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Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goals 14, 15, and 16


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National Interest: Global Issues: Environment, Population, HealthStrategic Goal 14: Environment
Secure a sustainable environment to protect U.S. citizens and interests from the effects of international degradation.

STRATEGIC GOAL OVERVIEW/PUBLIC BENEFIT

Environmental issues are a major component of U.S. foreign policy, as is evidenced by daily headlines that range from climate change to whales to bio-engineered foods to management of global water resources. Less visible, though no less significant, are the Department's efforts to advance U.S. interests in ongoing international negotiations concerning the oceans, fisheries, forests, coral reefs, endangered species, chemical/waste management, outer space, and the broader frontiers of scientific research. The Department helps key countries and regions combat piracy and other illegal activities involving forest products, wildlife, hazardous wastes, ozone-depleting substances, fisheries, and maritime issues. The Department also advances the Administration's policy on science and technology through the thirty-five bilateral and multilateral science and technology agreements it manages. 

STRATEGIC GOAL SUMMARY OF RESULTS ACHIEVED
Four Annual Goal and Twenty-Eight Targets Represented
Four Annual Goals Represented
Number of Targets
Significantly Below Target
Slightly Below Target
On Target
Above Target
Significantly Above Target
No 2002 Data Available
TOTAL
28
2
6
14
5
1
0
Percent of Total
100%
7%
21%
50%
18%
4%
0%

Annual Performance Goal 1
Donor countries and international financial institutions support U.S. positions and efforts to make trade and environment policies mutually supportive

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS AND IMPACT

The overall U.S. trade negotiating objective as set forth in the Trade Act of 2002 is to ensure that trade and environmental concerns are appropriately addressed in bilateral and multilateral free trade negotiations.

[Text version of a photo: Standing left to right are Foreign Minister Lafer, USTR Zoellick, and Foreign Minister Ruckauf. Caption/credit reads: "Argentine Foreign Minister Carlos Ruckauf (R) speaks to the press with US Trade Representative Robert Zoellick (C) and Brazilian Foreign Minister Celso Lafer (L) on the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) October 31, 2002 in Quito, Ecuador. AFP Photo/Roberto Garagiola/Cancilleria."]

The United States agreed to bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Singapore and Chile in 2002 which established a process that will ensure specific environmental commitments. Environmental concerns were incorporated into the ministerial declaration of the November 2002 Summit in Quito but not yet incorporated into the draft Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA) text. Progress in bilateral FTA and FTAA talks strengthened the U.S. position on trade and environmental policies at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the WTO, and at meetings of international financial institutions. The U.S.-Jordan FTA was the first bilateral trade agreement to include a commitment to effective enforcement of environmental laws. While Jordan has not yet established a Ministry of the Environment, the United States has been working actively with Jordanian authorities to promote environmental institutional capacity.

The Department has also been active in promoting strong common guidelines for export-credit agencies (ECAs) in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Although the United States declined to sign on to an OECD agreement on ECAs because the agreement failed to provide strong, mandatory guidelines and ensure transparency. Many ECAs already evaluate project proposals using strong World Bank environmental guidelines. The U.S. stance in the OECD negotiations enabled the Department to set the terms of the debate and positioned the United States to bring other countries into an acceptable agreement to apply strong, common environmental guidelines.

Results have been mixed, but generally positive, in the application of environmental guidelines to projects supported by international financial institutions. For example, an independent assessment cited enhanced World Bank efforts to monitor the environmental impact of the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline Project, ensure transparency, and respond to community concerns. While transparency issues and slow overall progress have made it difficult to assess whether China will apply adequate environmental safeguards to the South-North Water Transfer Project, indications are that most aspects of the project are undergoing significant environmental impact assessments.

