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Diplomacy in Action

International Organizations


FY 2008 Budget in Brief
Bureau of Resource Management
February 5, 2007
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Resource Summary

($ in thousands)

Appropriations

FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

Contributions to International Organizations

1,151,317

1,122,318

1,354,400

Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities

1,152,075

1,022,474

1,107,000

Total, International Organizations

2,303,392

2,144,792

2,461,400


FY 2006 Actuals reflect the rescission of 0.28% provided through the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006 (P.L. 109-108) and the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148, Division B).


FY 2007 Estimates reflect the levels provided by a Continuing Resolution (P.L. 109-289, Division B, as amended). These amounts may change with the expected passage of a year-long CR.





CONTRIBUTIONS TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS


Resource Summary

($ in thousands)

FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

Appropriation Total

1,151,317

1,122,318

1,354,400


FY 2006 Actual reflects the rescission of 0.28% provided through the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006 (P.L. 109-108) and the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148, Division B).


FY 2007 Estimate reflects the level provided by a Continuing Resolution (P.L. 109-289, Division B, as amended). This amount may change with the expected passage of a year-long CR.


Justification of Request



The Department's FY 2008 request provides for continued U.S. membership in forty-five international organizations. The Contributions to International Organizations (CIO) account is the source of funding for assessed contributions that the U.S. pays as a full participant in these organizations. U.S. participation includes serving on governing bodies that establish policies and oversee programs that impact international peace and security, trade, travel, telecommunications, navigation, postal service, health care, development of nuclear energy, and conservation of water and wildlife resources.

For most of the organizations funded through this account, the obligation to pay assessed contributions results from U.S. ratification of an international treaty or convention. Each treaty or convention brings nations together in a shared commitment to develop solutions to some of the world's most pressing problems, such as the elimination of chemical weapons and containment of avian influenza. Other nations contribute a large proportion of the financial resources that support these shared solutions. For all but a few organizations, the U.S. contributes no more than twenty-two percent of the organizations' assessed budgets.

Funding for the CIO account enables a substantial number of U.S. federal agencies to send delegations, participate in governing bodies, and otherwise take advantage of opportunities to promote U.S. goals and objectives at these organizations. The federal agencies that participate in these organizations include the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security, Treasury, Commerce, Agriculture, Transportation, Labor, and Health and Human Services. The U.S. private sector also has a substantial interest in the work that these organizations do abroad to promote international relations and commerce.

Program Description

Among the forty-five organizations funded through the CIO account are the United Nations and its affiliated organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization; Inter-American organizations such as the Organization of American States; regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; and other specialized international organizations such as the World Trade Organization and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.


Each of these organizations occupies a special niche in world affairs according to areas of expertise that are established by international agreement. Organizations funded through the CIO account are working to contain terrorism, create overseas trade opportunities, increase the safety of international travel, promote literacy in developing countries, and limit the spread of diseases such as SARS and avian influenza.

Benefits

Participation in international organizations enables the U.S. to leverage other nations' expertise and financial contributions in pursuit of multilateral solutions to shared global problems such as terrorism. International organizations extend access to parts of the world where the U.S. lacks a significant presence. International organizations advance global commitments to free and fair trade, respect for human rights, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and the destruction of chemical weapons stockpiles. International organizations provide the means for nations to work together to eliminate disease, secure airports and seaports, protect intellectual property rights, and maintain the world's postal and telecommunications networks.

Organizations funded through the CIO account achieve real results that promote U.S. strategic and economic interests abroad. Many sectors of the U.S. economy depend on international organizations for access to foreign markets and the reduction of trade barriers. U.S. companies depend on international organizations for vital information about the supply and demand of commodities such as rubber, cotton and coffee. U.S. citizens depend on international organizations for dispute resolution and the application of international law in areas such as child custody.

