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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goal 5: International Crime and Drugs


Strategic Goal 5: International Crime and Drugs

Minimize the Impact of International Crime and Illegal Drugs on the United States and its Citizens

Public Benefit

Americans face growing security threats, both at home and abroad, from international terrorist networks and their allies in the illegal drug trade and international criminal enterprises.  Illegal drugs impose a staggering toll, killing more than 19,000 Americans annually and costing more than $160 billion in terms of law enforcement, drug-related heath care, and lost productivity.   This is in addition to the wasted lives; the devastating impact on families, schools, and communities; and the generally corrosive effect on public institutions.  In the President's words, Illegal drug use threatens everything that is good about our country.  International crime groups, although they attract less media attention, rival the threat posed by narcotics traffickers.  International trafficking in women and children, smuggling of migrants and contraband, money laundering, cybercrime, theft of intellectual property rights, vehicle theft, public corruption, environmental crimes, and trafficking in small arms cost U.S. taxpayers and businesses billions of dollars each year.  Some experts estimate that non-drug crime accounts for half of the estimated $750 billion of money laundered each year in the United States.  The events of 9/11 and their aftermath highlight the close connections and overlap among international terrorists, drug traffickers, and transnational criminals.  All three groups seek out weak states with feeble judicial systems, whose governments they can corrupt or even dominate.  Such groups jeopardize peace and freedom, undermine the rule of law, menace local and regional stability, and threaten the United States and its friends and allies.

To meet these challenges, the Department supports a robust and comprehensive range of bilateral, regional, and global initiatives and assistance programs to build up the law enforcement capabilities of foreign governments so they can help stop these threats before they reach U.S. soil.  In the case of drug trafficking, this means strengthening the ability of key source and transit countries such as Colombia, Afghanistan, Peru, and Bolivia to destroy drug crops, disrupt operations, dismantle organizations, arrest and imprison leaders, and seize assets while helping to help provide economic alternatives for farmers.  To help extend the U.S. security perimeter beyond our immediate borders, the Department helps selected other countries strengthen their own borders and gateways against drug and people traffickers, terrorists, and other criminal groups, whether in Mexico, the Caribbean, or countries neighboring on Afghanistan.  The Department also works with the UN, the Organization of American States, the G-8, the EU, and other international entities to set international counterdrug and anti-crime standards and norms, coordinate collective actions, remove safe havens, close jurisdictional and enforcement gaps between countries, and share the financial and political burden of combating such threats.  In carrying out these programs, the Department works closely with more than a dozen other USG agencies, including the Departments of Justice, Defense, Homeland Security, and Treasury; DEA; CIA; FBI; BCBP, the Coast Guard; and USAID.

Performance Goal 1

International Trafficking In Drugs, Persons, And Other Illicit Goods Disrupted And Criminal Organizations Dismantled

Summary: Projected FY 2004 Performance

The primary target of the Department's counterdrug effort is cocaine and heroin trafficking out of the Andean Ridge, particularly Colombia, which provides 90 percent of the cocaine and approximately 40 percent of the heroin entering the United States.  Building on the record-setting 2002 year, during which coca cultivation in Colombia declined by approximately 15 percent, Department-supported eradication and alternative development programs will lead to increased destruction of drug crops and a reduction in net cultivation.  Law enforcement, including border assistance to neighboring states will help prevent spillover caused by increased counterdrug and counterterrorism activities in Colombia.   Training, equipment, and technical assistance for source and transit states will strengthen their ability to interdict drug shipments and break up trafficking organizations.  U.S. delivery of the last round of major equipment under Plan Colombia will enable the Colombian Army (COLAR) and the Colombian National Police (CNP) to carry out a more vigorous counternarcotics program. A significantly expanded spraying program in Colombia will reduce overall cocaine production, even in the event of extensive replanting.  Expanded U.S. Congressional authorities and the recognition that the battles against narcotics and terrorism are inexorably linked will mean an expanded U.S. role in combating terrorist/insurgent groups in Colombia.   By 2004, a more mobile COLAR counterdrug brigade will strike high-value targets such as the narco-terrorist leadership and key narco-terrorists involved in the drug trade wherever they are located, provide improved protection for critical infrastructure such as pipelines, and rescue victims of kidnappings by narco-terrorist groups.  Resumption of the air interdiction program will deny traffickers the use of Colombian and Peruvian airspace. Meanwhile, the Department's justice sector institutional development programs will provide increased transparency and accountability in the public sector as well as improved protection for human rights.

