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Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goal 3: Regional Stability


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Strategic Goal 3: Regional Stability

Avert and Resolve Local and Regional Conflicts to Preserve Peace and Minimize Harm to the National Interests Of The United States

Public Benefit

The United States must provide for the safety of Americans at home and abroad, protect against threats to its interests worldwide, and honor commitments to its allies and friends. The activities of the Department are among the most cost-effective instruments for enhancing and ensuring regional stability.  Through diplomacy and capacity building efforts, the United States builds and strengthens relations with neighbors and allies worldwide by shaping regional environments and by informing international publics in ways that can prevent, contain, or resolve conflicts, and foster cooperative efforts.  In the same way, the Department also advances U.S. national security interests through the resolution of regional instability, so that all Americans, at home and abroad, are safe from violence.  The Department achieves these regional stability objectives by focusing on two main performance goals.

Performance Goal 1

Close, Strong, and Effective U.S. Ties With Allies, Friends, Partners, and Regional Organizations

Summary: Projected FY 2004 Performance

Close and stable ties with key allies emphasize U.S. global partnerships and contribute to security for traveling Americans.  A deepening relationship with Russia in bilateral and multilateral fora has provided and will provide a venue to discuss Eurasian security issues such as counterterrorism, nonproliferation, border security, and human rights.  The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) continues to be America's strongest and most important partnership.  Security relationships in both East Asia and the Middle East also contribute to more effective security for U.S. national interests worldwide. The Department continues and will continue to maintain strong relations with Canada and Mexico and international partnerships with key organizations such as the European Union (EU) and the Organization of American States (OAS).  The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) provides the United States with a platform to advance the safety of its citizens and the security of its friends and key allies worldwide.

Example of an FY 2002 Achievement:
Supportive Bilateral Agreements --
In the wake of the events of 9/11, the Department dispatched teams to negotiate and conclude a number of vital basing agreements and SOFAs to support U.S. national interests in general and ongoing and potential military operations in particular. As part of this effort, the Department finalized agreements with allies in Central Asia that enabled U.S. Forces to deploy to unprecedented locations in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. The Department was also able to conclude several complex SOFAs and basing, defense cooperation, and transit agreements in support of the war on terrorism. These agreements facilitate joint military operations and maintain global stability by ensuring close, strong, and effective ties with our allies. These mutually beneficial agreements have led to an estimated $8.1 billion in annual savings to the United States through cost sharing contributions from our global allies.

In the wake of the events of 9/11, the Department has secured bilateral agreements that enable U.S. forces to initiate combat operations under Operation Enduring Freedom.  Since then, the Department has continued efforts to negotiate Status of Forces Agreements (SOFAs), basing, and overflight/landing agreements overseas in anticipation of possible follow-on phases of the global war on terrorism.  These efforts will continue. 

The Department also leads a USG working group that seeks bilateral agreements to ensure that members of the U.S. armed forces and USG officials are not subject to prosecution by the International Criminal Court (ICC).

The Department will continue to strengthen existing security relationships with key allies.  The Department will continue to improve the U.S.-South Korean security alliance by consulting closely on new issues such as the future of the Alliance initiative and improvement of the SOFA and the Land Partnership Plan, and will work with NATO allies to strengthen transatlantic defense capabilities.

The Department will work with Russia to dispose of excess Russian weapons plutonium, dismantle warheads, and use U.S. assistance programs to retrain Russian nuclear scientists.  The Department will also work with the Newly Independent States (NIS) to ensure they have effective export controls that meet internationally recognized standards.  In cooperation with European and East Asian allies, as well as China, the Department will work to prevent Iran from acquiring the foreign technology needed for nuclear weapons programs.

By means of public diplomacy, the Department will explain U.S. national security policies and encourage nations to support and cooperate with U.S. efforts to secure peace; deter aggression; and prevent, defuse, and manage crises.

Summary: Indicators, Results, and Targets

 

Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #1: Status of Transatlantic Security Relationships.

Allies revised Transatlantic Framework for Strategic Concept, European Security and Defense Initiative (ESDI) elements, and Open Door Policy.

Membership Action Plan (MAP) launched.

