the United States for resettlement.


PART / Program Evaluation

Protection and Durable Solutions

For preparation of the FY 2007 budget, the Administration assessed the Department's Protection and Durable Solutions Program using the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART). This PART review focused mainly on the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) program. The program was rated as effective because it is particularly well-designed and well-managed. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) noted that the Department has successfully encouraged program partners to commit to results-oriented program management, and that the program has made steady progress toward its stated annual and long-term goals.

The Administration will continue to improve and standardize the program's budget presentation documents to ensure budget requests are clearly and consistently linked to individual program's goals and performance measures. It will also review the findings of the State Department Inspector General's 2006 inspection of PRM and address any areas for improvement related to protection and durable solutions.

Key program performance indicators include: (1) capacity of the Red Cross movement to restore family links; (2) number of countries with effective refugee registration systems; and (3) reduction of the long-standing global refugee population due to the achievement of durable solutions.

Other PRM Programs

For the FY 2007 budget, the Administration assessed the Department's work with international and non-governmental organizations to address specific policy priorities, fill gaps in refugee assistance, and promote orderly and humane migration policies, using the PART. In this PART review, the program was rated effective. According to the assessment, the NGO program is strategically designed to complement assistance efforts by UNHCR and ICRC to protect and assist refugees, victims of conflict, IDPs, and vulnerable migrants, including victims of human trafficking. OMB noted that the NGO portion of the program is well-managed through a criteria-based application process and with formal financial performance review.

The review noted improvements in the proportion of funding devoted to preventing and responding to gender-based violence (GBV), and in the proportion of foreign governments that have increased activities to combat trafficking in persons (TIP) where PRM funds projects. To ensure continued progress in these and other priority areas, the Administration will expand the formal monitoring and evaluation of PRM's programs.

Key program performance indicators include: (1) percentage of PRM-funded NGO or 'other IO' assistance projects that include activities that focus on prevention and response to GBV; (2) percentage of foreign governments with PRM-funded anti-trafficking projects that have increased their activities to combat TIP; and (3) percentage of funding to NGO and 'other IO' projects that are monitoring and evaluated through formal reporting channels.

During previous budget preparations, the Administration assessed three additional PRM programs: Refugee Admissions to the U.S., Humanitarian Migrants to Israel, and U.S. Contribution to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Reviews conducted for the FY 2007 budget continued to rate each of these programs effective. The Department monitors progress toward program goals using performance indicators.


U.S. EMERGENCY REFUGEE & MIGRATION ASSISTANCE

Resource Summary
($ in thousands)


Activities

FY 2005

Actual

FY 2006

Estimate

FY 2007

Request

Increase/

Decrease

ERMA Fund

29,760

29,700

55,000

25,300



FY 2005 Actual reflects the general rescission of 0.80% provided through the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2005 (P.L. 108-447).

FY 2006 Estimate reflects the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148).


Explanation of Request

A $55,000,000 replenishment of the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance (ERMA) Fund is essential to preserving the President's ability to respond quickly to the many unforeseen and urgent refugee and migration needs that occur worldwide each year.

Program Description

The ERMA Fund is a no-year appropriation that is drawn upon to meet refugee and migration needs whenever the President determines that it is important to the national interest to do so.

Pursuant to the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962, as amended, the President authorizes drawdowns from the ERMA Fund when unexpected refugee and migration needs require immediate financial support. At the beginning of FY 2006, $28.2 million remained in the fund. During the first quarter of FY 2006, $5 million was drawn down from the Fund to support unexpected urgent humanitarian needs of refugees and other victims of the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, leaving $53.2 million available as of the second quarter of FY 2006.

A total of $42.7 million was drawn down from the ERMA Fund in FY 2005 for the following needs:

Presidential Determination 2005-01: $8 million

 • On October 7, 2004, $8 million was authorized to support unexpected and urgent needs related to Burundi refugee repatriation and reintegration.

Presidential Determination 2005-23: $34.7 million

 • On March 29, 2005, $34.7 million was authorized to respond to the humanitarian crisis in the West Bank and Gaza ($20 million) and to support unexpected and urgent needs related to refugee repatriation and reintegration in Burundi ($10 million) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo ($4.7 million).

Benefits

The ERMA Fund provides the President with the flexibility to respond on a timely basis to emergency refugee and migration crises around the world.



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