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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goal 7: Democracy and Human Rights


FY 2005 Performance Summary (The Plan)
Bureau of Resource Management
February 2004
Report
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Strategic Goal 7: Democracy and Human Rights
Advance the Growth of Democracy and Good Governance, Including Civil Society, the Rule of Law, Respect for Human Rights, and Religious Freedom

I. Strategic Goal Public Benefit
Extending and defending democracy has long been a centerpiece of U.S. foreign policy. The United States recognizes that a world composed of democracies will better protect America's long-term national security than a world of authoritarian or chaotic regimes. The rule of law, open markets, more prosperous economies, and better-educated citizens are all benefits of a democratic form of government. Democratic governance ensures a more peaceful, predictable world - a great and lasting benefit to the United States.

Protecting human rights and advocating democracy is an integral part of a U.S. foreign policy that seeks to end oppression, combat terrorism, and advocate American ideals and freedoms worldwide. We utilize the full range of diplomatic and programmatic tools to advance democratic reforms in individual countries. Multilaterally, we engage in fora such as the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR), the Community of Democracies, and regional organizations, such as the OSCE and the OAS, to advance these democratic ideals. The Department of State's annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices serves not only to inform Congress, but also to raise awareness on human rights across the globe. While the United States continues to play a leading role in promoting democracy and human rights, we recognize that they are not uniquely American concepts. By advancing these universal values, we build a stronger, safer, more prosperous world.

Over the past two decades, there has been unprecedented expansion of the number of democracies in the world. Nonetheless, we are well aware that many countries remain that routinely ignore international human rights or selectively uphold them, and we seek opportunities to cooperate with human rights advocates and policy makers to engender positive change. Advancing women's human rights, for example, generates benefits through the role women play in strengthening democracies, building economic security, increasing governments' respect for human rights and enhancing religious tolerance. As democratization must ultimately be a process driven by a society's citizenry, we work to make sure reforms reflect a representative political process.

II. Resource Summary($ in Millions)

  FY 2003 Actual FY 2004 Estimate FY 2005 Request Change from FY 2004
Amount %
Staff 783 806 805 (1) (0.1%)
Funds $1,319 $1,442 $1,714 $272 18.9%

III. Strategic Goal Context
Shown below are the two performance goals, initiatives/programs, resources, bureaus and partners that contribute to accomplishment of the "Democracy and Human Rights" strategic goal. Acronyms are defined in the glossary at the back of this publication.

Strategic Goal Performance Goal
(Short Title)
Initiative/Program Major Resources Lead Bureaus External Partners
Democracy and Human Rights Democratic System and Practices Diplomatic Engagement to Advance Democracy D&CP, ESF DRL USAID, DOJ NGOs, UN, other int'l orgs.
Democratic Stability in South Asia's Frontline States D&CP SA  
MEPI - Democracy and Governance D&CP, ESF NEA USAID
Democratic Systems and Practices in Europe and Eurasia D&CP, FSA, SEED, ECE, ESF EUR USAID, DOJ
Increased Women's Participation in Transitional/ D&CP G/IWI USAID, NGOs
Universal Human Rights Standards Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy D&CP, CIO, IO&P DRL and
IO
UN, other int'l orgs, NGOs
Labor Diplomacy and Advocacy for Workers' Rights and Religious Freedom D&CP DRL DOL, USTR, OPIC, DOC, NGOs, IFIs, ILO, other int'l orgs

IV. Performance Summary
For each Initiative/Program that supports accomplishment of this strategic goal, the most critical FY 2005 performance indicators and targets are shown below.

Annual Performance Goal #1
MEASURES ADOPTED TO DEVELOP TRANSPARENT AND ACCOUNTABLE DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS, LAWS, AND POLITICAL PROCESSES AND PRACTICES

I/P #1: Diplomatic Engagement to Advance Democracy
Work with countries that are reforming government systems to create more transparent, inclusive, and participatory practices, through bilateral engagement, multilateral mechanisms, and non-governmental (NGO) channels.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
(P) Indicator #1: Freedom House Index; World Bank Institute Survey Analysis; Community of Democracies Participation
2000:
N/A

2001:
Baseline:
Freedom House 2001 Report
Free: 86
Partly Free: 58 Not Free: 48
Net Change in Status: 0
Improved Countries: 26 Declined Countries: 18
Net Progress: +8

Freedom House 2002 Report

Free: 85

Partly Free: 59

Not Free: 48

Net Change in Status: -1

Improved Countries: 16 Declined Countries: 17

Net Progress: -1

Invitations sent to 117 countries to participate in CD Ministerial in Seoul.

Freedom House 2003 Report

Free: 89

Partly Free: 55

Not Free: 48

Net Change in Status: +4

Improved Countries: 29 Declined Countries: 11

Net Progress: +18

118 countries invited to participate in 2002 Community of Democracies ministerial meeting (held in FY 2003).

Freedom House 2004 Report

Net Progress: + change from previous year

Net Change in Status: + change from previous year

Introduce World Bank Institute (WBI) surveys on global good governance as new performance indicator to measure progress in advancing democratic principles and respect for human rights worldwide.

Implement Seoul Plan of Action; establish mechanisms to strengthen country and regional groups' ability to address threats to democracy; execute preparations for 2005 CD ministerial in Santiago.

Freedom House 2005 Report

Net Progress: + change from previous year

Net Change in Status: + change from previous year

WBI surveys reflect net positive progress

Net increase in number of invitations to Community of Democracies ministerial in Santiago since 2002 Seoul conference (118 invited, 21 observers, 52 uninvited). Successful CD ministerial in Santiago. Regional activities continue to advance.