NATO-Russia relationship expanded beyond Stabilization Force (SFOR) and Kosovo Force (KFOR).

Minimal progress on the Defense Capabilities Initiative, protracted discussion on NATO-EU arrangements. 

Redefined European Security and Defense Program (ESDP) goals.

Expansion of NATO ties to Partner States.  Significant progress on MAP.

Europeans made pledges at Prague to improve their capabilities.  Seven new members invited at Prague.  Berlin Plus would have allowed the EU to borrow NATO assets and capabilities for European-led operations, but was not agreed upon. 

Allied Heads of State and Government committed at Prague to enhance military capabilities by filling key shortfalls through the New Capabilities Initiative.  The initiative will encourage pooling and specialization, introduce the NATO Response force (NRF) and reform NATO's Command Structure. U.S. export controls with key European allies streamlined to promote transatlantic defense industrial integration.

NATO-Russia Council (NRC) and 2002 work plan established in May 2002.

Resolution of questions regarding ESDP, including participation of non-EU countries.

Maintain NATO's Open Door policy through MAP and other engagement with aspirants.

Continued progress on the NRC to broaden cooperation on specific projects.

ESDP capable of substantial operations.  Initial operating capability of NRF.

Allies complete full integration into NATO as MAP cycle continues for aspirants.

Progress on Partnership-for-Peace (PfP) projects tailored to needs of individual partners.


Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #2: Status of U.S.-South Korean Relations.

N/A

Baseline:

Complete Joint U.S.-South Korean Study of Preliminary Military Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) and Arms Control Measures.

Complete Phase I of Joint Study on Future of U.S.-South Korean alliance.

Begin Joint Study of North Korea's WMD.

Begin Phase II of Joint Study on Future of U.S.-South Korean alliance.

Begin Joint Study of Phase II Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

Complete Joint Study of North Korea's WMD.

Complete Phase II of Joint Study on Future of U.S.-South Korean alliance.

Complete Joint Study of Phase II Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

Begin Joint Study of Phase III Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

Complete Joint Study of Phase III Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

Begin Joint Study of
Phase IV Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

Means and Strategies by Target

ESDP is capable of substantial operations; NRF has initial operating capability.

•         Through the increased coordination and integration of EU forces the USG will be able to enhance ESDP operations.

•         Promoting additional defense spending by European and NATO partners to increase ability to operate jointly with U.S. forces will allow U.S. and NATO forces to respond more efficiently and rapidly to international needs.

Allies complete full integration into NATO as MAP cycle continues for aspirants.

•         Accession talks with new NATO members and progress on next round of MAP will help maintain NATO's Open Door policy.

•         Working with the U.S. Senate to ratify new member accession treaties will bolster membership interest from those not currently on the accession track.

Tailor progress on PfP projects to the needs of individual partners.

•         The Department will work toward continued progress on NRC to broaden and deepen cooperation on specific problem resolution.

•         Needs of PfP states can be met through military reform, improvements in military infrastructure, and increased interoperability and standardization with NATO forces.

Complete Joint Study of Phase III Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

•         Maintain a strong U.S.-South Korean alliance through cooperation with the South Korean Government on contingency planning.

•         Encourage greater interagency cooperation within the South Korean Government for joint planning with the United States.

Begin Joint Study of Phase IV Military CBMs and Arms Control Measures.

•         Maintain a strong U.S.-South Korea alliance through cooperation with the South Korean Government on contingency planning.

•         Encourage greater interagency cooperation within the South Korean Government for joint planning with the United States.



Performance Goal 2
Existing and Emergent Regional Conflicts are Contained or Resolved

Summary: Projected FY 2004 Performance

The United States plays a mediating role in several of the world's most severe conflicts and will use its position on the UN Security Council to engage the international community in the search for solutions to crisis situations.  U.S. representatives are currently involved in diplomatic activities that include Middle East peace efforts, Cyprus talks, and regional stability in Southeast Europe.  The Department continues to support peace in Northern Ireland and also seeks to encourage Korean reconciliation, peace on the Korean peninsula, and greater stability in Northeast Asia.  The Department extends its diplomacy to other conflicts affecting such areas as South Asia, where it is pursuing regional nonproliferation priorities and a reduction in tensions, and East Africa, where transnational conflicts persist.