KEY RESULTS BY INDICATOR AND TARGET

CONTENT AND STATUS OF THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT FOR THE AMERICAS (FTAA)
Target
Result
Rating
FTAA negotiators agree on mechanism for
incorporation of environmental concerns.
Free Trade Agreement for the Americas (FTAA) negotiations are ongoing, as are negotiations for 3-4 bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs). Negotiations continued in FY 2002; a ministerial meeting held in November 2002. FTAA
negotiators agreed to incorporate in the Quito Ministerial Declaration language that included protecting the environment as an FTAA goal.
Slightly Below Target
While environmental concerns were
incorporated into the declaration of the
November 2002 Ministerial Summit, they are not yet incorporated into the draft FTAA text
STATUS AND IMPACT OF JORDAN'S ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONAL
CAPACITY, LAWS, AND REGULATIONS
Target
Result
Rating
Jordan's Environment Ministry consolidates its responsibilities.
U.S. supports 1-2 capacity building activities.
The Government of Jordan has not yet established a Ministry of the Environment; it is unclear when it might do so. The Jordanian Government's General Corporation for Environmental Protection (GCEP) continued to operate and developed by-laws during 2002. USAID funded an environmental-management capacity assessment. Regional Environment Office supported a workshop for environmental
NGOs and GCEP on proposal/grant preparation.
Significantly Below Target
Until Jordan's anticipated new Ministry of the Environment is in place, impact of USG activities
will be limited.
COMPLIANCE WITH WORLD BANK CHAD-CAMEROON PIPELINE
SOCIAL/ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAM
Target
Result
Rating
Significant improvement in infrastructure in communities affected by project. Successful management of initial population influxes without excessive environmental impact.
Independent Inspection Panel conducted assessment in spring 2002 at request of Chadian citizens and Government.

Results:

Some progress in improving infrastructure due to lack of capacity and political will.

Successful management of population influxes without excessive environmental impact; no problems found.


After successful surface/groundwater contaminant mitigation in Chad, a consortium developed plan illustrating impact of potential pollution sources and how to prevent future similar problems.

Oil likely to flow into pipeline in June 2003.
On Target






Slightly Below Target
Slow progress in improving infrastructure.

On Target
Inspection showed compliance with social compliance indicators.


On Target
Contamination effectively controlled.





Above Target
Progressing one year ahead of schedule.
INTERNATIONAL PRIVATE CAPITAL FLOWS FOR THE SOUTH-NORTH WATER
PROJECT IN CHINA INCORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Target
Result
Rating
South-North Project proceeds with
environmental protection safeguards in place.
FY 2002 progress was limited by slow
development of the project by Chinese planners and delays in releasing information to the public
about specific aspects of the plan. Indications are that most aspects of the project are undergoing significant EIA reviews.
Slightly Below Target
NUMBER OF COUNTRIES EXPORT CREDIT AGENCIES THAT AGREE
TO COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES
Target
Result
Rating
All OECD member states sign onto common quantitative and qualitative environmental
guidelines.
OECD countries disagree with USG concepts for strong, common environmental guidelines.
USG chooses not to join OECD agreement, viewing it as insufficiently transparent and
lacking common standards.
Slightly Below Target
Although the Department was unable to secure OECD agreement for strong, mandatory environmental guidelines, it succeeded in setting the terms of debate, and maintaining negotiating
leverage. The Department is positioned to reach an agreement with other countries covering what they are already now do in practice - evaluating project proposals against strong
World Bank environmental guidelines.

Annual Performance Goal 2
International treaties, agreements, and voluntary initiatives that protect the environment are negotiated, implemented, and enforced

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS AND IMPACT

International endorsement of the U.S. emphasis on private capital, trade, and domestic good governance as key to sustainable development was secured at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in September 2002. The Summit also emphasized public-private partnerships as a key mechanism to implement sustainable development goals. More than two hundred such partnerships were launched, including four U.S. signature partnerships in water, energy, forests, and hunger. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) provided a workable blueprint for advancing the broad range of sustainable development issues.

[Text version of a photo: Woman standing in front of arrangement of flags of the world. Caption/credit reads: "An employee arranges flags during preparations for an opening welcoming ceremony in conjunction with the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, August 2002. AFP Photo/Pedro Ugarte."]

In fulfillment of the President's commitment to address climate change, the Department worked internationally, especially with developing nations, to demonstrate that future prosperity can be built along a cleaner and better path. Ten regional and bilateral partnerships on global climate change were initiated or advanced in FY 2002.

Progress has been made toward ratifying the Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions, which promote sound management of chemicals. Among other things, these important agreements will lead to a virtual phase-out in the use of persistent organic pollutants, which continue to pose a global environmental threat despite being banned or severely restricted in the United States and most developed countries decades ago. The two Conventions were submitted to the Senate for advice and consent. Implementing legislation introduced in Congress in 2002 was not acted upon.

