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Strategic Goal 10: Humanitarian Response


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Strategic Goal 10: Humanitarian Response

Minimize the human costs of displacement, conflicts and natural disasters

Public Benefit

The U.S. commitment to humanitarian response demonstrates America's compassion for victims of armed conflict, forced migration, human rights violations, widespread health and food insecurity, and other threats.  The strength of this commitment derives from both our common humanity and our responsibility as a global leader.  When responding to natural and human-made disasters, the United States complements and enhances its efforts to promote democracy and human rights.  In addition to saving lives and alleviating human suffering, humanitarian programs support the objectives of the U.S. National Security Strategy by addressing resource and economic crises with potential regional (or even global) implications, fostering peace and stability, and promoting sustainable development and infrastructure revitalization.

The Department is a leader in international efforts to prevent and respond to humanitarian crises.  It provides substantial resources and guidance through international and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) for worldwide humanitarian programs, with the objective of increasing access to protection, promoting burden-sharing, and coordinating funding and implementation strategies.  The Department provides early warning about potential humanitarian crises through its extensive reporting capacity.  When a humanitarian crisis does occur, the Department urges and participates in multilateral response.  Department field staff often provide critical resources and information as humanitarian emergencies unfold.  The Department's emphasis on regular monitoring and evaluation of humanitarian programs ensures that the needs of refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and other conflict victims are met, and that the international community continually strives to improve its response to their plight.  Its financial support for demining activities makes areas safe for the return of refugees and IDPs.  Its management and support of overseas refugee admissions programs provides an important durable solution for refugees, and also serves as a leading model for other resettlement countries.


Performance Goal 1

Effective Protection, Assistance, And Durable Solutions For Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, And Conflict Victims

Summary: Projected FY 2004 Performance

Crude mortality rates and child nutritional status are vital data in refugee and other humanitarian emergencies; they indicate the severity of a crisis, and the effectiveness of response.  Department-funded humanitarian programs prevent crude mortality and child malnutrition rates in refugee settings from reaching the emergency level of one death per 10,000 people per day.  In exceptional cases where this effort fails due to external factors, the Department supports urgent interventions to reduce the major causes of mortality and malnutrition. 

Example of an FY 2002 Achievement:
Afghan Refugees --
In Afghanistan, the ousting of the Taliban regime made it possible for over 2 million refugees (mostly living in Pakistan and Iran) and over 600,000 IDPs to return home. The Department contributed over $140 million to its international and nongovernmental partner organizations, including the UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). These organizations were then able to respond to the Afghan emergency and meet the immediate protection and reintegration needs of returning refugees and IDPs, including return transportation, shelter, public health, water, sanitation, and education. These funds also assisted refugees who remained in neighboring countries of asylum.

The Department seeks to increase the amount of food available for humanitarian emergencies - a significant factor in preventing mortality and child malnutrition - by encouraging other governments to contribute to the World Food Program (WFP). 

The Department's effort to resettle 100 percent of the allocated number of refugees annual authorized the President for admission to the United States to provide the maximum number of refugees in need or resettlement world-wide with lasting protection and the opportunity to rebuild their lives in a new home. 

The Department works to prevent exploitation of humanitarian victims and to improve accountability for refugee protection.  Before FY 2004, in all spheres of programming, Department-funded humanitarian partners will have adopted codes of conduct and implemented anti-exploitation measures such as awareness training for staff and reporting mechanisms to detect fraud, waste, abuse, or exploitation in all spheres of programming. 

The Department continues to work with USAID to address more effectively the needs of IDPs.  The Department also and to funds humanitarian resettlement to Israel through the United Israel Appeal, although the latter program is expected to decline.

In immediate post-conflict situations, humanitarian mine action (HMA) reduces casualties and enables refugees and IDPs to return in safety, and allows for the delivery of other types of humanitarian assistance, food, and medical services.  HMA often serves as a confidence-building measure, and in the long term, it fosters the social and economic development of mine-affected nations by promoting the health and welfare of the workforce.  The clearance of agricultural land facilitates the development of self-sufficiency in food production.  HMA opens infrastructure, allowing access to water, the rebuilding of roads, rail lines, schools, hospitals, and power plants.  Reconstruction cannot begin while mines are still present.  The adjacent chart shows that the Department intends to clear mines from an additional 20 million square meters of land during FY 2004.