Example of an FY 2002 Achievement:
Afghanistan --
The Department provided the leadership, resources and expertise needed to implement the Bonn Agreement, which guides Afghanistan's efforts to rebuild its institutions as well as restore stability, security, and democracy. This effort began by arranging a broad range of diplomatic support for Operation Enduring Freedom through obtaining military forces from nearly sixty countries and negotiating airspace use, landing rights, and military assistance from 136 countries. Neighboring countries in Central Asia, such as Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan that did not previously play a regional security role joined in the effort to provide basing, troop support, and other contributions critical to military operations. The Department also provided intensive reconstruction and humanitarian assistance in the areas of food security; refugee assistance; education; and human rights, judicial and constitutional commissions. The Department, with its international partners, also orchestrated the planned construction of a national road system. The Department was instrumental in formulating plans, obtaining donated equipment, and working with the Department of Defense to establish the new Afghan National Army and in providing training to the Afghan National Police. These were critical elements for preserving the physical security necessary to allow other societal institutions to take hold.

To combat the threat of terrorists who pose a major challenge to regional stability in the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the Department works closely with friendly governments to build and maintain the political will and institutional capacity for fighting terrorism.  The Department coordinates and implements U.S. counterterrorism capacity building overseas and has expanded and refocused its training programs to address the most critical issues.

Through International Military Education and Training (IMET), Foreign Military Financing (FMF), and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) programs, the United States is strengthening the peacekeeping skills and abilities of various regional partners.  The United States trained and equipped West African battalions under Operation Focus Relief to enhance peacekeeping capacity in the sub-region.  Battalions from Nigeria and Ghana contributed significantly to successful operations conducted by the UN peace mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).

The United States is also aware that other factors contribute to instability and threaten the very foundations of peaceful and sustainable democracy.  These include health crises, the illegal transport and dumping of hazardous wastes, the illegal trade in toxic chemicals and pesticides, and illegal and corrupt exploitation of natural resources.  The United States has initiated new global public-private partnerships to fight infectious disease, particularly HIV/AIDS.  Working with the G-8 and other concerned countries, the United States has embarked on a campaign to champion political commitment to address deforestation, including a partnership with Indonesia, one of the leading concerned countries.  The Department has brought together other countries to discuss mutually beneficial approaches to the use of shared natural resources before issues escalate into armed conflict.

The Department will press India and Pakistan to resume a direct, high-level dialogue that can reduce tensions and lead to peaceful resolution of disputes.  In Africa, the Department will seek to encourage the deployment of internationally sanctioned monitors to Sudan to solidify progress made towards peace.  Elsewhere in Africa and in other regions, the Department will continue to seek the resolution of ongoing conflicts and the successful management and conclusion of UN and other multilateral peacekeeping missions that leverage U.S. influence and resources.  In the Andes, the Department will significantly expand assistance to the Government of Colombia to regain national authority over much of the country and assist Colombia's neighbors as they prevent the expansion of terrorist violence and drug production.

Arms control agreements contribute to confidence, transparency, predictability, and stability, thus serving as effective tools to prevent conflict.  The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) plays a key stabilizing role in the Eurasian and Transatlantic security structures and reinforces U.S. influence in European security matters.  A decision to seek ratification of its follow-on—the Adapted CFE Treaty, which responds to new post-Cold War challenges—awaits Russian fulfillment of obligations to reduce Russian forces in Georgia and Moldova.  The Department has set the highest standards for implementation of the CFE Treaty, the Vienna Document (confidence- and security-building measures [CSBMs]), and the Treaty on Open Skies (reciprocal, unarmed observation flights) - especially their verification provisions.

Combating terrorist threats to regional stability will remain a critical priority; the Department will seek to keep counterterrorism at the top of bilateral and multilateral agendas.  The Department will work to ensure that the UN presses its members to meet their obligations to fight terrorism and will engage regional organizations such as the EU, OAS, and ASEAN to press member states for counterterrorism action and coordination.  The Department will expand capacity building programs such as the Anti-terrorism Training and Assistance (ATA) Program, the Terrorist Interdiction Program (TIP), and policy engagement workshops for senior officials.  The Department will expand regional counterterrorism cooperation through a greater number of regional conferences and anti-terror financial training.  The Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is also a critical element in the long-term war on terror through enhancing economic, educational, and political opportunity, particularly for women and young people.