Outcome Indicator
Indicator #2: Country Ratings in Human Rights Reports Of the Right of Citizens to Change Their Government
2000:
N/A

2001:
Baseline:

2000 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

Countries w/ Right: 120 Countries w/ Limits: 37 Countries w/o Right: 38

Net negative change from previous year:

2001 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices


Countries w/ Right: 120

Countries w/ Limits: 35

Countries w/o Right: 40

Net positive change from previous year:

2002 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices


Countries w/ Right: 126

Countries w/ Limits: 35

Countries w/o Right: 34

Net Change: Positive change from previous year
Net Change: Positive change from previous year

I/P #2: Democratic Stability in South Asia's Frontline States
Moderate, representative, and accountable governments and effective civil societies are established in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #3: Establishment and Maintenance of Democratic
Civilian Rule in Pakistan
2000:
N/A

2001:
In October 1999 Army Chief of Staff General Pervez Musharraf overthrew the elected government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in a bloodless coup.
The constitution and representative bodies including the National Assembly, Senate and regional assemblies were suspended. Musharraf appointed a national Security Council of military and civilian advisers, a civilian cabinet and new governors to all 4 provinces.

The Supreme Court in May 2000 ruled that the Musharraf government was constitutional and imposed a 3-year deadline from October 12, 1999 to complete a transition to democratic, civilian rule.

Musharraf was sworn in during June of 2000 as President per an amendment to the existing Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO).

The Musharraf government had pledged to return the country to democracy according to the Supreme Court decree. Between December 31, 2000 and August 2001, successful local elections were held in five phases on a non-party basis, effectively increasing the power of district mayors and councils.

 

President Musharraf in August 2002 promulgates constitutional amendments that allow him to dissolve the national assembly, retain his post as Army Chief of Staff, and increase civilian membership on the National Security Council from 6 to 9 (4 are military). National elections are scheduled for October 10, 2002 and all major political parties have been certified to participate.

Civil society is poorly organized, quiescent and ineffective. Receives minor press attention. Hard to identify civil society leaders.

Corruption proceedings against politicians are based on partisan grounds. Judiciary is an ineffective deterrent to unconstitutional or extra-legal government practices.

The promulgation of constitutional amendments by decree and refusal by Musharraf to submit his presidency to legislative ratification per the existing constitution compromised the process of a clear return to democratic civilian rule. Prolonged constraints on freedom of assembly and political expression also rendered the playing field for the October 10, 2002 elections uneven. Within such parameters, the below indicators represent progress towards democracy through a return to civilian rule and re-establishment of democratic processes through representative bodies.


Relatively lower levels of corruption and stability maintained as President Musharraf builds some political party allies who accept amendments.


Elections occurred October 10 and parties accept the outcome but with credible allegations of flaws regarding their conduct

Pakistani military returns to the barracks as civilian rule resumes

Corrupt patronage continues to dominate political parties but reformers are identified

Civil society organizations begin to organize, grow in size and activity, and gain a voice.

Reasonably free political party activity and press. Limited investigative/prosecutorial capacity.


Political parties begin a dialogue with civil society towards reforming corrupt patrimonial practices in government.

Reformers in civil society begin to mobilize campaigns for governance reforms.

National and provincial Assemblies debate a range of political, social, economic issues. Assemblies legislate and appropriate funds, with committees playing a role in shaping legislation. Civil society groups, including political parties, grow in activity, size and sophistication, interact with political parties and legislative assemblies, and educate people about their civic responsibilities. District governments are increasingly responsive to community needs.

Some corruption cases pursued on non-political basis. Growing investigative/prosecutorial capacity. Press coverage helps to ensure transparency and provides and indicator of how well the rule of law is being implemented.

The civilian government maintains stability.

National and provincial Assemblies initiate policy debates in key areas of national security, economic and foreign policy. Assemblies show increased legislative capability.

Civil society groups, including more credible political parties, continue to press for increased government and political party accountability and transparency and begin to influence public debate on important issues. Civil society organizations consulted by GOP leaders on issues that concern them. Media more accurately reflects the views and activities of all strata of Pakistani society; polls indicate that people are better informed. Politicians and press feel increasingly free to publicly criticize army/establishment. More competent investigative and prosecutorial ability exists. More active prosecution of HR cases conducted.

Outcome Indicator
Indicator #4: Constitutional Democracy in Afghanistan
2000:
N/A

2001:
Prior to 9/11, the Taliban controlled most of Afghanistan.
Their intolerant social guidelines and extreme fundamentalist form of Islam was used to justify widespread repression, particularly of women.

Inter-ethnic killing was common, particularly between the Taliban and the Shia minority.

After 9/11, Operation Enduring Freedom destroyed the Taliban/al Qaida grip on power, paving the way for significant change.


No open and fair elections held under the Taliban.

Bonn Accord signed December 5, 2001.

Afghan Interim Authority (AIA) takes office on December 22, 2001 per the Accord. AIA begins process of planning the Emergency Loya Jirga (ELJ).

ELJ successfully held in June, Afghan Transitional Authority (ATA) formed (renamed Islamic Transitional Government of Afghanistan (ITGA) summer 2002).

ELJ most broadly representative assembly in Afghan history.

Human Rights, Judicial and Constitutional commissions formed as per the Bonn Accords.

ELJ peacefully elects a president.

No recognized constitution exists.

The Bonn Agreement reinstates the 1964 Constitution, except the monarchy provisions.

Constitutional Commission is established and drafts new Constitution.

Public consultations held in preparation for Constitutional Loya Jirga.

Human Rights and Judicial Commissions begin to address serious problems (ethnic abuses, women's rights violations, rule of law, war crimes/ethnic killings), and identify priority objectives.

ITGA begins to develop rules and procedures for the elections in 2004, seeks countrywide consensus.

The form and composition of a parliamentary body are addressed.