The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement entered into force in FY 2002. This legally-binding agreement will help achieve sustainable fisheries and regional-level management, dispute settlement, and data exchange.

Some progress was made towards achieving sustainable marine fisheries, rebuilding depleted fish stocks, preserving the marine ecosystem, and minimizing the impact of fishing on associated and dependent species such as sharks, sea turtles, and seabirds. In 2003, the Department will seek stronger fishing capacity caps in regional fisheries management organizations and work to increase the acceptance and national implementation of the International Plans of Action of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and two binding UN global fisheries treaties.

The Department played an instrumental role in the use by member-states of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification's (UNCCD's) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWSNET), which uses technology to provide decision makers with critical information on weather patterns, projected food scarcity, and changes in land-use patterns.

KEY RESULTS BY INDICATOR AND TARGET

RESPONSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO THE ADMINISTRATION'S
NEW APPROACH TO CLIMATE CHANGE
Target
Result
Rating
To address climate change, consider new international negotiation that takes a longer term view and includes commitments for development.
New partnerships announced or initiated with Australia, Canada, the EU, India, Korea, and China. Implementation of partnerships with Japan, (more than 30 projects in science, technology, and policy cooperation identified), Central American countries, Italy (more than 20 projects relating to climate science and technology), and Australia (19 projects initiated). Key working groups established, specific projects and project-related activities agreed upon and begun.
On Target
EFFECT OF PRIOR INFORMED CONSENT CONVENTION
Target
Result
Rating
Implementation of the convention. Congress considering steps to allow U.S. ratification to proceed, but process was not completed in 2002.
Slightly Below Target
Made progress with Congress toward
ratification of the Rotterdam Convention.
CONVENTION TO COMBAT DESERTIFICATION MITIGATES THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON ARID, SEMI-ARID, AND DRY SUB-HUMID LANDS
Target
Result
Rating
Expand opportunities for research centers and universities to share technical expertise.
Department promoted U.S. scientists to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification's (UNCCD) Roster of Experts. Results: 7 U.S. scientists on UNCCD's Roster of Experts, 1 U.S. scientist on UNCCD's Committee
for Science and Technology, and language in the National Action Programs that support education and information sharing.
On Target
Department promoted U.S. scientific input in the UNCCD, provided models for investigating causes of and remedies for desertification; and emphasized the importance of a) education and
information sharing for implementing National Action Programs, b) applied research, c) synthesis work, and d) concrete implementation issues for
the UNCCD committees. .
STATUS OF RATIFICATION OF STOCKHOLM CONVENTION ON PERSISTENT
ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPS) CONVENTION
Target
Result
Rating
U.S. ratification complete. Congress considered necessary steps to allow U.S. ratification to proceed, but this process was not completed in 2002. Slightly Below Target
Department made progress with Congress regarding ratification of the Stockholm Convention. The process on track for the Senate to give advice and consent, and for Congress to pass implementing legislation in 2003.
STATUS OF UN FISH STOCKS AGREEMENT AND FAO COMPLIANCE AGREEMENT
Target
Result
Rating
UN Fish Stocks Agreement enters into force following ratification by 30 states.
Since entry into force, the Department has begun consultations with other States Parties to promote implementation, particularly provisions that pertain to cooperation with developing states. The UN General Assembly and States Parties to the Agreement agreed in principle to establish a voluntary trust fund for implementing the Agreement. On Target
The Department began consultations with other States Parties to the UN Fish Stocks Agreement to promote its implementation.
EFFECT OF AN INTEGRATED USG POSITION ON THE WORLD
SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Target
Result
Rating
USG position is refined as needed to secure
international support.
USG successfully secured international support for its position through unanimous adoption of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg, South Africa, September 2002.
Significantly Above Target
USG success in securing international support for its position at the WSSD went beyond merely achieving an integrated USG position. It was the direct result of the outstanding level of
coordination and cooperation of the more than 20 USG agencies involved.
TRADE DECISIONS ASSISTED BY BIOSAFETY PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION
Target
Result
Rating
Biosafety Protocol implementation assists
countries in making environmentally informed
trade decisions.
The Biosafety Protocol did not enter into force
in 2002. Nevertheless, the USG developed a
biotechnology regulatory web page to share
relevant information on environmentallyinformed trade decisions. USG also supported the development of the Protocol's Biosafety Clearinghouse which will become operational when the protocol enters into force. The Department's work created the mechanism for information sharing and established a model for other countries to follow that is in place
ahead of schedule.
Above Target
Although the Protocol did not enter into force, U.S. efforts have established the foundation for countries to make environmentally-informed trade decisions.
EFFECT OF FAO INTERNATIONAL PLANS OF ACTION FOR SEABIRD BY CATCH AVOIDANCE, FOR SHARK CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, AND FOR FISHING VESSEL CAPACITY REDUCTION BY FAO MEMBERS
Target
Result
Rating
Proportion of stressed stocks declining. Recovery of North Atlantic swordfish stocks
through the work of a regional fisheries
management organization; development of a
shark management plan to implement the shark international plan of action of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC), and resolutions in other regional bodies that minimize the by-catch of sharks, adoption by the Inter- American Tropical Tuna Commission of its first limitations on fishing capacity, entry into force of the Southern Ocean Albatross and Petrel Agreement; and progress toward establishment of a regime to conserve and manage highly migratory fish stocks in the central and western Pacific.
On Target