The Department will expand efforts to inform the international public about U.S. policy towards Iraq and encourage public support for the U.S. goal of a broad-based representative Iraqi Government committed to the rule of law, protection of the rights of the Iraqi people, and regional stability.

The Department intends to change the focus of the Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC) program towards regional peacekeeping training centers.  Because collaboration and cooperation are the foundations of peacekeeping training, focusing on regional training centers that bring nations together in common cause will further the U.S. goal of maintaining regional stability.  In this vein, the Department will continue to engage the military forces of Western African countries in order to enhance peacekeeping capabilities and ensure their positive participation when responding to regional contingencies.  The adjacent chart shows that by the end of FY 2004, the Department hopes to have U.S.-trained forces from twenty-two countries participating in PKOs.

Performance Trend: FY 2000 - FY 2004 --
Number of Countries With U.S.-Trained Forces Participating in PKOs:
2001 (Result):  17
2002 (Result): 18
2003 (Target): 20
2004 (Target): 22

In Europe, U.S. security assistance will continue to support countries undertaking military reforms and modernization necessary to promote regional stability, work toward the integration and interoperability necessary to meet NATO standards, and move toward accession to NATO.  U.S. security assistance also provides support for front-line states in Central Asia that have provided essential assistance to the United States and coalition partners in the global war on terrorism, and that are critical to the continued success of those efforts. 

Through economic and developmental assistance, the Department will support pro-Western reform-minded governments and development of civilian-controlled professional militaries that are appropriately sized, effectively trained, and capable of supporting border defense missions to ensure territorial integrity.  By leveraging complementary interests in the Balkans with security interests in other regions such as the Caucasus and Central Asia, the Department will strive to achieve the broadest possible impact from U.S. security assistance efforts.

The Department will continue to partner with African nations through the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the African Contingency Operations Training and Assistance (ACOTA) program to provide assistance aimed at creating a sustainable capacity for conflict mitigation and peace support operations.  The Department will also assist the military forces of African countries in developing a counterterrorism operations capability and in conducting peace support missions.  The Department will increase support for North and West African nations through its Pan-Sahel Initiative designed to establish rapid-reaction units to address security threats along their borders.  In South and Northeast Asia, the Department will consult with and encourage China to continue its efforts to contribute to peace and stability.

Summary: Indicators, Results, and Targets

 

Baseline

Results

Targets

 

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #1: Number of African Armed Conflicts Resolved
and Peace Support Missions Concluded.

Six armed conflicts ongoing.

Four peace support missions active.

One conflict resolved (Ethiopia-Eritrea).

South Africa, an African Union member, provided personnel to the Joint Military Commission responsible for working with the UN Observation Mission in the (Democratic Republic of the) Congo to further the Congolese peace process.  The war in Sierra Leone was effectively over and the peacekeeping mission was being phased out; peacebuilding activities continue using U.S. and other funding.  Program activities such as the West Africa Stabilization Program and ACOTA have ensured that ECOWAS troop contributors are better able to meet the demands of peacekeeping operations.

One conflict resolved (Burundi).

One peace support mission withdrawn (Angola).

Two conflicts resolved (Congo-Great Lakes, Sudan).

Two peace support missions withdrawn (Sierra Leone and Ethiopia/Eritrea).


Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #2: Status of Relations Between Pakistan and India on Kashmir.

Continued military action by both sides along the line of control (LOC). Existing CBMs ignored.

Pakistan providing materiel assistance and training to groups fighting in Kashmir.

No good channels of communication.

From November 2000 to May 2001, Indian offensive security force operations suspended; militant infiltration and attacks continued.

Agra Summit broke down over communiqu� wording.

Major terrorist attacks brought India and Pakistan close to war, but U.S. and U.K. diplomatic intervention helped ease tensions, and Pakistan took actions against Kashmiri jihadist militants.  India successfully held elections in Kashmir.

 

Infiltration is substantially reduced, number of terrorist attacks declines significantly from 2000-2002 average.