Electoral commission is established.

Voter registration begins.

Afghan Conservation Corps (ACC) is established to provide income to Afghan returnees, fostering community-based efforts to promote sound land and water management.

A moderate constitution is approved by the Constitutional Loya Jirga (CLJ) in January 2004.

Over 50% of all editorials on radio, television and newspapers express support for the new constitution.

The CLJ successfully sets the stage for the June 2004 elections.

National elections in 6/04 are judged free, fair and transparent by international monitors, and enjoy wide participation (over 50% of those eligible vote) and support.

Peaceful, constitutional transfer of power occurs as a result of June 2004 elections, as evidenced by no public demonstrations, voter turnout above 50% and election losers willingness to stay engaged in the political process.

Women are political participants and hold positions in civil service, judicial and legislative offices.

Human rights commission actively pursues human rights abuses free of government interference.

Judicial commission effectively identifies steps to restore the rule of law TISA and the successor government act upon its recommendations.

Human rights and Judicial commissions' work is basis for lively public debate, as demonstrated by the establishment of a transparent judicial process and uncensored, unfettered debate taking place in the local media outlets (newspaper, radio, local TV).

New National government takes office with a clear popular mandate. Preparations for local/regional elections move forward in accordance with relationship defined in Constitution.

President continues to act in accord with rule of law and constitutionally.

Human rights commission is able to move the government to act to curb direct abuses and to address prior crime.

A select number of women occupy positions of local authority (i.e. at the city level or within the central government at the judicial, legislative, or executive level) inside Kabul.

Law enforcement institutions begin to enforce and the judiciary begins to uphold civil liberties protections in the constitution.

Judicial commission recommendations and rulings are incorporated into the basic fabric of law and practice.

I/P #3: MEPI - Democracy and Governance in the Near East
Fund programs and organizations that build the foundation for democratic governance.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #5: Status of Democracy in the Middle East
2000:
N/A

2001:
Baseline:

Israel did not hold elections in 2001 but has a history of free, fair elections.
Egypt - Lower house legislature elections, notable improvement in transparency and fairness under judicial supervision.
Tunisia - Free and fair municipal elections.
PA - No elections since first presidential and legislative council elections, which did appear to be free and fair.

Election freedom and fairness is judged by independent NGOs.

Algeria and Morocco - Parliamentary elections held as scheduled; mixed results for freedom and fairness but making progress.

Egypt - Local council elections held as scheduled; appeared free and fair but not politically significant. Significant increase in women candidates elected in Morocco.

Data pending.
Presidential elections in Algeria are held as scheduled and are free and fair. Presidential and legislative elections in Tunisia are held as scheduled and are free and fair.
Municipal elections in Tunisia are held as scheduled and are free and fair. Presidential elections in Yemen are held as scheduled and are free and fair.
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #6: Status of Media Freedom in the Middle East
2000:
N/A

2001:
Baseline:

4 of 18 countries have a "Partly Free" or "Free" media according to Freedom House Press Survey.

Four of eighteen countries have a "Partly Free" or "Free" media.
Three of eighteen countries have a "Partly Free" or "Free" media.
Two additional NEA countries move into the "Partly Free" category and no other states lower their rankings.

Five of eighteen countries have a "Partly Free" or "Free" media.

Two additional NEA countries move into the "Partly Free" category and no other states lower their rankings.

Seven of eighteen countries have a "Partly Free" or "Free" media.

I/P #4: Democratic Systems and Practices in Europe and Eurasia
Develop transparent and accountable democratic institutions, laws, and economic and political processes and practices in the transitional economies of Europe and Eurasia.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #7: Respect for Human Rights and Religious Freedom
2000:
N/A

2001:
Baseline:

Some European countries show political will to adopt democratic reforms.

Continued poor human rights ratings for Central Asia and the Caucasus, with improvements in Southeast Europe.


Continued poor progress on human rights in many of the countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus, and, in some cases, declining religious freedom. Continued improvements on respect for human rights in Southeast Europe.
Target countries' Freedom House scores:

Democracies or Transitional Democracies

Bulgaria 3.31
Romania 3.25
Croatia 3.44
Yugoslavia 3.5
Albania 3.94
Macedonia 3.94
Bosnia 4.31
Moldova 4.38
Ukraine 4.5
Armenia 4.69
Georgia 4.69
Russia 4.88

Autocracies
Azerbaijan 5.31
Tajikistan 5.5
Kyrgyz Republic 5.63
Kazakhstan 6.13
Uzbekistan 6.56
Belarus 6.63
Turkmenistan 6.94

One half-point (0.5) improvement in Freedom House scores for target countries that are democracies or transitional democracies in the region:

One quarter-point (0.25) improvement in Freedom House scores for target countries that are autocracies.


Additional half-point (0.5) improvement in Freedom House scores for target countries that are democracies or transitional democracies in the region:

Additional quarter-point (0.25) improvement in Freedom House scores for target countries that are autocracies.

I/P #5: Support for Increased Women's Political and Economic Participation in Transitional and Post-Conflict Societies
Expanding opportunities and building capacity contribute to development, consolidation of political reform, and the protection of fundamental rights
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #8: The Level of Women's Political and Economic Participation in Transition Societies, Particularly Afghanistan and Iraq
2000:
N/A

2001:
Afghanistan:
Until late 2001, Taliban control of Afghanistan severely limited women's participation in political life, except for underground resistance activities. The fall of the Taliban provided an opportunity for women to rejoin the political landscape. The Bonn Talks (concluded in December 2001) included several women among its delegates and provided for establishment of a "broad-based, gender-sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government." The final Bonn provisions requires the participation of women in the Loya Jirga. The Afghanistan Interim Authority was established on December 22, 2001, and included two women ministers out of a 30-member administration.