Performance Trend: FY 2000 - FY 2004 --
Cultivation of Coca (in Thousands of Hectares):
2000 (Result): 185
2001 (Result): 224
2002 (Result): 205
2003 (Target): 192
2004 (Target): 160

The renewal of the opium trade in Afghanistan, which finances a range of terrorist and other illegal armed groups, threatens the stability of both the new Afghan government and the region, especially the newer Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union.  The United States and its partners are rebuilding the Afghan national police and reestablishing key judicial institutions.  Although the rebuilding will still be underway in 2004, police and counternarcotics units should be increasingly capable of operating throughout the country by the end of the year.  An expanded alternative development program will attack the opium trade from the economic side, improving economic infrastructure and offering alternative livelihoods.

Example of FY 2002 Achievement:
Afghanistan --
Following the fall of the Taliban, the Department spearheaded a successful international campaign to convince the new Afghan Interim Administration to include counternarcotics as one of its early priorities and to ban the cultivation of opium poppies. Although the ban came too late to prevent the poppy crop that was harvested in the spring of 2002, this political and legal commitment by the new government, which will require U.S. counternarcotics and other assistance, provides an historic window of opportunity to curb significantly the opium trade in Afghanistan, the world's leading producer of heroin.

Drug traffickers, terrorists, and international crime groups launder and move funds secretly.  In the wake of the events of 9/11, the United States embarked on an accelerated program to identify and assist countries most at risk for terrorist financing.  By the end of 2004, the Department plans to help eighteen priority states tighten their anti-terrorist financing regimes. 

Each year, more than 700,000 people, primarily women and children, are trafficked across international borders, and become subject to sexual, economic, or other forms of exploitation.  Some 50,000 of them are brought to the United States.  To combat this form of modern day slavery, the Department helps vulnerable countries strengthen their anti-trafficking laws and enforcement. This includes guidance for drafting anti-trafficking laws; training for government officials, medical personnel, and NGOs; helping set up specialized police units and child-friendly interview rooms; and providing key equipment, such as forensic rape kits.  In 2004, Department assistance will lead to increased prosecutions of traffickers, enhanced victim protection, and improved coordination between source and destination countries.  Working with the Department of Justice and other USG agencies, the Department will coordinate interagency intelligence on trafficking and support disruption operations against significant migrant smuggling/trafficking networks, including migrant smugglers who facilitate terrorist travel, in cooperation with key foreign governments.

Summary: Indicators, Results, and Targets









Indicator #1: Implementation of Counterterrorism Financing Regimes in the 19 Countries Most Involved in Al Qaeda Financing. (New Indicator)




USG assessed institutional/legal deficiencies on nine of the nineteen priority countries most heavily involved in funding al-Qaeda.  The USG provided technical assistance to two of these countries.

Establish viable money-laundering regimes in five most affected countries.  Complete assessments for all nineteen countries. Provide assistance to fifteen or sixteen countries. 

Develop viable money-laundering regimes in twelve of the priority countries. 









Indicator #2: Number of Countries Meeting Minimum Standards in the Elimination of
Trafficking in Persons.

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-386) called for the creation of the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.

The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons was established.  First Trafficking in Persons Report was issued. 

The President's Interagency Taskforce and Senior Policy Advisory Group coordinated anti-trafficking policy.

Ratification package for UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol was sent to the Senate.

Second Trafficking in Persons Report was issued.

Thirty percent of
Tier 2 and 3 countries use Department assistance to develop or further anti-trafficking initiatives.

Expand TIP report to include twenty additional countries with significant number of trafficking victims.

Promote best practices via five new bilateral and regional initiatives among source, transit, and destination countries.

Twenty-five countries ratify UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol

Increase number of countries in Tier 1 by five.

Enhance research and data collection; include the addition of countries to TIP report.

Enhance public awareness in U.S. and abroad.