Military training camps and related infrastructures in Pakistan are substantially dismantled.

Military forces on both sides return to pre-crisis locations and readiness levels.

India resumes dialogue with Pakistan.

No resumption of infiltration.

Terrorist groups in Pakistan are disbanded.

India and Pakistan effectively implement existing nuclear and conventional CBMs, and agree to implement new ones.

Baseline

Results

Targets

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator # 3: Implementation of Adapted Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty.

CFE adaptation negotiations continued.

CFE adaptation negotiations successfully completed.  Adapted Treaty and Final Act signed at Istanbul.

Second Review Conference of CFE Treaty successfully concluded and advanced U.S. and NATO interests.

NATO remained firm in demanding Russian compliance with Istanbul commitments.

Russia made initial progress towards implementing Istanbul commitments.

Russia fulfilled its Istanbul commitment on the flank issue, reduced its flank equipment to Adapted Treaty levels, and discharged its Istanbul commitments for CFE equipment in Georgia and Moldova. Russia needs to reach agreement with Georgia on remaining issues re: Gudauta base and its future use, and the duration of Russian presence in Batumi and Alkhalkalai.  Russia also needs to complete the removal and destruction of munitions and small arms in Moldova. Conditions for U.S. ratification of Adapted CFE Treaty have not yet been met.

Russia fulfills all Istanbul commitments, allowing for U.S. ratification and entry into force of the Adapted CFE Treaty.

No major problems implementing the Adapted Treaty.

Key states accede to the Adapted Treaty.


Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #4: Number of U.S. PKO-Trained Countries That Participate in International PKO.
(New Indicator)

N/A

Baseline: 17

18

20

22

Baseline

Results

Targets

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator # 5: Status of Chinese Cooperation on Regional Stability.

Dialogue was initiated and subsequently suspended.

Cooperation on regional security selective and episodic.

Limited Chinese tension-reducing diplomatic efforts toward North Korea and South Asia.

China cooperated in encouraging North Korean openness and dialogue.

China continued to urge Pakistan and India to avoid conflict and reduce tensions.  There was a continuing impasse on Cross-Strait dialogue. 

China encouraged North Korean openness and multilateral dialogue to end its nuclear weapons program.  China's public statements at APEC ministerial were helpful in maintaining a nuclear weapons-free Korean Peninsula.

China increases diplomatic efforts to urge India and Pakistan to resolve differences peacefully.

China increases dialogue with United States on North Korea and urges North Korea to reform and to remove sources of tension.

China increases coordination with United States and international community regarding the Korean peninsula, South Asia, and the Middle East.

Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #6: Effectiveness of Wassenaar Arrangement (WA) Control Lists.

Control levels/ parameters for some WA items are too high.  Because some technologies are available globally, they are effectively uncontrolled.  U.S. insistence on retaining those control levels has created problems with allies and threatens to undermine the WA as an arms control regime.

Agreement in the WA to add reporting on two new sub-categories of military vehicles.

No new categories were added to WA control lists, but progress was made in this multi-year effort.

Prompt reporting of arms transfers on the Wassenaar Arrangement Information System (WAIS). Reporting of denials of arms transfers, and notification before undercutting a previous dual-use denial.

Prompt reporting of arms transfers on the WAIS. Reporting of denials of arms transfers, and notification before undercutting a previous dual-use denial.

Within the WA, Russia alone continues to oppose mandatory reporting for small arms and light weapons, Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), and warships down to 150 tons.

Have 122 states participate in the UN Register of Conventional Arms Transfers; China still does not participate.

Sharing of "best practices" papers on effective export control practices within the WA.

Have 150 states participate in the UN Register of Conventional Arms Transfers, including China.

 

Sharing of "best practices" papers on effective export control practices within the WA.

Means and Strategies by Target

Resolve two conflicts (Congo-Great Lakes and Sudan).

Using ACOTA, FMF and other programs, improve conflict management skills of key regional actors through training of African staffs and militaries.

Seek employment of better-trained and -equipped African units to conduct peace support operations.

Provide operational support to sub-regional efforts to mitigate conflict.

Use diplomatic, economic, and other levers to pressure all sides to a conflict to sign/comply with peace agreements; work multilaterally and bilaterally.