International organizations are advancing the Department's transformational diplomacy objectives by helping to transform developing and developed countries into democratic, well-governed states in every region of the world. Because international organizations leverage financial contributions from nations around the world, their impact can be significantly greater than that of an individual nation working unilaterally or bilaterally. Each organization funded through the CIO account directly supports at least one of the Department's transformational diplomacy objectives: Peace and Security, Governing Justly and Democratically, Investing in People, Economic Growth, and Humanitarian Assistance.

International organizations are advancing Peace and Security around the world.

 • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has deployed over 30,000 soldiers in the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan, and is providing training and logistical support to the armed forces of the Iraqi government.

 • The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons oversaw and verified the destruction of 2,000 metric tons of chemical warfare stockpiles in 2005 alone, depriving state and non-state actors of access to these dangerous materials.

 • The United Nations has facilitated the removal of over 10,000 heavy weapons from combatants in Afghanistan and helped conclude the peace agreement that ended the decades-long, north-south conflict in Sudan.

 • The International Atomic Energy Agency has monitored and reported Iranian noncompliance on the peaceful development and use of nuclear energy to the United Nations Security Council. The Security Council has demanded that Iran cease its pursuit of nuclear weapons capability.

 • The International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization, and the Customs Cooperation Council conduct programs that improve security at airports and seaports in every region of the world.

International organizations are helping nations Govern Justly and Democratically.

 • The United Nations Special Political Missions in Iraq and Afghanistan helped facilitate elections that enabled millions of previously disenfranchised citizens to vote in national and regional elections in those countries in 2005.

 • The Organization of American States helped facilitate free and fair elections during 2006 in fourteen Latin American nations, including Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Haiti and Peru.

 • The International Labor Organization has promulgated child and forced labor standards that are applicable to each of its 179 member nations.

 • The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development implemented an Anti-Bribery Convention and Principles of Corporate Governance that promote integrity at corporations, financial institutions and markets around the world.

 • The United Nations has established new human rights offices in Guatemala, Nepal, and Uganda, increasing the number of countries in which the UN has a human rights presence to forty.

International organizations are promoting global Economic Growth and creating export opportunities for U.S. manufacturers, farmers, ranchers, and service providers.

 • The World Trade Organization facilitates an international trade framework that enabled U.S. exports of nearly $1.3 trillion worth of goods and services in 2005.

 • The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum has sponsored efforts to reduce trade barriers in the Asia-Pacific region, which accounts for approximately two-thirds of U.S. global trade.

 • The Customs Cooperation Council provides a uniform global customs framework that facilitates the flow of goods across national borders.

 • The International Labor Organization has sponsored small business and entrepreneurship programs that create opportunity and promote economic growth and prosperity in over eighty countries.

International organizations Invest in People by advancing health care, reducing the threat of disease, and promoting education around the world.

 • The World Health Organization led the global effort to eradicate smallpox and was instrumental in containing SARS.

 • The Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health are implementing a global strategy for controlling the spread of avian influenza (bird flu).

 • The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has implemented a teacher training program that has increased literacy and basic education in forty-six countries.

International organizations lead global efforts to provide Humanitarian Assistance.

 • The World Meteorological Organization facilitates global sharing of weather data and forecasts, enabling the U.S. and other nations to prepare for catastrophic events such as Hurricane Katrina.

 • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization deployed a rapid expeditionary force to assist with the delivery of aid to victims of the Pakistani earthquake.

 • The Food and Agriculture Organization and International Tropical Timber Organization helped to restore agriculture and fisheries destroyed by the Indian Ocean tsunami.

PART / Performance Evaluation

For preparation of the FY 2008 budget, the Office of Management and Budget evaluated the Department's CIO account by drawing upon long-term and key annual performance goals with ambitious targets and timeframes developed for the Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART) review undertaken in CY 2006. The program was rated moderately effective and received excellent scores with regard to program purpose and design. The Department has responded to OMB's findings by revising its FY 2008 budget justification to include progress on critical U.S. foreign policy objectives at international organizations, and periodically determining whether sufficient progress has been made in meeting targets so that milestone-based measures can be converted to quantifiable measures, where appropriate.