Afghanistan:
USG starts program to support inclusion of women in Afghan government; 14 Afghan women government officials come to U.S. for job skills and computer training programs. Presidents Bush and Karzai decree creation of U.S.-Afghan Women's Council (USAWC).

Post-Conflict:
USG begins "Big Idea" initiative "Fostering Change in Post-Conflict Societies." Women in select post-conflict societies (Afghanistan, Balkans, Cambodia, Colombia, and DR Congo) will participate in mentoring programs with U.S. women.

Initiative leads to enhanced leadership and business skills for women in these countries, helping them to become decision-makers, planners, and beneficiaries. Women express interest in mentoring and fundraising and attend follow-up discussion on next steps.

Helsinki Women Business Leaders Summit partners Baltic region women with U.S. counterparts to share experiences and best practices and to promote private enterprise in the Baltic Sea region. Summit success leads to discussions on next regional businesswomen's initiative.

Afghanistan:
USAWC begins giving grants to NGOs for microfinance, job skills training, political participation, literacy and other educational programs in Women's Resource Centers.

Post-Conflict:
Big Idea Mentoring Initiative begins with Afghanistan. Afghan participants number 25-30, begin to conduct activities in 1-2 other regions.

Increased high-level USG support for Security Council Resolution 1325: Women and peace and security (adopted Oct. 31, 2000). USG support leads to enhanced involvement of women as planners, implementers, and beneficiaries of peace-building processes.

Afghanistan:
USAWC grants results: 1000 women receive microcredit loans and start businesses (through FINCA); 250 women receive job skills training; 500-1000 women benefit from literacy programs.

USG builds Afghan women's educational capacity by establishing teacher training institute.

Post-Conflict:
Initiatives on business development and civil society for women in Balkans and/or Colombia begin. 25 women training recipients recruited for each regional program. 1-2 individual initiatives start as result of each program.

Afghanistan:
USAWC continue to give grants for educational training programs for women and for programs increasing women's political and economic participation.

Post-Conflict:
Ongoing initiatives in Afghanistan, Balkans, Colombia, and Middle East grow to involve more women. 2-3 initiatives started by participants in each regional program.

Human Rights & Democracy Fund
(PART Program Efficiency Measure)
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Efficiency Indicator
Indicator #9: Number of HRDF and PESP Grants Processed/Average Time Elapsed
(Assumes Constant Staff Level and Staff Time)
2000:
N/A

2001:
N/A

N/A Baseline:

4 months average per grant

3.5 months average per grant
3 months average per grant

FSA-SEED
(PART Program Efficiency Measure)
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Efficiency Indicator
Indicator #10: Amount of Unobligated, and Obligated but Unexpended Funding on Hand at the End of Each Fiscal Year
(measured in months, based on the prior year's expenditure rate)
2000:
N/A

2001:
N/A

N/A Baseline:

16 months

16 months 16 months

Note: The avoidance of large funding pipelines demonstrates the efficiency of the State Department's Office of the Coordinator of U.S. Assistance to Europe and Eurasia (EUR/ACE) in determining appropriate funding levels for specific countries and specific programs, based on each country's absorptive capacity and each program's ability to utilize funding in a timely manner. EUR/ACE looks at pipeline data broken out by country and program to see whether specific programs are over- or under-budgeted, as well as how efficiently each implementing agency is managing its funding allocation.

Means for Achieving FY 2005 Targets
Freedom House 2005 Report: Net Progress: + change from previous year Net Change in Status: + change from previous year WBI surveys reflect net positive progress.

  • Improve current evaluation mechanisms, and work with other relevant bureaus to create new ones for the advancement of programs such as the Millennium Challenge Account and democracy programming in general.
  • Compliance with Leahy Amendment requirements ensures appropriate use of security assistance and reinforces U.S. and others' commitments to human rights protections.
  • Maintain and/or develop Human Rights and Democracy Fund projects that are targeted and cutting-edge.
  • Use and build on new pilot project to track human rights violations. Reports on Leahy amendment compliance are accurate and allow selection of "best practices" from among posts' reports to encourage better reporting.
  • Country Reports and Asylum (CRA) officers visit posts to assess programs. Reports by CRA on program implementation. Add Arabic and other translations of the Human Rights Reports. More posts in Middle East place translated version on their websites.
  • 3rd Human Rights Strategy Report is published and translated, and posted to appropriate overseas websites.

Net increase in number of invitations to Community of Democracies ministerial in Santiago since 2002 Seoul conference (118 invited, 21 observers, 52 uninvited).

  • Work with like-minded countries and regional organizations to increase the number of countries eligible to be invited to a Community of Democracies conference, to implement the Community of Democracies' Seoul Plan of Action and to build support for a democracy caucus.
  • Work with observer CD countries to enable suitable progress in democratic system reform to upgrade them to invited participants in future CD ministerials.
  • Maintain strict criteria for participation in CD ministerials for participants and observers.
  • Strengthen and deepen relationships with like-minded countries to engage regional groups, such as OAS and AU, on specific democracy opportunities, and to cultivate the formation of new regional groups.

Positive net change in country ratings in human rights reports of the right of citizens to change their government.

  • Send a clear and consistent message on the interconnectedness of democracy, economic development, domestic and regional stability, and the importance of democracy promotion to battle terrorism, and identify and fund programs to address these issues. Advocate human rights as universal and fundamental, not to be dismissed as only an American concern.
  • Promote democracy in bilateral discussions with all non-democratic regimes.
  • Maintain and/or develop Human Rights and Democracy Fund projects that are targeted and cutting-edge.
  • Work with partners to send a clear message in multilateral forums on the importance and universality of democracy and human rights.

The civilian government of Pakistan maintains stability.