Thirty countries, including the U.S., ratify UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol









Indicator #3: Foreign Cultivation of Coca, Opium Poppy, and Marijuana.
(in Hectares)



Opium Poppy:



Coca:                    223,700

Opium Poppy:       143,000

Marijuana:                 8,900

Coca:             205,450

Opium Poppy:     TBD

Marijuana:           TBD

Coca:                      192,000

Opium Poppy:         125,000

Marijuana:                   5,600

Coca:                160,000

Opium Poppy:   119,000

Marijuana:             5,000

Indicator #4: Potential Production of Cocaine and Heroin in key Source Countries
(in metric tons)

Cocaine: 840   

Heroin:  498

Cocaine:  995

Heroin:     123

Cocaine: 880

Heroin:   TBD

Cocaine:  800

Heroin:     240

Cocaine: 750

Heroin:   220

Indicator #5: Seizures of Cocaine (HCI/base) (Colombia, Peru, Bolivia).

(in metric tons)

Cocaine: 86

Cocaine: 93

Cocaine: TBD

Cocaine: 110

Cocaine: 120

Means and Strategies by Target

Develop viable anti-money laundering regimes in twelve priority countries

•         Lead interagency teams to assess each country's anti-money laundering/anti-terrorist financing training and technical assistance needs.

•         Design comprehensive implementation plans based on assessments, negotiate training and technical assistance agreements with host government.

•         Fund and coordinate the delivery of targeted training and technical assistance by USG law enforcement agencies and other providers.

Increase the number of Tier 1 countries by five.

•         Identify pilot countries to receive increased USG attention.

•         Develop additional new country specific TIP strategies for foreign governments to implement.

•         Expand programmatic TIP presence in ten new underserved areas. 

•         Conduct informal assessments of governmental anti-TIP efforts to determine gaps in underserved areas.

•         Conduct informal assessment of Non governmental actors' efforts to determine gaps in underserved areas.

Enhance research on trafficking and data collection; add countries to the TIP report.

•         Travel to geographic areas where there is insufficient TIP information.

•         Encourage U.S. embassies to obtain and foreign embassies to provide regular updates on governmental TIP efforts.

•         Fund additional research studies on TIP, particularly in areas where there is insufficient information.

•         Gather information on best practices in the areas of prevention, protection and prosecution.

•         Produce practical guidelines and other law enforcement strategies to enhance prosecution efforts.

•         Collect law enforcement data on successful prosecutions and convictions of traffickers, and/or corrupt government officials.

  • Support NGOs that promote increased prosecution via increased cooperation and program funding.

Enhance public awareness through Department engagement.

  • Revamp TIP Report, including additions of human interest stories and photographs, to attract increased readership and public awareness.
  • Use the TIP report in bilateral meetings. 
  • Place articles and op-ed pieces in major newspapers and journals.
  • Conduct more radio, TV, and print interviews.
  • Invite media to anti-trafficking related events.
  • Expand number of international visitor programs.
  • Increase number of digital video conferences.
  • Host public venues featuring innovative speakers (e.g., celebrities and investigative journalists).
  • Host regular screenings of documentary films.

Reduce annual foreign cultivation of coca to 160,000 hectares, of opium poppy to 119,000 hectares, and of marijuana to 5,000 hectares.

  • Obtain additional spraying equipment and access to coca-rich areas in Andean Ridge previously denied for political reasons, along with increased mobility for security forces accompanying spray operations in Colombia.
  • Step up the pace of Andean Ridge interdiction and spraying operations  up to 200,000 hectares of coca and 10,000 hectares of opium poppy, including multiple spraying of some areas, in coordination with Colombia's expanded national security strategy.
  • Increase political pressure on Peru and Bolivia to prevent replanting of illicit coca.
  • In Afghanistan, expand the alternative development program, and assist in rebuilding the national police and creating specially trained and equipped counternarcotics units.
  • Work with key members of the international community to keep pressure on the Afghanistan continue to give priority to counternarcotics. 
  • Help the Afghanistan extend counternarcotics operations to all provinces.       
  • Maintain counternarcotics support, including eradication and alternative development, for Laos, Pakistan, and the UN counterdrug program in Burma.

Reduce foreign potential production in key source countries to 800 metric tons of cocaine and 220 metric tons of heroin per year.

•         In Colombia, step up the aerial spraying program with delivery of additional equipment.

•         Increase mobility of the COLAR counterdrug brigade.