Annual Performance Goal 3
International financial and multilateral institutions and donor countries provide greater development assistance dealing with key environmental issues

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS AND IMPACT

The United States led the international community in securing replenishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and increasing its overall funding. The United States also made a commitment to pay its arrears. The GEF will focus on implementing concrete measures in the areas of biodiversity, climate change, persistent organic pollutants, combating desertification, and protecting international waters and the ozone layer.

At the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), the U.S. launched the Congo Basin Forest Partnership with thirty governments and private partners to conserve and manage Central African forests in a sustainable manner.

[Text version of a photo: Left to right (seated at table) Secretary Powell and (standing at podium) President Sassou Nguesso. Caption/credit reads: "Congo Brazzaville President Denis Sassou Nguesso and Secretary of State Colin Powell give a press conference on September 4, 2002 after a meeting on the Congo Basin Forest Partnership, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa. AFP Photo/Pedro Ugarte."]

During FY 2002, Russia met its targets under the Montreal Protocol for phasing out its use of chemicals that deplete the earth's stratospheric ozone layer. It also disposed of its remaining unused ozone depleting products in an environmentally sound manner.

Discussions about shared waters have helped strengthen relationships among countries in several key conflict-prone regions including the Balkans and the Okovango and the Nile Basins. Discussions about water have been successful in promoting cooperation, building trust, and developing mechanisms and skills useful for resolving disputes. At the WSSD, the United States launched a $970-million, threeyear initiative to improve access to safe drinking water. The United States also formed a partnership with Japan to identify areas where the two countries can work together to address critical water issues.

Balkan countries worked together to develop a legal framework for navigation on the Sava and on several joint development projects. Participants intend to establish a regional institution for managing the Sava and host a donor conference in 2003 to raise financial support. Countries in the Okovango Basin participated in joint technical sessions and dispute resolution training - reinvigorating a moribund regional process. The Nile Basin Initiative has become an international organization that has already funded several joint projects. Countries meet regularly to discuss development of the Nile, perhaps the single most contentious issue in the region.

Multilateral water projects had significant positive impact in Jordan, the West Bank, and Gaza. Cooperation between the parties helped alleviate the region's third year of drought, despite the difficult political situation. New wells and pipelines in the West Bank produced additional water resources during the summer to meet basic needs for the Palestinian population. The water curriculum provided to schools, which encourages recognition of water as a collective regional issue and stresses individual responsibility, should improve awareness among youth about the region's serious water conditions.

The Government of Indonesia failed to prosecute a single haze-pollution violation. Millions of people in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Bruenei continue to suffer ill health from these annual but preventable hazes, most of which are caused by intentionally-lit forest fires.

ACTIVITY OF CFC - PRODUCING ENTERPRISES
Target
Result
Rating
CFC-producers in Russia have properly disposed of all ozone-depleting products.
CFC-producers in Russia have properly disposed of all ozone-depleting products.
On Target
Russia has achieved its target of phasing out ozone depleting products and disposing of unused product in an environmentally sound manner.
REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL CENTERS (RECS)
Target
Result
Rating
All RECs function as organizations actively participating as environmental/civil society
organizations. Additional donors add funding support.