  • Maintain stability by promoting democratic and accountable governance, assisting with macroeconomic stability and supporting economic, education and health reforms
  • Enable continued support for the war on terror through U.S. leadership and through assistance programs such as FMF and IMET.
  • Address the political and economic root causes of extremism (DA, CSH, ESF, PD). Also maintain stability by strengthening law enforcement, counter-terror and counter-narcotics capabilities (INCLE and NADR/ATA).

Pakistan: National and provincial Assemblies initiate policy debates in key areas of national security, economic and foreign policy. Assemblies show increased legislative capability.

  • Strengthen national and regional legislatures through programs that increase accountability, transparency and effectiveness (DA, PD).
  • Support Pakistani government devolution of political power and resources to the provincial and local levels.

Civil society groups, including political parties, in Pakistan continue to press for increased government and political party accountability and transparency and begin to influence public debate on important issues. Civil society organizations consulted by GOP leaders on issues that concern them. Media more accurately reflects the views and activities of all strata of Pakistani society; polls indicate that people are better informed. Politicians and press feel increasingly free to publicly criticize army/establishment. More competent investigative and prosecutorial ability exists. More active prosecution of HR cases conducted.

  • Improve local government accountability and grassroots citizen participation through joint community level programs (DA, PD).
  • Support development of accountable, issue-oriented and effective political parties and civil society organizations, and an independent and professional media that reflects the more moderate majority (DA, PD).

Afghan President continues to act in accord with rule of law and constitutionally. Law enforcement institutions continue to enforce and the judiciary continues to uphold civil liberties protections in the constitution. Judicial commission recommendations and rulings are incorporated into the basic fabric of law and practice. Human rights commission is able to move the Afghan government to act to curb direct abuses and to address prior crime.

  • Promote respect for human rights and the rule of law by Afghan governing institutions, with effective means of checking abuses and ensuring compliance with established standards
  • Support creation of a moderate, independent and well-trained judiciary and effective criminal justice system (ESF, DA, INCLE, PD).
  • Support creation of law enforcement institutions and train staff to respect civil liberties protections (ESF, DA, INCLE, PD).
  • Support development of infrastructure, personnel, training and management for judicial system at all levels of the judiciary, including training of prosecutors and other attorneys, as well as administrative staff (ESF, DA, INCLE).
  • 2003: Provide technical and logistical support towards adoption of a moderate democratic constitution at the December 2003 Constitutional Loya Jirga that ensures civil and political rights, including for women and religious and ethnic minorities (ESF, DA)
  • 2003/4: With other donors, assist progressive multi-ethnic political coalitions and preparations for a transparent and effective process towards peaceful and fair national elections in June 2004, resulting in a legitimate elected permanent government (ESF, DA, PD).
  • 2004 on: Strengthen Afghan government institutions (i.e., executive policy/management capacity, legislative training and assistance) to develop an accountable, transparent and effective democratic system.
  • Provide advisory and financial support to the new Human Rights Commission.

Transition Afghan Conservation Corps (ACC) to national implementation, including adoption of domestic legislation to combat land degradation, promote sound watershed management and strengthen domestic governance.

  • Develop mutually supportive linkages between ACC and related initiatives, and the broader U.S. effort to promote democracy and rule of law in Afghanistan
  • Partner with U.S. agencies, donor countries, international organizations, and civil society institutions
  • Identify and involve the full range of stakeholders as participants in these efforts


Municipal elections in Tunisia are held as scheduled and are free and fair. Presidential elections in Yemen are held as scheduled and are free and fair.

  • See that opportunities and tentative openings for political expression and organization in the region produce meaningful and sustainable movement toward additional reforms, and enable representation of diverse political viewpoints. Establish and improve election procedures to ensure continued progress.
  • Assistance for conducting and monitoring elections, training of candidates and training of newly elected officials.
  • Training for journalists and media professionals on covering elections and providing information access for voters and a neutral forum for candidates.


Two additional NEA countries move into the "Partly Free" category and no other states lower their rankings [in Freedom House surveys].

  • Take advantage of opportunities and tentative openings for political expression and organization in the region. Identify and assist individuals and organizations that can act effectively and demonstrate the possibility of expanding freedom within the local cultural context.
  • Assistance for conducting and monitoring elections, training of candidates and training of newly elected officials.
  • Training and support to develop professional and independent media
  • Advocacy and support for fundamental rights, including workers' right to organize, religious freedom, and improved status of women.


Improvement in Freedom House scores for the nineteen transition or non-democratic countries in Europe and Eurasia.

  • Encourage democratic and political reform to enable free and fair elections, respect for rule of law, human rights observance, and support the development of civil society, and promote religious freedom and tolerance, including addressing anti-Semitism and restrictive laws on religion.
  • Heighten local awareness and familiarity with U.S. models and principles, for local adaptation in democracy building.
  • Targeted assistance to train and support the development of professional and independent media, advocacy-oriented non-governmental organizations, democratically oriented political parties, and a professional cadre of human rights lawyers.
  • Participation in human rights arenas including UNCHR and OSCE; enhanced cooperation with European allies in these fora.
  • Outreach programs promoting interethnic and interfaith tolerance
  • Public diplomacy programs and services such as the International Visitors program, Fulbright exchanges, speaker programs, electronic information dissemination and Democracy Commission small grants for democracy building
  • Sustained high-level engagement with high-level delegations to the 19 countries in transition, as appropriate (the USG has a selective engagement policy towards the Government of Belarus).
  • Partnerships and initiatives to build capacity for good domestic governance and sustainable development


U.S.-Afghan Women's Council (USAWC) continues to give grants for educational training programs for women and for programs increasing women's political and economic participation.