•         Armed with expanded U.S. Congressional authorities and strengthened commitment to national security by Columbia, intensify attacks on narco-terrorists throughout the country.

•         Press Peru and Colombia to step up eradication programs and prevent replanting.  

Increase seizures of cocaine (HCI/base) in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia to 120 metric tons per year.

•         Strengthen maritime interdiction along Colombia's west coast, an increasing choke-point for trafficking operations and deliveries departing by sea.

•         Intensify attacks against high-value narco-terrorist leaders and operations throughout Colombia.

•         Press Peru and Bolivia to step up interdiction efforts.

Performance Goal 2

States Cooperate Internationally to Set and Implement Anti-Drug and Anti-Crime Standards, Share Financial and Political Burdens, and Close Off Safehavens Through Justice Systems and Related Institution Building

Summary: Projected FY 2004 Performance

Multilateral cooperation is crucial for combating drugs and crime.  Once negotiations for a UN Convention on Corruption have been completed (the target date is 2003), the Department will provide political and financial support for ratification and implementation.  The Department will also continue to push for regional anti-corruption cooperation in key regions, such as the Middle East, the Caucasus/Central Asia, and Africa to set regional standards, to monitor and evaluate performance of member states, and to press members to enact anti-corruption laws and practices.  By the end of FY 2004, the first stage discussion and review of specific proposals for mutual evaluation mechanisms on corruption should be well advanced.   When the UN Convention Against Transnational Crime enters into force, expected in 2003, the Department will support the Conference of Parties to address implementation and provide assistance to requesting states.  With Department support, CICAD, the Spanish acronym for the anti-drug agency of the OAS, will continue to refine the Mutual Evaluation Mechanism by conducting a second survey in 2004 to provide a more detailed accounting of how well member states implement international and regional drug conventions and agreements.  Based on the results, member states will exert peer pressure on laggards to bring their anti-drug laws and practices up to standard.

In addition to combating terrorist financing in the wake of the events of 9/11, the United States will continue to address money laundering by traditional international crime groups.  The United States will work with other Financial Action Task Force (FATF) members to graduate the fifteen countries now on the list of Non-cooperating Countries and Territories (NCCT) by helping them establish anti-money laundering regimes that meet FATF standards.   The Department will also continue to support existing and encourage the creation of new regional FATF-like bodies to promote regional cooperation and monitoring.

When the United States is President of the G-8 in 2004, the Department will use the U.S. chairmanship of the Crime (Lyon) and Counterterrorism (Roma) Experts Groups to combat international crime and terrorism by establishing a shared database to combat internet child exploitation, developing agreed principles on critical information infrastructure protection, and moving to the implementation stage of an (expected) 2003 agreement on biometrics.

Example of an FY 2002 Achievement:
Pakistani Border Control --
To help stop the flow of drug traffickers, terrorists and other illegal combatants along Pakistan's porous, 1,500-mile border with Afghanistan and to prevent Pakistan's border provinces from being used as staging areas for terrorist groups in the aftermath of 9/11, the Department provided urgent assistance to Pakistan's border guard and other law enforcement units. This aid included vehicles, communications equipment, pilot training, and setting up aircraft maintenance facilities. By August 2002, five Huey-II helicopters had been delivered, providing mobility for police units.

The Department will build on new cooperative relationships with Central Asian countries to support anti-money laundering, border control, and criminal justice assistance programs.  Specifically, U.S. assistance to Pakistan will expand border security, strengthen police and criminal justice institutions, and help develop a national anti-money laundering regime.  Delivery of additional helicopters to border units in 2004 should further enhance mobility.  The Department will also build on new cooperative relationships with other Central Asian countries to support law enforcement programs in the areas of anti-money laundering, border control, and criminal justice assistance.

Increased law enforcement and related assistance for Mexico in 2004 is designed to strengthen the prosecutorial sector of the judicial system to keep pace with the increased targeting of major trafficking groups; iron out judicial obstacles to extradition; and improve border security against traffickers, alien smugglers, and other criminals.  The Third Border Initiative to help Caribbean states improve control over travel documents, including machine-readable passports, will encompass three additional countries. 