Performance Trend: FY 2000 - FY 2004 --
Land Cleared of Mines in U.S. Program Countries (in millions of square meters):
2000 (Result): 162
2001 (Result): 211
2002 (Result): 220
2003 (Target): 230
2004 (Target): 250


Summary of Indicators, Results and Targets

Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #1: Crude Mortality Rates.

No reports of excessive mortality rates based on set criteria.

Refugee crises did not exceed a CMR of 1/10,000 people/day. Links established between the Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM) and USAID to strengthen data collection.

Where data were available, refugee crises did not exceed a CMR of 1/10,000 people/day for an extended period. PRM and USAID developed tools to measure and track CMR and the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age.  A training workshop for practitioners was held in July.

Refugee crises do not exceed a CMR of 1/10,000 people per day.

Expand pilot data collection to other countries.

Refugee crises do not exceed a CMR of 1/10,000 people per day.

Improve and expand data collection and reporting.

Indicator #2: Nutritional Status of Children Under 5 Years of age. (New Indicator)

N/A

N/A

N/A

Baseline:

In humanitarian crises, children under five have weight-for-height ratios that are greater than or equal to 2 standard deviations below the mean (Z score of greater than or equal to -2), or greater than 80 percent median weight-for-height, and an absence of nutritional edema.

Improve and expand data collection and reporting.

In humanitarian crises, children under weight-for-height ratios that are greater than or equal to 2 standard deviations below the mean (Z score of greater than or equal to -2), or greater than 80 percent median weight-for-height, and an absence of nutritional edema.

mprove and expand data collection and reporting.

Indicator #3: Percentage of refugees resettled in the U.S., as a percentage of the established ceiling. (New Indicator)

(The ceiling is established by Presidential determination each year through consultations with voluntary agencies, Congress, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the Department of Health and Human Services.)

N/A

Baseline:

As a percentage of the established ceiling,
87 percent of refugees were resettled.

Out of a ceiling of 70,000 refugees, 27,113 were resettled. 

This number was significantly affected by developments since the events of 9/11.

100%.**

(This is the Department's ideal target, based on the President's allocated admissions ceiling of 70,000 for FY 2003.. Meeting this target, however, is contingent upon a number of external factors, such as unanticipated domestic and foreign refugee approval rates, security constraints on travel, and the capacity of other agencies to process security checks.)

100%

Baseline

Results

Targets

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Indicator #4: Percentage of non-U.S. donors to the World Food Program (WFP).  (New Indicator)

N/A

N/A

Baseline:
Out of a total of
$1.8 billion, U.S. contributions were
52 percent and non-U.S. contributions were
48 percent.

Increase the number of donors to WFP by four, and increase non-U.S. contributions by
4 percent over CY 2002.

Increase the number of donors to WFP by five, and increase non-U.S. contributions by 5 percent over CY 2003.

Indicator #5: Decrease in Percentage of Reported Landmine Casualties in U.S. Program Countries.[3]

10%

10%

6 %

5%

5%

Indicator #6: Square meters of Land Cleared in U.S. Program Countries.3

162,000,000 m2

211,000,000 m2

220,000,000 m2

230,000,000 m2

250,000,000 m2

Indicator #7: Number of U.S. Program Countries in Sustainment or End State (cumulative).

4

7

9

13

17

Indicator #8: Status of Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN)

Partners reported that GDIN products and services were timely and valuable tools worth further investment.

Attempts were made to obtain information-sharing agreements among data-sharing partners.

The GDIN community agreed on a new approach to set up five specific services in the 2002-2004 time frame.

GDIN membership agreed to establish a 501(c)(3) funding mechanism and to retain the rest of the project as an unincorporated partnership until 2004.

Establish a GDIN operations center.

Complete the effort to develop a GDIN information Facilitator/Broker Service.

Means and Strategies by Target

Do not exceed a CMR of 1/10,000 people per day during refugee crises

         Prioritize appropriate resource allocation and interventions to reduce the major causes of mortality in refugee settings.

         Continue to collaborate with the Standard Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) initiative and SPHERE partners to improve and expand data collection.