  • Continue vital USAWC activities through coordination of regular meetings in Kabul and Washington, facilitation of proposal solicitation, review and funding, and support for USAWC member project initiatives
  • Continue monitoring funding levels for USAWC political participation initiatives and provide assistance, if needed, in obtaining additional funding
  • Ensure funding from U.S. Government and external donor sources
  • Use results of 2004 elections and women's participation level to evaluate effectiveness of USAWC-sponsored programs on increasing level of women's political participation in Afghanistan.


Ongoing initiatives in Afghanistan, Balkans, Colombia, and Middle East grow to involve more women. 2-3 initiatives started by participants in each regional program.

  • Use U.S. economic and assistance levers to increase women's economic opportunities
  • Ensure implementation and effectiveness of programs on women's political and economic participation
  • Use regional and global fora to demonstrate U.S. commitment to increasing opportunities for women's participation
  • Data collection and reporting to provide necessary information for public and diplomatic advocacy
  • Coordinate efforts to establish U.S. and foreign businesswoman partnership and mentoring networks in target regions
  • Continue support for microcredit programs


A select number of women occupy positions of local authority (i.e. at the city level or within the central government at the judicial, legislative, or executive level) inside Kabul.

  • Increase women's participation in Afghan politics and society through support for the Women's ministry and centers, training for female elected officials, girls' education, literacy programs for women, and advocacy groups (ESF, DA, PD).
  • Facilitate dialogue between U.S. and Afghan women leaders to discuss key factors in increasing political recruitment, training and participation
  • Women's Resource Centers in 14 Afghan provinces implement programs to support inclusion of women, including support for job skills and educational programs for Afghan women
  • Develop additional public-private partnerships under the USAWC and with feedback from Afghan women political leaders


Annual Performance Goal #2
UNIVERSAL STANDARDS PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS, INCLUDING THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN AND ETHNIC MINORITIES, RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, WORKER RIGHTS, AND THE REDUCTION OF CHILD LABOR

I/P #6: Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy
Press governments with poor human rights records to move toward full observation of internationally recognized human rights standards and norms.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Output Indicator
(P) Indicator #1: U.S.-Supported Resolutions Adopted at UN Commission on Human Rights (UNHCR)
2000:
Resolutions on Cuba, Iran, and Iraq passed.

Resolution on China defeated.

No Belarus or North Korean resolution on table.

2001:
UNCHR passed resolution for the third year on Cuba, Iran, and Iraq.

This indicator was not tracked because the U.S. was not a member of the UNCHR in 2002, but was re-elected as a member for 2003.
In 2003, UNCHR passed resolutions on Cuba, North Korea, Belarus (U.S.-sponsored), Turkmenistan, Myanmar, and Iraq. Chechnya, Sudan and Zimbabwe resolutions were defeated. U.S. took strong stand against Libyan chairmanship of UNCHR. U.S. succeeded in blocking "special sitting" on Iraq, despite strong anti-U.S. bloc among some Muslim countries and some EU states.
80% of U.S.-supported resolutions are adopted. Repetition of 2003 success will require significant effort.
80% of U.S.-supported resolutions are adopted.
Outcome Indicator
(P) Indicator #2: Number of UNCHR States With Negative Human Rights Records
2000:
Of the fifty-three member states, seventeen had negative human rights records.

2001:
Eighteen states had negative human rights records.

UNCHR election in April 2002 returned the United States as a member; United States began work to change UNCHR membership.
Sixteen member states with negative records.
16 member states with negative human rights records (for 60th UNCHR, April 2004). U.S. campaigning for improvement includes incremental caucusing with democracies to establish membership norms.
Less than 16 UNCHR Member States have negative human rights records.

I/P #7: Promote International Religious Freedom
Enhance long-term stability, increase opportunity for democracy, support other human rights, and undermine religiously based terrorism by advancing religious freedom in countries and regions important to U.S. interests.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #3: Level of Engagement with Foreign Governments and NGOs to Promote and Advocate on Behalf of Religious Freedom in Keeping with Foreign Policy Directives such as the International Religious Freedom Act (IRFA)
2000:
Some religious prisoners released.

Discussions on religion laws.

2001:
Minor U.S. successes in forestalling or improving bad religion laws in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

Some religious prisoners released.

Continuing U.S. influence on some religion legislation.

Some religious prisoners released; some religious refugees assisted.

IRF concerns have been raised by the Department in bilateral and multilateral meetings.

IRF officers have begun engagement on promoting religious freedom in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Posts have shown an increased engagement on IRF issues, producing, for the most part, excellent country reports for the International Religious Freedom Report to Congress.

The IRF ambassador and officers have been instrumental in facilitating the removal of people persecuted for their faith from harm's way.

The Ambassador-at-Large and staff have visited China, Vietnam, and Saudi Arabia for repeated trips.

U.S. influences other countries' legislation relevant to religious freedom.

Fewer people detained and imprisoned for religious reasons in three target countries.

Two additional bilateral RF negotiations; discussions with three allies on promoting RF.

Interfaith dialog expands because of IRF effort in target country for each IRF officer.

At least two additional bilateral or regional IRF initiatives are undertaken, laying the groundwork for significant policy changes in those countries or regions (e.g., constitutional protections, better religion laws, improved registration procedures, fewer religious prisoners, more inter-religious dialogue, less religion-based violence.)

The U.S. builds a coalition of like-minded countries actively cooperating with U.S. in promoting IRF in multilateral forums. More prisoners are released because of USG intervention. At least two additional bilateral or regional IRF initiatives are undertaken laying the groundwork for significant policy changes in those countries or regions.

I/P #8: Labor Diplomacy and Advocacy for Workers' Rights
Promote respect for workers' rights by pressing governments to respect internationally recognized worker rights, voluntary business codes of conduct, and the rule of law.
Results Targets
2000 & 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Output Indicator
(P) Indicator #4: Number of Public-Private Partnerships to Advance Respect for Human Rights
2000:
Voluntary Principles for Security and Human Rights (VPs) announced.