All RECs have been established and are functional.

EU provides additional donor support to all RECs.

Other donor support exists at or significantly above target for RECs in Georgia, Hungary and
Almaty, and is being explored for RECs in Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine.

RECs promoted progress regionally on Agenda 21 implementation and water management, helped organize regional participation in international conferences, with participation by governments, NGOs and the private sector.

Above Target
All RECs are functioning. The Central Asia REC
hosted a broad range of activities, coordinated
regional positions, promoted sustainable
development, and recognized regional needs,
particularly in the Environment for Europe
process.
PROGRESS BY USG, DONORS AND RIPARIANS IN ADDRESSING
TRANSBOUNDARY WATER ISSUES IN KEY REGIONS
Target
Result
Rating
Riparians meet regularly. Significant increase
in number of joint activities. Donors meet,
efforts are well coordinated.

Nile riparian countries continue to work on a legal framework and have raised more than $140 million in donor support for joint development projects.


Riparian countries negotiated a framework agreement for navigation on the Sava and started joint development activities. Angola, Namibia, and Botswana have participated in joint training on conflict resolution and joint watershed management. Joint projects among NGOs within the Araks and Kura watersheds are underway. Regular regional discussion on joint management of the Amu and Syr Darya Rivers of Central Asia are taking place under the auspices of the International Fund to Save the Aral Sea (IFAS) and related organizations.

Above Target
Results were within or exceeded expectations
given the political and technical complexities
inherent in this target.
MANAGEMENT OF WATER IN WEST BANK AND GAZA
Target
Result
Rating

Additional West Bank wells come online.


West Bank village water systems come online.


Construction on Amman wastewater and system
rehabilitation continues.


Construction of Gaza carrier begins.

Two new functioning West Bank wells . Designs were developed, to supply water to 100,000 additional people in West Bank villages. Parties signed an agreement for the Amman As Samra wastewater project.

Construction is continuing on the Amman water supply system rehabilitation project.
Bidding process for the Gaza carrier continued; contract award anticipated in FY2003. Water projects also completed to supply the Ein Sultan refugee camp near Jericho and villages
near Jenin.

On Target

EFFECT OF WATER RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENT WORKING GROUPS
Target
Result
Rating
Initiation of additional 1-2 new water and
environment activities; water curriculum placed
in Arab and Israeli schools; expansion of
electronic water network.
During FY 2002, Middle East experts and officials
(Mostly Jordanians, Israelis, and Palestinians; Egyptians and Tunisians also involved in one
project) continued to work together on multilateral water and nvironment projects. In the regional water databanks project, one new activity on hydro-geologic databases began; and several more are in the planning stages. The rainfall-intensity activity was completed, and regional participants agreed on a followup activity for FY 2003. A new combined water environment activity in the field of wastewater treatment and re-use was under preparation. The USG-funded participants in the Dryland Management Initiative to attend a workshop on sustainable agro-ecosystems. The water curriculum for high school students was published in Arabic and Hebrew; its placement in schools began. Progress on the Waternet electronic network slowed because software replacement needed.
On Target
INTERNATIONAL CONSORTIUM FOR COOPERATION ON THE NILE (ICCON) ACTIVITIES
Target
Result
Rating
Initiation of 1 or 2 supported activities of the International Consortium for Cooperation on the Nile (ICCON).
Nile riparian countries established an international organization to facilitate joint management of the watershed. These countries continue to work on a legal framework and have raised more than $140 million from donors for joint development projects. Above Target
UNEP ASSISTANCE AND CAPACITY BUILDING
Target
Result
Rating
UNEP, including the Trade Unit, places greater importance on technical assistance that deals with trade-related environmental issues and allocates a larger proportion of the budget to those activities.
UNEP expanded its work in the field of traderelated activities in 2002 to participate more fully in work on environmental aspects of the WTO Doha Ministerial Conference.
On Target
UNEP held an intergovernmental experts
meeting in 2002 to consider trade related
issues, with an emphasis on technical
assistance to help developing countries take
these issues into consideration.