         Encourage international and NGO partner organizations to report on CMR data collected.

         Increase the number of refugee situations where data collection and reporting are conducted.

         Improve data accuracy by encouraging implementing partners to adopt standardized surveillance methods, survey tools, and data triangulation.

In humanitarian crises, children under five year of age to have weight-for-height ratios greater than or equal to 2 standard deviations from the mean (Z scores of greater than or equal to -2), or greater than 80 percent median weight-for-height, and an absence of nutritional edema.

         Prioritize appropriate resource allocation and interventions to reduce the major causes of child malnutrition in refugee settings.

         Continue to collaborate with the Standard Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions (SMART) initiative and SPHERE partners to improve and expand data collection.

         Encourage international and NGO partner organizations to report on nutritional data they have collected.

         Increase data collection and reporting for refugee situations/crises.

         Improve data accuracy by encouraging implementing partners to adopt standardized surveillance methods, survey tools, and data triangulation.

As a percentage of the President's annual allocated ceiling, 100 percent of refugees are resettled in the United States.

         Identify new refugee populations in need of resettlement.

         Actively seek/ develop new resettlement populations.

         Train assistance NGOs to identify refugees for resettlement.

         Provide appropriate resources to UNHCR to develop resettlement referrals.

         Expedite the transmission of Security Advisory Opinion for resettlement applicants.

Increase the number of donors to WFP by five, and non-U.S. contributions by 5 percent over 2003.

         The USG will work with the WFP to encourage "twinning," a mechanism to match non-traditional donors of commodities with non-traditional donors of cash for the delivery of humanitarian assistance in food emergencies

         With the goal of halving hunger by 2015, the USG will introduce a famine initiative in the G-8 to mobilize more resources, make available more effective tools, strengthen international cooperation mechanisms and analytical approaches, and focus on shared efforts to reduce the risk of famine and to intervene quickly to prevent its worst effects.

         The USG will urge other traditional and non-traditional donors to initiate/increase cash or commodity contributions to the WFP. 

Reported landmine casualties in HDP program countries decrease by 5 percent.

         Focus resources on mine action, i.e., operational demining to locate and destroy landmines and other unexploded ordnance (UXO), to train indigenous demining groups, and to educate refugees and IDPs on how to live safely with a mine/UXO threat. 

         Use surveys to prioritize clearance operations for high impact areas.

         Coordinate mine risk education to best inform returning refugees and IDPs.

Clear mines from 230,000,000 square meters of land per year.

         Provide training for demining clearance to International standards.  Training consists of providing a demining expert to train indigenous persons to either be a member of a demining team or to train other deminers.  Deminers learn how to search for, locate and destroy mines and UXO. 

         Introduce mine detection dogs and mechanical demining to programs that rely solely on manual methods.

         Provide technical assistance for mine action operations.

Increase by four the number of program countries in sustainment or end state.

         Provide technical assistance to national mine action centers.

         Support management training for middle and senior level mine action managers.

         Support train the trainer programs in demining methods.

         Provide equipment and machinery for demining.

Complete the effort to develop a GDIN Information Facilitator/Broker Service.

         Provide 24/7 access to operational disaster information to national and sub-national authorities, NGOs, and UN agencies.

         Based on GDIN access to information, provide advice to operational NGOs to make triage decisions that would otherwise to impossible, except at great cost.

Summary: Verification/Validation and Crosscutting Activities

Performance Goal 1

Effective protection, assistance, and durable solutions for refugees, internally displaced persons and conflict victims.

Verification and Validation

Department program officers and refugee coordinators who regularly monitor and evaluate humanitarian assistance and resettlement programs will verify and validate data, relying on reports of the Department's international and NGO partners.

Crosscutting Activities

The Department will continue to collaborate with other USG agencies such as USAID, DHS, CDC, and the Department of Agriculture; international organizations such as UNHCR, ICRC, OCHA, WFP, IOM, UNICEF, UNRWA, and Refugee Nutrition Information System; and foreign governmental agencies such as the Canadian International Development Assistance (CIDA), U.K.'s DFID and ECHO, and NGOs.




[3] Results are calculated on an annual, not fiscal, year basis.

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