In the Congo, the key issue is army integration, which will help ensure the long-term viability of the Congolese Government, and its frontiers; IMET and PKO will be used to support U.S. and regional efforts to assist with security sector reform.

Closely linked to resolution of the Congo conflict will be support of the African Union Mission to help end civil war in Burundi.  Using PKO funds, the USG will assist the deployment of regional peacekeepers to monitor the December 2002 agreement.  Stability in Burundi will reduce instability in the neighboring eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo. 

In Sudan, the United States will collaborate with the African Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Troika partners (the U.K. and Norway), UN agencies, and other entities to implement signed peace agreements.

As needed, the United States will continue support for deployment of ceasefire monitoring mechanisms, including the Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT) and the Nuba Mountains Joint Military Commission (JMC).  This support will also include coordination with the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) for a possible UN mission.

Withdraw two peace support missions (Sierra Leone and Ethiopia/Eritrea).

•         Prepare Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces (RSLAF) and police to defend the borders and to support extension of state administration throughout the country.

Continue the West Africa Stabilization Program effort in conjunction with UN and U.K. lead-in peace building.  US support to enhance professionalism of RSLAF through continued provision of logistics support/training and logistics training depot in Freetown, as well as IMET and Defense Department-funded programs.

To help protect Sierra Leone from external threats, the United States will seek to contain Charles Taylor in Liberia using a mixture of bilateral and multilateral diplomacy (e.g., sanctions, Kimberly Process, etc.), and primarily through Economic Support Fund (ESF) programs designed to lay the foundation for his succession following the next round of elections.

Final withdrawal of the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) will be contingent on the successful conclusion of the border demarcation effort.  Toward this strategy, the United States provides ESF to the UN trust fund supporting the demarcation process and is otherwise diplomatically engaged in pressing the two sides to cooperate fully with the Boundary Commission.

No resumption of infiltration into Kashmir.

•         Maintain pressure on Pakistan to keep its commitments to stop permanently its support for infiltration. 

•         Work to enhance India's ability to monitor the border.

•         Foster cooperative and confidence-building programs in Kashmir and between India and Pakistan in areas such as economic cooperation, people-to-people contacts, and nuclear confidence-building.

Disband terrorist groups in Pakistan .

•         Maintain pressure on Pakistan to end all official support for Kashmiri militant groups.

•         Consider assistance in demobilization, disarmament, and rehabilitation of militants.

India and Pakistan effectively implement existing nuclear and conventional CBMs, and agree to implement new ones.

•         Promote nuclear and missile restraint as well as confidence-building measures, properly enforced export controls, and non-proliferation.

•         Strengthen Indo-U.S. security ties as a key element of the growing U.S. strategic relationship with this emerging global power.

•         Strengthen U.S. Department of Defense and Pakistani Ministry of Defense military ties as a key element of our intensifying bilateral relationship.

No major problems implementing the Adapted CFE Treaty.

•         Maintain pressure on Russia to fulfill all Istanbul commitments.

•         Work with Georgia and Moldova to assist them in working with Russia to fulfill Russia's Istanbul commitments.

•         Lead U.S. ratification efforts once Russia fulfills all Istanbul commitments.

•         Work in NATO fora and in the Joint Consultative Group (JCG) to resolve implementation issues.

Key states accede to the Adapted CFE Treaty.

•         Once the Adapted CFE Treat enters into force, work with other CFE States Parties in the JCG and with allies at NATO concerning accession of new states, especially those that have been invited to join NATO.

•         Assist states seeking accession by training their experts in CFE provisions and procedures.

Units from twenty-two PKO-trained countries participate in international PKOs.

•         The USG will work with NATO to provide training to any country outside of NATO that offers to participate in operations in the Balkans, Implementation Force (IFOR) and KFOR.

•         Encourage NATO to host peacekeeping exercises for its member states and all PfP members.

•         Work with U.S. Combatant Commanders to offer bilateral and multilateral peacekeeping-based exercises within their regions.

Increase China's coordination with the United States and the international community regarding the Korean peninsula, South Asia, and the Middle East.

•         Pursue high-level diplomatic efforts in bilateral and multilateral fora to ensure Chinese cooperation on these issues.