Partnership to Eliminate Sweatshops (PESP) grants awarded.

2001:
Government of the Netherlands and Newmont Mining adhered to the VPs.

Public-private partnerships created in Central America and Asia to address labor conditions in factories. Child labor abuses decreased due to programs.

Occidental Petroleum, ExxonMobil, PaxChristi and the Government of Norway joined VPs.

First security managers' workshop conducted.

In-country briefings in Colombia.

Voluntary Principles and Partnership to Eliminate Sweatshops Program (PESP) programs contributed to greater respect for worker rights in Central America and Philippines.

PESP program contributed to workers' empowerment enabling negotiation of agreed framework in Costa Rica and Guatemala.


Programs funded to educate workers on rights and pilot program developed to address labor conditions in select factories in China and in forty-two other countries.

Method to track labor violations not developed. Once this is developed, the Department will be able to track progress and more fully report on workers' rights violations.

PESP projects showing progress in Central America

New companies and southern tier governments join VPs. Establish in-country working group in Indonesia and begin implementation in Angola.

Launch PESP pilot program in China or Vietnam to improve worker rights. Harmonization of codes permits greater number of factories to be inspected and worker rights are strengthened.

Harmonization of codes by NGOs leads to increased number of factories monitored. Local capacity to enforce labor laws strengthened in China and Thailand. Labor law institute to promote education on worker rights established in China.
Outcome Indicator
Indicator #5: Status of Workers' Rights
2000:
N/A

2001:
N/A

Established national plans for the eradication of child labor in certain Muslim countries under the ILO IPEC program. These plans are documented in the Department of Labor's 2002 Child Labor Study. Increased ratification and enforcement of International Labor Organization fundamental conventions concerning worker rights in the Muslim World.


Significant HRDF and DOL/ILAB projects dealing with worker rights begun in China. Notable improvements in worker rights in Cambodia. Continuing evolution in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia.

Labor clauses in all initial versions of trade agreements under negotiation: Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), other free trade agreements (FTAs) with Australia, Morocco, and South African Customs Union.

Reduce number of formal complaints and petitions by trade unions and NGOs alleging violations of basic rights at the ILO and in the context of administering U.S. trade benefits such as GSP.

Secure an agreement by trading partners in CAFTA and other FTAs to enforce labor laws that effectively implement internationally recognized worker rights.

Formal complaints and petitions continue to decline.

New FTAs or other international trade or financial agreements expand number of trading partners implementing and enforcing worker rights.


Means for Achieving FY 2005 Targets
Eighty percent of U.S.-supported resolutions are adopted.

  • Work with partners to send a clear message in multilateral forums on the importance and universality of democracy and human rights so that these values cannot be dismissed as only an American concern.
  • Work with partners to encourage greater cooperation and efforts on the part of multilateral organizations to strengthen democratic institutions and appreciation for democracy as a right and a process essential to good governance and development. Resist emphasis on economic, social and cultural rights at the expense of core civil and political rights.
  • Strengthen and deepen relationships with like-minded countries to engage regional groups on specific human rights issues (i.e. OSCE - torture; AU - democracy, etc.).

Less than 16 UNCHR member states have negative human rights records.

  • Working with like-minded countries, improve the composition and functioning of the UNCHR and its Special Procedures, and encourage states with positive human rights records to run for UNCHR membership.
  • Press for recognition of standards of human rights performance and accountability in selection of future members.
  • Promote democracy in bilateral discussions with all countries, but especially non-democratic regimes with repressive practices that lack the legitimacy of the consent of the governed.
  • Maintain and/or develop Human Rights and Democracy Fund projects that are targeted and cutting-edge to improve human rights in priority countries, including potential UNCHR members.

International Religious Freedom advocacy by senior U.S. officials and posts is institutionalized and expected. High-quality reporting on religious freedom is increased and goal setting by posts for the coming year is improved.

  • Seek opportunities to influence laws on religious freedom
  • Ensure key U.S. embassies promote religious freedom (e.g., Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, China, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Russia, Sudan, Iraq, Egypt)
  • Ensure high reliability of International Religious Freedom report and disseminate in more languages
  • Work with desks, posts, multilateral institutions and NGOs to increase reporting on religious freedom, as well as to address causes of curtailment of religious freedom


The U.S. builds a coalition of like-minded countries actively cooperating with U.S. in promoting religious freedom in multilateral forums.

  • Meet with allies in their home countries or at international meetings to seek common approaches and support for IRF issues


At least two additional bilateral or regional IRF initiatives are undertaken laying the groundwork for significant policy changes in those countries or regions.

  • Meet with U.S. counterparts of religious groups involved with conflicts abroad


Harmonization of codes by NGOs leads to increased number of factories monitored. Local capacity to enforce labor laws strengthened in China and Thailand. Labor law institute to promote education on worker rights established in China.

  • Build greater support for voluntary guidelines like the Voluntary Principles
  • Work to promote cooperation and respect for internationally recognized worker rights, voluntary codes of conduct and the rule of law by governments, institutions, employers and worker organizations
  • Reach out to potential southern tier partners, e.g., Mexico, Brazil, and South Africa, as well as other countries on joining the Voluntary Principles
  • Implement pilot program on improving worker rights in factories in China or Thailand
  • Work with NGOs, brands and factory managers to develop multi-stakeholder approach to improve labor conditions
  • Focus the Partnership to Eliminate Sweatshops to build local capacity and engage private sector in developing innovative approaches to address worker rights and working conditions
  • Convoke meeting of stakeholders on harmonization or reciprocity of codes and monitoring systems for factory reviews


Continued progress in worker rights in high priority countries selected in FY04 and as specified in DRL/IL (International Labor Affairs) office operating plans.