STATUS OF U.S. - JAPAN GLOBAL ISSUES COOPERATION
AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY DIALOG
Target
Result
Rating

Status of U.S. - Japan Global Issues Cooperation
and Environmental Policy Dialog Indicator has
been discontinued in subsequent plans because
it was deemed too specific for purpose of
tracking general Department progress.


Array for Real-time Geostraphic Oceanography
(ARGO) and integrated ocean drilling (IODP)
fully deployed; launch U.S.-Japan global issues
cooperation on Mekong Water Assessment
project.

U.S. and Japan currently drafting a memorandum of understanding to deploy the Integrated Ocean
Drilling Program (IODP) in 2003.


579 Argo floats deployed and operational by December 2002, of which, 197 are U.S. and 90
are Japanese.


FY 2002 milestones since FY 1999 funding include 1,624 floats funded globally, with the U.S. funding 737 and the Japanese 202. Many purchased floats are not yet operational. For FY 2003 - FY 2005, funding has been proposed for 2,517 floats, of which the U.S. will contribute 1,313 and Japan 300.


Mekong Water Assessment project not yet launched. Fund site scheduled to be established in Manila before the end of 2002. Pre-award audit completed and passed.

On Target
U.S. and Japan are cooperating across the
board with regular meetings on all three
projects listed above.
STATUS OF EU FISHERIES
Target
Revised Target 1
Result
Rating
EU adds value in international
fora as an advocate for fisheries
conservation.
Conservation included as an important element in EU
Common Fisheries Policy.
.
Department raised U.S. concerns about EU fisheries policies at a high level and in other multilateral fora;
continues to work with EU
counterparts as the Common
Fisheries Policy (CFP) is finalized
On Target
HAZE POLLUTION SITUATION IN INDONESIA
Target
Result
Rating
Government prosecution of violators reaches 75%.
No prosecutions. The Government of Indonesia has shown no clear interest in pursuing violators.
Significantly Below Target
STATUS OF GRID SIOUX FALLS
Target
Result
Rating
Donors begin to commit funds. U.S., Canadian, and Mexican scientific institutions contributed funding and in-kind resources to
GRID Sioux Falls research programs.
On Target
GRID Sioux Falls now encompasses research
input from the entire North American region,
improving its capabilities to forecast future
environmental trends.
1 Target was modified; activities related to achieving both initial and revised targets were undertaken. "Result" reported for both sets of targets.

National Interest: Global Issues: Environment, Population, Health

Strategic Goal 15: Population
Achieve a healthy and educated world population.

STRATEGIC GOAL OVERVIEW/PUBLIC BENEFIT

The Department aims to help people worldwide achieve healthy families of the size they desire, through the use of voluntary, non-coercive means that respect human rights and do not involve abortion.7 Women should be able to make voluntary and informed choices about when, whether, and how many times to become pregnant, and couples should be able to support and raise healthy children. To do so, couples need health education and care, as well as nutrition, sanitation, shelter, and education. The Department works to promote good governance, economic opportunity, and other methods of making these goods available, and also works to decrease the incidence of abortion, mortality, and morbidity (whether caused by disease or violence). The Department also works to help governments react appropriately to new demographic challenges, including declining fertility rates, gender imbalances, aging populations, and abnormal demography caused by diseases such as HIV/AIDS. These efforts promote American security, growth, and values by helping create a healthy and educated world population that can participate in and promote global democratic governance, economic opportunity, and protection of environmental and human rights.

7 In conformity with the Mexico City policy as reinstituted by President Bush, USAID assistance to foreign NGOs is provided only to those that do not perform or promote abortion. In addition, in accordance with law, U.S. aid does not go to organizations that support or participate in the management of a program of coercive abortion or forced sterilization.