International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) and bilateral training, updated regularly to reflect new issues such as terrorism, trafficking in persons, and environmental crime, will continue to be a key tool for the professionalization of foreign law enforcement counterparts.  By 2004, a new ILEA tentatively planned for Costa Rica should be operational.  The adjacent chart shows that about 300 additional officials will be trained at ILEAs during FY 2004.


Performance Trend: FY 2000 - FY 2004 --
Number of Officials Trained at ILEAs:
2000 (Result): 1,100
2001 (Result): 1,412
2002 (Result): 2,100
2003 (Target): 2,100
2004 (Target): 2,400

The Department will continue to strengthen U.S. capacity to provide civilian police, advisors, trainers, and justice experts to international peacekeeping and related missions in the Balkans, East Timor, and Afghanistan, and will expand the number of "ready roster" (pre-trained and fast-deploying) civilian police from 500 to 750 in 2004.  

Summary: Indicators, Results, and Targets









Indicator #1: Status of UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC) and Supplemental Protocols.

Negotiations in progress.

TOC completed; 135 states signed treaty.

A total of 141 states have signed the TOC, of which, twenty-four have ratified it.  Of the 107 states that have signed the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, fourteen have ratified it.  Of the 103 states that have signed the Migrant Smuggling Protocol, thirteen have ratified it.  Of the thirty-five states that have signed the firearms protocol, two have ratified it.

Forty states ratify TOC treaty, which enters into force.  

First meeting of Conference of Parties for TOC; ten additional states ratify TOC.

Indicator #2: Status of UN Convention Against Corruption.

UN Crime Center received mandate to complete comprehensive study of existing work on corruption.

Study completed.  Experts Group developed Terms of Reference for negotiations.

Progress made at three negotiating sessions.

Consensus reached on text of all major provisions.

Convention completed and opened for signature.









Indicator #3: Number of Officials Trained at International Law Enforcement Academies (ILEAs) and Through Other Programs.

ILEA:       1,100

Other:    11,799

ILEA:     1,412

Other:  14,581

ILEA:    2,100

Other:  9,500

ILEA:      2,100

Other:  15,000

ILEA:     2,400

Other:  11,100

Indicator #4: Number of law Enforcement Officials Receiving Counternarcotics Training.






Indicator #5: Status of Regional Anticorruption Frameworks.

Three existing multilateral anti-corruption and peer review mechanisms (OAS, COE, GCA).

Number of mechanisms increased to four, by addition of Stability Pact agreement.

Number of mechanisms increased to five, by addition of ADB/OECD Asia Initiative. 

Number of mechanisms increased to six by addition of African Union or NePAD.

Number of mechanisms increased to eight, by addition of Middle East Governance Framework and Caucasus Framework.

Indicator #6: Status of Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) List of Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories (NCCT).

FATF identified fifteen countries as non-cooperative.

FATF removed four countries from list (due to improved performance) and added eight new ones based on additional reviews. 

FATF removed four countries from list; fifteen countries remain on list.

FATF removes four additional countries from list. 

FATF removes all but two countries placed on list prior to 2003.

Indicator #7: Parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention.






Means and Strategies by Target

Encourage ratification of Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime 

•         Provide assistance both bilaterally and through relevant international organizations to requesting states to help them bring laws into compliance. 

  • Press other countries to ratify during relevant multilateral and bilateral meetings.  

Convention Against Corruption completed and opened for signature

•         Assign relevant Department and interagency experts to lead and support negotiations.

•         Coordinate closely with key states, including G-8, to pursue common goals and meet U.S. objectives. 

Train officials at ILEAs and through bilateral programs—ILEA:  2,400; bilateral: 15,000

•         The opening of an ILEA in Costa Rica will increase ILEA training capacity. 

•         ILEA curriculum development includes input from Washington agencies as well as feedback from participating countries.   

•         Bilateral training depends on requests from missions and will continue to be linked to in-country projects.  

Give 1,800 law enforcement officials counternarcotics training.

•         Department depends primarily on posts for training requests.   

•         Training will continue to be project-based.

Increase the number of regional anticorruption frameworks to eight by the addition of the Middle East Governance Framework and the Caucasus Framework

•         Develop and integrate anticorruption policies as part of the U.S. - Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI).

•         Convene meetings with the World Bank, OECD, and regional partners to elevate discussion on good governance.