Resource Summary
($ in thousands)


Activities

FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

United Nations and Affiliated Agencies

United Nations Regular Budget

438,909

422,762

495,778

United Nations Capital Master Plan

9,825

22,110

85,435

United Nations War Crimes Tribunal -Yugoslavia

16,769

17,476

19,128

United Nations War Crimes Tribunal - Rwanda

14,837

15,080

15,647

Food and Agriculture Organization

84,661

92,491

90,040

International Atomic Energy Agency

79,092

87,015

86,816

International Civil Aviation Organization

14,894

15,179

15,324

International Labor Organization

62,064

67,345

64,485

International Maritime Organization

1,571

1,682

1,605

International Telecommunication Union

7,746

7,920

7,549

UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

70,924

72,560

68,732

Universal Postal Union

1,710

1,754

1,651

World Health Organization

95,680

101,421

101,421

World Intellectual Property Organization

1,086

1,157

1,112

World Meteorological Organization

10,538

11,247

10,704

Subtotal, United Nations and Affiliated Agencies

910,306

937,199

1,065,427

Inter-American Organizations

Organization of American States

59,396

56,595

58,228

Pan American Health Organization

56,609

56,609

56,609

Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture

16,600

16,620

16,620

Pan American Institute of Geography and History

324

324

324

Subtotal, Inter-American Organizations

132,929

130,148

131,781

Regional Organizations

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

87,179

95,099

91,488

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

50,700

56,007

59,011

NATO Parliamentary Assembly

883

987

985

The Pacific Community

1,525

1,515

1,442

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

601

696

744

Colombo Plan Council for Technical Cooperation

15

15

15

Subtotal, Regional Organizations

140,903

154,319

153,685



Resource Summary

($ in thousands)


Activities

FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

Other International Organizations

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

23,618

25,824

23,345

World Trade Organization

20,827

22,106

21,081

Customs Cooperation Council

4,025

4,459

4,402

Hague Conference on Private International Law

208

223

213

International Agency for Research on Cancer

1,865

1,862

1,839

International Bureau for the Publication of Customs Tariffs

133

133

130

International Bureau of the Permanent Court of Arbitration

83

86

83

International Bureau of Weights and Measures

1,217

1,266

1,169

International Center for the Study of Preservation and

Restoration of Cultural Property

998

1,038

978

International Coffee Organization

523

569

584

International Copper Study Group

51

66

50

International Cotton Advisory Committee

396

440

488

International Grains Council

564

573

553

International Hydrographic Organization

120

126

143

International Institute for the Unification of Private Law

146

163

161

International Lead and Zinc Study Group

48

50

48

International Organization of Legal Metrology

137

146

139

International Rubber Study Group

124

125

117

International Seed Testing Association

10

10

9

International Tropical Timber Organization

197

246

258

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

362

375

361

International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants

215

220

217

World Organization for Animal Health

141

148

139

Subtotal, Other International Organizations

56,008

60,254

56,507

Total Requirements

1,240,146

1,281,920

1,407,400

FY 2005 Exchange Rate and Other Changes

78,797

FY 2006 Exchange Rate and Other Changes

(167,626)

FY 2007 Exchange Rate and Other Changes

(159,602)

Additional FY 2008 Funding

(53,000)

Total, Contributions to International Organizations

1,151,317

1,122,318

1,354,400




CONTRIBUTIONS FOR
INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING ACTIVITIES

Resource Summary
($ in thousands)


FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

Appropriation Total

1,152,075

1,022,474

1,107,000


FY 2006 Actual reflects the rescission of 0.28% provided through the Science, State, Justice, Commerce, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006 (P.L. 109-108) and the general rescission of 1.0% provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act to Address Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Pandemic Influenza, 2006 (P.L. 109-148, Division B).


FY 2006 Actual includes $129.8 million provided through the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006 (P.L. 109-234).

FY 2007 Estimate reflects the level provided by a Continuing Resolution (P.L. 109-289, Division B, as amended). This amount may change with the expected passage of a year-long CR.