 

STRATEGIC GOAL SUMMARY OF RESULTS ACHIEVED
One Annual Goal and Three Targets Represented
Four Annual Goals Represented
Number of Targets
Significantly Below Target
Slightly Below Target
On Target
Above Target
Significantly Above Target
No 2002 Data Available
TOTAL
3
0
0
0
3
0
0
Percent of Total
100%
0%
0%
0%
100%
0%
0%

Annual Performance Goal 1
Improved reproductive health, reduced incidence of maternal mortality and other problems that particularly threaten women, universal access to primary and secondary education, and appropriate governmental reaction to world demographic changes

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS AND IMPACT

The United States promoted the goals described in the overview at meetings of the UN Commission on Population and Development, the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children, the World Health Assembly, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, and other multilateral conferences. In addition, as a member of the Executive Board of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the UN Development Program, the United States took steps to improve the activities of these organizations. In 2002, the United States withheld funding from UNFPA because the Secretary of State determined that UNFPA provided funds and other support to the Chinese governmental entities charged with enforcing China's birth limitation program, which relies on coercive laws and practices that can lead to coercive abortion. The United States is working to encourage UNFPA to make reforms, and cease its involvement with coercion, so that future U.S. funding of UNFPA will be legally possible.

[Text version of a photo: Three children playing in water. Caption/credit reads: "East Timorese children play near a sea shore in Dili, July 1, 2002. The newest country in the world has a 60% illiteracy rate, a per capita gross national product of $340, and life expectancy of only 48 years. The infant mortality rate is 135 per 1000 live births and the maternal mortality rate is twice that of other countries in Southeast and the Western Pacific. AFP Photo/Antonio Dasiparu."]

In 2002, the proportion of births assisted by a skilled attendant increased in the following fourteen countries with high maternal mortality rates: Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, and Tanzania. Assistance from skilled birth attendants reduces risks of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity.

Thirty countries where girls' enrollment in secondary school was less than 50 percent in 2001 increased girls' enrollment by 2 percent or more in 2002. Providing more girls with access to education has been shown to improve their access to health care and economic opportunity.

PERFORMANCE RESULTS BY INDICATOR AND TARGET

MATERNAL MORTALITY AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL
Target
Result
Rating
Where maternal mortality rate (MMR) is very high, 10 additional countries increase births assisted by a skilled attendant by 2%.
The proportion of births assisted by a skilled attendant increased by 2%. or more in 14 countries where the maternal mortality rate is very high.
Above Target
Note: The three indicators shown below have been discontinued. Revised indicators that are better measures of success are being used for FY 2003 and beyond.
AVAILABILITY OF MODERN FAMILY PLANNING AND OTHER REPRODUCTIVE
HEALTH CARE FOR INDIVIDUALS REQUESTING SUCH SERVICES
Target
Result
Rating
Ten countries increase Contraceptive Prevalence Rates (CPR) (modern methods) by 2%.
More than 20 countries increased CPR (i.e., modern methods) by 2% or more in 2002, of which 10 countries increased CPR by at least 10 percentage points: Cambodia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Laos, Lesotho, Mongolia, Malawi, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, and
Yugoslavia.
Above Target
SECONDARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES AMONG GIRLS
Target
Result
Rating
Ten countries under 50% increase girls' enrollment by 2% or more.
Thirty countries where girls' enrollment in
secondary school was less than 50% in 2001 increased by 2% or more in 2002.
Above Target

National Interest: Global Issues: Environment, Population, Health

Strategic Goal 16: Health
Improved global health for a more secure world
.

STRATEGIC GOAL OVERVIEW/PUBLIC BENEFIT

International health issues, particularly epidemics, pandemics, and bio-terrorism pose a serious threat to American citizens and the international community. The burden of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases weighs heavily upon developing nations by disrupting economic and social growth, contrary to the U.S. foreignpolicy objective to promote stable societies and economies. HIV/AIDS particularly devastates entire countries and regions in Africa and the Caribbean, and has extended its reach into the next tier of large, vulnerable nations such as Russia, India, and China. In conjunction with other USG agencies, the Department engages senior government leaders and international organizations to raise awareness, mobilize resources, inspire public-private partnerships, and spur action.

[Text version of a photo: Standing left to right are Secretary Thompson, Secretary Powell, and President Bush outside the White House. Caption/credit reads: "President George W. Bush announces a new International Mother and Child HIV Prevention Initiative as Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson and Secretary of State Colin Powell look on at a White House ceremony on June 19, 2002. AFP Photo/Paul J. Richards."]