•         Work with Middle Eastern governments to implement effective anticorruption strategies.

•         Create more resources to strengthen capacity to reduce corruption in the region.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF) removes all but two countries placed on list before 2003

•         Support face-to-face FATF meetings that working groups have with listed countries to assess their progress and commitment for coming into compliance with FATF recommendations.

•         Provide technical assistance that will enable countries that are committed to coming into compliance, do so.

Total number of parties to the 1988 UN Drug Convention is 175 countries.

  • Continue to stress the importance of the Convention to international counternarcotics efforts
  • At bilateral and multilateral meetings, urge non-signatory states to become parties

Summary:  Verification/Validation and Cross Cutting Activities

Performance Goal 1

International trafficking in drugs, persons, and other illicit goods disrupted and criminal organizations dismantled.

Verification and Validation

            Cultivation levels are perhaps the most simple and direct gross indicator of the production of crop-based illicit drugs.  The CIA's Crime and Narcotics Center (CNC) provides crop estimates for Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, and Afghanistan.  CNC estimates assume that all of the crop has reached harvestable age.  Estimating the amount of raw product that is actually harvested is extremely difficult without routine access to narcotics farmers.  What any farmer actually harvests during any given year depends on numerous factors, including the maturity of the plants, eradication efforts, available labor and market demand.  Host governments provide estimates for other countries, or in some cases, other governments and the UN.

            Estimates of potential production for selected countries offer a refinement over cultivation levels because the former include key data gathered directly from narcotics farmers and others on the ground.   However, the periodic nature of the ground surveys means that there is a time lag before new developments, e.g., an expanded spraying program, are fully reflected in the production estimates.  The Department's annual International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) includes estimates of production levels for most countries in both hectares and metric tons and can be accessed on the Department's website.

            The Department uses FATF standards to measure the effectiveness of anti-terrorist financing regimes.  Verification is provided by USG experts who may also consult with other experts. 

            Trafficking in persons is a relatively new law enforcement issue and is little understood in many countries, even among those with long-standing trafficking problems.  The various TIP indicators are part of a comprehensive strategy to provide teeth to the annual TIP Report by increasing public awareness to the issue in general, identifying problem areas in specific countries, and offering assistance to help develop or improve anti-trafficking laws and practices. TIP Office will provide verification.

Crosscutting Activities

•         The Department is the lead coordinating agency for internationally-focused narcotics control and anti-crime policy formulation and implementation, working closely with many USG agencies, including the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense; DEA; USAID; the FBI; CBP; the Coast Guard; INS; and the intelligence community.  The Department works closely with the Department of the Treasury on money-laundering/terrorist financing and asset seizures; with the Department of Justice on extradition, mutual legal assistance treaties, and the rule of law assistance programs; with DEA on operations support and anti-drug institution-building; with USAID on alternative development and the rule of law, including anti-corruption; with the Coast Guard on operations support and institution building; with the Department of Defense on counterdrug training and equipping; with CBP on money laundering and border security; and with INS on border security and migrant smuggling.  The Department will obviously develop close coordination with the new Department of Homeland Security.

•         The Department coordinates human trafficking policy and programs among several federal agencies in cooperation with international organizations, foreign governments, and NGOs.  The Department's lead office on this issue serves as the secretariat to the President's Interagency Task Force on Trafficking in Persons, working with the Departments of Justice, Labor, and Health and Human Services; the CIA; and USAID.

Performance Goal 2

States cooperate internationally to set and implement anti-drug and anti-crime standards, share financial and political burdens, and close off safehavens through justice systems and related institution building.

Crosscutting Activities

            In addition to working with several USG agencies on a range of crosscutting programs in drugs and crime (see above), the Department also works closely with and funds programs through a range of international organizations, including the UN, CICAD/OAS, G-8, FATF, OECD, OSCE, the Council of Europe, EU, the Dublin Group, and a variety of other regional and sub-regional groups to set standards, coordinate collective action, monitor performance, and provide assistance.

[1] Tier 1, 2 and 3 ratings: A rating scale used to designate levels of governmental efforts to combat trafficking on the basis of minimum standards.  First tier countries are those that are in full compliance with standards.  Third tier countries neither fully comply with the minimum standards nor make significant efforts to do so.


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