Justification of Request



The FY 2008 request of $1,107,000,000 funds the U.S. share of projected expenses of United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations. The Department requests that 15% of FY 2008 funds be appropriated as "two-year funds" due to the demonstrated unpredictability of the requirements in this account from year to year and the nature of multi-year operations that have mandates overlapping the U.S. fiscal year.

Program Description

This appropriation will fund the U.S. assessed share of UN peacekeeping operations as follows:
 • UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF, initial UN mandate in May 1974) - acts as a buffer between Syria and Israeli troops in the strategic Golan Heights area.
 • UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL, initial UN mandate in March 1978) - (1) restores international peace and security in southern Lebanon; and (2) restores Lebanese sovereignty in the south of Lebanon.
 • UN Mission in Western Sahara (MINURSO, initial UN mandate in April 1991) - monitors the cease-fire and assists in conducting a referendum on the future status of the Western Sahara. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful reveiw of the mandate and force requirements.
 • UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK, initial UN mandate in June 1999) - provides an interim administration for Kosovo while establishing and overseeing the development of provisional, democratic and self-governing institutions in the province. UNMIK also facilitates a safe environment for all people in Kosovo. The budget request reflects an assumption of a scaling back of the mission as Kosovo assumes increased responsibilities.
 • U.N. Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYPinitialUN mandate in March 1964) The UN Security Council mandated UNFICYP to end violence between the Greek Cypriot and Turkisk Cypriot communities. Since the de facto division of the island in 1974, UNFICYP has served as a buffer force between Turkish and Turkish Cypriot forces on one side of the zone and the Greek Cypriot National Guard on the other. UNFICYP has helped to prevent an outbreak of conflict on Cyprus that could provoke Turkey and Greece, two U.S. NATO Allies, into hostilities, thus endangering both peace in the immediate area and the stability of the greater Balkans-Aegean region. The governments of Greece and Cyprus pay approximately one-half of the UNFICYP's costs. The request is based on substantial downsizing of the Mission in FY 2008.
 • UN Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG, initial UN mandate in August 1993) - monitors compliance with the cease-fire agreement reached between the Republic of Georgia and Abkhaz separatist forces on May 14, 1994. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements.
 • War Crimes Tribunals in Yugoslavia and Rwanda (established for Yugoslavia in February 1993 and for Rwanda in November 1994) - investigate and prosecute war crimes in these areas. Half of each of these tribunals is funded by a special assessment using the UN regular budget scale of assessments, which is paid out of the Contributions to International Organizations account, and the other half is funded using the UN peacekeeping scale, which is paid out of this account.
 • UN Operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC, initial UN mandate in August 1999) - covers expenses of UN activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC) in support of the Lusaka accords goals of withdrawal of foreign forces and the disarmament and demobilization of armed rebel groups, and conduct free and fair elections. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements.
 • UN Mission in Ethiopia/Eritrea (UNMEE, initial UN mandate July 31,2000) - In support of the cessation of hostilities and the peace agreements signed by Ethiopia and Eritrea in 2000, and following the Boundary Commission determination on the delimitation of the border areas, UNMEE will observe and provide technical support for the demarcation of the disputed areas. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements.

 • UN Mission to Liberia (UNMIL, established September 19, 2003) - supports the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and, in conjunction with the ECOWAS and other international partners, assists the Government of Liberia in restructuring and reestablishing national authority throughout the country, supports humanitarian and human rights assistance, and supports security reform. UNMIL is beginning a draw down as the new government rebuilds its military and police following the November 2005 national elections.

 • Sudan/Darfur Operations (UNMIS, established March 24, 2005) - supports implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by the parties; facilitates and coordinates, within its capabilities and in its areas of deployment, the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons and humanitarian assistance; assists the parties in the mine action sector; contributes towards international efforts to protect and promote human rights in Sudan, and coordinates international efforts towards the protection of civilians, with particular attention to vulnerable groups, including internally displaced persons, returning refugees, and women and children.