  • Identify and assist emerging unions and leaders; advocate permissive legal environments for labor organization
  • Encourage international financial and trade organizations to require respect for fundamental worker rights by their beneficiaries
  • Implement and monitor worker rights criteria of trade agreements and other U.S. initiatives
  • Encourage worker and labor organizations to work transparently and democratically to represent members' long-term as well as short-term interests in a market-based economy
  • Strengthen overseas labor officer advocacy and reporting, and increase interagency cooperation on labor diplomacy


V: Illustrative Examples of FY 2003 Achievements

Democracy and Human Rights
Human Rights and Democracy Fund (HRDF)

The Department continued to provide large scale funding in the Middle East, Central Asia and China, for cutting edge programs to support democratic reform and respect for human rights. The HRDF has had some notable successes, especially in expanding access to independent media. The independent printing press in Kyrgyzstan has started printing; 85% of Angolans now have access to independent radio; and Internews' Reporting for Humanity Training Program in the Middle East has trained a significant number of journalists. Our human rights resource centers in Central Asia have been hugely sucessful in providing information and in offering fora for people to meet and discuss democracy and human rights. Our training of women politicians in East Africa saw at least 30 of the trainees elected to the Rwandan parliament, and our party-strengthening programs in the Western Hemisphere should begin to bear fruit in 2004.

Partnership Against Sweatshops Program

The Partnership, with $4 million of projects, has made notable progress working with NGOs, governments, and private enterprise to eliminate sweatshop conditions in more than thirty countries. Projects and associated activities are expanding the number of participating factories and industrial sectors adopting voluntary codes of conduct for worker rights.

Afghanistan

Access to education is key to sustained progress for women and girls in Afghanistan and is one of the greatest successes of 2002-2003. Many more females are attending school this year than at any point in Afghanistan's history. Estimates are that in 2002 as many as one-third of the 3 million pupils who attended schools were girls. This year, with the strong support of the U.S., the percentage is even higher.

Anti-Semitism in Europe

The Department led the effort in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe to hold a Specialized Meeting on Anti-Semitism. The U.S. delegation was led by Rudolph Giuliani and included members of Congress and NGO leaders. The gathering defined anti-Semitism as a human rights issue and tasked the OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) to serve as a collection point for hate crime information and statistics and to promote best practices in the fight against intolerance. The German government will host a follow-up meeting in Berlin next April. No regional or international organization had previously treated anti-Semitism as a human rights matter.

The Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI)

The Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is a Presidential initiative announced by Secretary Powell on December 12, 2002, which provides a framework and funding for the United States to work together with the private sector, civil society, and governments in the Arab world to expand economic, political, and education reform efforts in the Middle East and champion opportunity for all people of the region, especially women and youth. The initiative strives to link Arab, U.S., and global private sector business, non-governmental organizations, civil society elements, and governments together to develop innovative policies and programs to achieve this mission. The U.S. has adopted a new policy, a forward strategy of freedom in the Middle East. MEPI is the Administration's primary diplomatic policy and development programmatic tool to support this U.S. policy and is structured in four reform areas: economic, political, education and women's issues.

VI: Data Verification/Validation by Performance Goal

Performance Goal 1
Measures adopted to develop transparent and accountable democratic institutions, laws, and economic and political processes and practices.
  • Multiple sources confirm Department-collected data on human rights abuses and democratic practices and review them for objectivity and accuracy.
  • Take into account independently compiled data and indexes of rights and liberties in individual countries, organizational histories, methods, and reputations for credibility.
  • Laws adopted by individual countries; standards promulgated by multilateral institutions.
Performance Goal 2
Universal standards protect human rights, including the rights of women and ethnic minorities, religious freedom, worker rights, and the reduction of child labor.
  • General agreement by multiple sources of the importance and credibility of Country reports on human rights practices compiled by the Department (Human Rights Report, International Religious Freedom Report), the UN and other international organizations, and NGOs.
  • Resolutions passed and actions taken by international bodies
  • Third country and corporate actions to adhere to voluntary codes of conduct.
  • Reports on results of assistance, mediation, and other programs.
  • Media commentary and opinion on human rights standards and U.S. policy goals.

VII. Resource Detail

Table 1: State Appropriations by Bureau ($ Thousands)

Bureau FY 2003 Actual FY 2004 Estimate FY 2005 Request
International Organization Affairs $335,895 $450,462 $419,978
Coordinator of International Information Programs 41,727 39,579 80,000
Educational and Cultural Affairs 25,750 44,785 55,338
Western Hemisphere Affairs 29,108 93,509 31,467
Other Bureaus 89,486 93,509 80,265
Total State Appropriations 518,966 658,327 667,048

Table 2: Foreign Operations by Account ($ Thousands)

Title/Accounts FY 2003 Actual FY 2004 Estimate FY 2005 Request
Title I - Export and Investment Assistance
Export-Import Bank      
Overseas Private Investment Corporation      
Trade and Development Agency      
Title II - Bilateral Economic Assistance
USAID 175,455 188,766 172,311
Other Bilateral Economic Assistance 608,467 572,892 857,782
Independent Agencies 350 369 334
Department of State      
Department of Treasury      
Complex Foreign Contingencies      
Title III - Military Assistance
International Military Education and Training 5,492 3,607 4,711
Foreign Military Financing 402 387 3,565
Peacekeeping Operations      
Title IV - Multilateral Economic Assistance
International Financial Institutions      
International Organizations and Programs 10,106 17,660 8,500
Total Foreign Operations 800,272 783,681 1,047,203
 
Grand Total $1,319,238 $1,442,008 $1,714,251



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