STRATEGIC GOAL SUMMARY OF RESULTS ACHIEVED
One Annual Goal and Six Targets Represented
Four Annual Goals Represented
Number of Targets
Significantly Below Target
Slightly Below Target
On Target
Above Target
Significantly Above Target
No 2002 Data Available
TOTAL
6
0
1
4
0
1
0
Percent of Total
100%
0%
16%
67%
0%
17%
0%

Annual Performance Goal 1
Increased political and financial commitment to health

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS AND IMPACT

In 2002, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria became operational and significantly expanded thanks to pledges that now total $2.1 billion. The Global Fund will be a major force in addressing epidemic and pandemic diseases. The Department is actively engaged in an interagency effort in the WTO to improve access for the world's poorest countries to medicines against infectious epidemics, without violating intellectual property protection.

The number of sub-Saharan African countries that have developed national strategies to fight HIV/AIDS has almost tripled since the year 2000. The increased commitment by countries in sub-Saharan Africa, the region most heavily affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, will prevent new infections and result in better treatment and care for people who are HIV-positive.

PERFORMANCE RESULTS BY INDICATOR AND TARGET

NATIONS IN TARGETED REGIONS AND DONOR PARTNERS APPOINT EXECUTIVE-LEVEL AIDS ENVOYS TO ENGAGE ON HIV/AIDS ISSUES AT THE HEAD-OF-STATE LEVEL
Initial Target
Revised Target 1
Result
Rating
Twenty additional appointed; fifteen representing targeted countries.
Increase in high-level support for combating HIV/AIDS.
Combating HIV/AIDS is a higher priority for U.S. ambassadors, and officials of the Department, other USG agencies, and foreign governments. The April 2001 chief-of- mission conference in Haiti resulted in an action plan to combat the HIV/AIDS.
On Target
LONG-TERM TREND IN NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES/RESPONSIVENESS (E.G., WHO INDEX ON SYSTEM RESPONSIVENESS, PERCENT OF GDP SPENT ON HEALTH) OF COUNTRIES IN TARGETED REGIONS
Target
Result
Rating
A continued net increase in number of countries with higher
responsiveness.
Thirty-two countries and a multilateral institution pledged over $2 billion to the Global Fund. Forty sub-Saharan African countries have developed national strategies to fight HIV/AIDS, almost three times as many as in 2000. Nineteen sub-Saharan African countries now have national AIDS
councils, a six-fold increase since 2000.
On Target
1 Target was modified; activities related to achieving both initial and revised targets were undertaken. "Result" reported for both sets of targets.
LEVEL OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIPS TO SUPPORT HEALTH GLOBAL FUND IS MANIFESTATION OF COLLABORATION AND PARTNERSHIP, BECOMES FULLY OPERATIONAL
Initial Target
Revised Target 2
Result
Rating
Further increase international
support for, and expand, global
surveillance and response efforts, TB and malaria research and control efforts.
Further increase international
support and expansion for global surveillance, response efforts, and research and control for AIDS, malaria, and TB.
Global Fund begins work;
negotiations continue to establish mechanisms that guarantee program and financial accountability, set rules for procurement, etc. Global Fund has multi-year pledges totaling $2.1 billion with approximately $750 million available for the year; one large contribution
from the private sector.
Significantly Above Target
DISEASE INCIDENCE RATES HIV/AIDS
Target
Result
Rating
Decline in the number of new infections.
The number of new HIV/AIDS infections is estimated to have declined from 5.3 million in 2000 to 5 million in 2001, and remained at 5 million in 2002.
Slightly Below Target
DISEASE INCIDENCE RATES FOR POLIO
Target
Result
Rating
Continued drop in incidence; eradication.
The number of polio cases is estimated to have decreased from 2,979 in 2000 to 537 in 2001. Estimate for 2002 is not yet available.
On Target
NUMBER OF HEAVILY INDEBTED POOR COUNTRIES (HIPC) COUNTRIES COMMITTING TO INCREASE SOCIAL AND HEALTH SPENDING AND TO INCREASE VACCINATION RATES FROM DEBT SAVINGS
Target
Result
Rating
Remaining HIPC eligible countries qualify for and receive debt relief; those that began the process sooner receive debt stock reduction.
As of September 2002, 26 of 38 highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs) had qualified for and received interim or final debt relief under the enhanced HIPC initiative.
On Target
2 Target language modified slightly but is substantially consistent; reported "Result" corresponds to Revised Target as shown.

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