 • UN Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI, initial UN mandate in February 2004) - monitors the cease-fire and assists Cote d' Ivoire's transitional power-sharing government in disarming and repatriating the former combatants; maintains liaison with the Ivorian armed forces; helps the government monitor the border; facilitates the free flow of people, goods and humanitarian assistance; and assists the government in preparing for elections in 2006. Restoring stability to Cote d'Ivoire is a critical element in restoring peace to the entire West African region. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements.
 •
 • UN Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH, established April 30, 2004;replaced the Multinational Interim Force (MIF) on July 1, 2004) - assists in the reestablishment of Haiti's police functions, coordinates with other International Organizations in providing assistance in Haiti, assists in organizing Haitian elections, and helps create an environment where the Haitian political process and economic recovery can take hold. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements.

 • UN Mission in Timor Leste (UNMIT, established August 2006) - The mission is intended to provide stability and policing capacity and to support preparations for 2007 presidential and parliamentary elections. The request assumes a significant reduction in Mission size in FY 2008 through careful review of the mandate and force requirements..

Completed Missions

UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB, created May 21, 2004) - The peacekeeping responsibilities of the African Mission in Burundi that were transferred to ONUB in June 2005 include disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, elections, human rights, and demining. Elections were conducted and the transition to the new government was completed with installation of the new President on August 26, 2005. ONUB chairs the Joint Ceasefire Commission, which brings together the Burundian Armed Forces and various armed groups to oversee implementation of the ceasefire accords and discuss army reform. The budget request reflects the fact that the mission closed on December 31, 2006.

Benefits

United Nations peacekeeping operations can be an effective means of containing conflict and resolving disputes in support of U.S. national interests. Acting in this way to support U.S. interests through the UN allows the U.S. to share the risks and costs of dealing with international crises with other nations. Deployment of UN peacekeeping operations, and selective U.S. participation in them, is an important tool for advancing U.S. interests and leadership.
Peacekeeping:
 • separates adversaries;
 • maintains cease-fires;
 • facilitates the delivery of humanitarian relief;
 • helps create conditions where refugees and displaced persons can return home;
 • constrains the forces of opposing parties;
 • facilitates peace talks; and
 • creates conditions conducive to political reconciliation and the conduct of free elections.
In these and other ways, peacekeeping operations can help nurture new democracies, lower the global tide of refugees, reduce the likelihood of unsanctioned interventions, and prevent small conflicts from growing into larger wars. These results directly serve the national interests of the United States.


Resource Summary
($ in thousands)


Activities

FY 2006

Actual

FY 2007

Estimate

FY 2008

Request

U.N. Disengagement Observer Force on the Golan Heights (UNDOF)

16,220

11,241

8,673

U.N. Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

34,473

217,316

167,667

U.N. Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

15,274

11,749

9,065

U.N. Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

27,588

80,350

19,288

U.N. Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

10,037

6,570

5,069

U.N. Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)

11,055

9,416

7,265

War Crimes Tribunal - Yugoslavia (UNICTY)

20,346

25,075

19,346

War Crimes Tribunal - Rwanda (UNICTR)

18,002

19,228

14,835

U.N. Operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC)

280,194

257,550

168,903

U.N. Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE)

47,706

39,296

23,146

Burundi Operation (ONUB)

97,301

0

0

U.N. Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)

77,170

168,020

110,188

U.N. Mission in Sudan (UNMIS)

254,039

381,673

391,070

U.N. Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)

138,469

84,225

55,242

U.N. Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)

93,680

140,030

94,889

U.N. Mission in Timor Leste (UNMIT)

0

16,000

12,345

Annual Requirements

1,141,554

1,467,739

1,107,000

FY 2006 Supplemental

129,800

(129,800)

0

FY 2006 Adjustment

(119,279)

0

0

FY 2007 Adjustment

0

(115,465)

0

FY 2007 Additional Requirements

0

(200,000)

0

Total, Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities

1,152,075

1,022,474

1,107,000





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