•         Ensure that high-level dialogue with senior Chinese leadership solicits Chinese cooperation and includes U.S. position on these issues.

•         Pursue, as appropriate, coordination on regional security issues raised through multilateral fora, including the UN, APEC, and other regional bodies.

•         Coordinate closely to make certain that U.S. interests in economic and other areas are neither undercut by, nor conflict with, Sino-U.S. cooperation on regional security issues.


Promptly report arms transfers on the WAIS; report denials of arms transfers; give notification before undercutting a previous dual-use denial.

•         Active diplomacy, (e.g., demarches and consultations) with members nations of the WA and other non-WA nations, the UN, other international organizations, and NGOs as needed.

Share "best practices" papers on effective export control practices within the WA.

•         Consultation efforts will focus on prompt reporting of arms transfers on the WAIS and sharing of "best practices" papers on effective export control practices within the WA.

Summary: Verification/Validation and Crosscutting Activities

Performance Goal 1

Close, strong, and effective U.S. ties with allies, friends, partners and regional organizations

Verification and Validation

            Cable reports and memoranda of communications from U.S. overseas posts, USNATO, USEU, intelligence reporting, and on-site verification.

            U.S. Senate committee conference reports, Federal Register reporting on U.S. Senate floor debates, and final ratification of new member accession treaties.

            Complete studies exist of the North Korean weapons situation, the U.S.-South Korean alliance, and arms control measures.

            U.S., Japanese and South Korean monitoring confirms the status of the North Korean weapons situation and arms control measures.

Crosscutting Activities

            The Department works closely with the intelligence community, DoD (military and civilian components), the NSC, and NATO (members and new accession members).

            All activities that relate to joint military planning with South Korea and China are carefully coordinated with DoD and appropriate South Korean ministries.


Performance Goal 2

Existing and emergent regional conflicts are contained or resolved

Verification and Validation

            Number of attacks is the best, albeit highly imperfect, direct measure of intensity of insurgency in Kashmir.  The insurgency is driven largely, though not exclusively, by external support, which can be best measured by level of infiltration, which is in any event very difficult to measure.  Force mobilization is the best measure of bilateral tensions, but is a non-incremental process and hence a crude tool.

            Number of arrests is a direct but crude measure of the Pakistani Government's crackdown on terrorist groups.  Level of fundraising and propaganda activity can also be observed.  Level of infiltration provides some indication of official support.  Pakistani request for assistance would indicate seriousness of intent.

            Overall frequency and level of dialogue, stringency of transportation controls, and implementation of CBMs best assess state of the bilateral relationship.  Bilateral trade is a good measure of economic cooperation; significant investment is unlikely in this time frame.

            Department uses UN and U.S. embassy reporting as well as open sources to verify and validate efficacy of policy and program activities.

            Data for measuring performance come from U.S. embassy reporting, reports of JCG meetings, and direct U.S. consultations.  The data are sufficient and reliable.

            Data to measure performance and progress are derived from direct participation, intelligence, cable reports, Executive Branch Principals and Deputies Committees decisions, decision memoranda, interagency discussion/input, and, where appropriate, WA documents and meetings, and trip reports.  Data cover all relevant issues and are reliable.

            Through the review of trip reports, cable reports, and on-the-ground military reporting the Department will learn if the ACOTA program has trained African countries for regional peacekeeping. 

            Department funding is used for the EIPC program, which provides global training to selected countries.  Through interaction with the nations involved in EIPC training, the Department will be able to best validate the provision of peacekeeping training.

            China plays a significant role in reducing tension in the region and actively collaborates with the USG.

            U.S. mission, regional allies (Japan, South Korea, Australia, Thailand, and the Philippines) and NGOs will confirm successful compliance and action.

Crosscutting Activities

            Department works closely with the intelligence community, DoD (military and civilian components), the NSC, the CFE States Parties in the JCG, and NATO allies -(also with states seeking accession) on regional stability and conflict resolution.

            The Department interacts/collaborates with, among others, DoD, the Office of the Vice President, and the NSC.

            All activities that relate to China are extensively coordinated at the most senior levels of the USG and throughout the interagency process.

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