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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Most Important Results and Continuing Challenges


FY 2004 Performance and Accountability Highlights
Bureau of Resource Management
November 2004
Report
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During FY 2004, the Department responded on many levels to the many challenges the United States is facing. Highlights of the most important results and continuing challenges are shown below by Strategic Goal.

 

REGIONAL STABILITY


Positive Results

  • Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia joined NATO, expanding the alliance to twenty-six member states. The new members will be able to improve their military capabilities and cooperation with international security issues, including the Global War on Terrorism.
  • Bilateral relations between rival nuclear powers India and Pakistan improved in FY 2004, including improved dialogue and the implementation of confidence-building measures.
  • China hosted and facilitated Six-Party talks between the U.S. and North Korea. China's ongoing efforts have been key to North Korea agreeing to future rounds of discussion. A China that increasingly shares our commitment to world peace and stability, open markets and cooperation on pressing global issues better serves our interests.
  • The United States, France, Chile, as well as other Western Hemisphere countries sent troops and supplies under the auspices of the Multinational Interim Force (MIF) to restore order and improve humanitarian conditions in Haiti after political turmoil and social chaos rendered it ungovernable. Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Chile, participants in the U.S. -led effort, have each been recipients of the Department's Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities Initiative (EIPC) training in recent years.

Continuing Challenges

  • Lead international efforts to assist Iraq in creating the environment necessary for elections in January 2005, continued economic reconstruction, and improved social conditions.
  • Maintain the focus of our allies and partners in combating terrorists, and build momentum for political, social, and economic change in the greater Middle East, including Afghanistan.
  • Work with the Quartet, the Israelis, and the Palestinians to resume negotiations and progress on the roadmap for peace and a two-state solution.
  • Encourage a meaningful upgrade in the military capabilities of new and longstanding NATO allies to strengthen NATO's ability to deter, prevent, and respond to international terrorist threats and other twenty-first century conflicts.
  • Transform EIPC program to focus on developing regional peacekeeping capabilities instead of country-based programs. Improved training of peacekeeping forces worldwide reduces the demands placed on U.S. forces for regional peacekeeping operations.
  • Persuade China to increase its coordination with the USG and like-minded states on North Korea's complete elimination of its nuclear programs. Press China to resume cross-Strait dialogue, promote confidence-building measures, and reduce its military threat posture with regard to Taiwan.

 

COUNTERTERRORISM


Positive Results

  • The Foreign Emergency Support Team (FEST) was deployed to Athens, Greece in support of counterterrorism security arrangements for the Athens Summer Olympic Games and contributed to the successful, safe completion of the games.
  • The Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) completed work on and fielded several technical innovations designed to prevent terrorist attacks and protect lives. These include the first-ever, standoff detection system for identifying suicide bombers; "spray-on-armor" capability to provide protection in the field for unarmored vehicles from improvised explosive devices; and an escape mask that provides up to fifteen-minutes of respiratory and ocular protection.
  • The Counterterrorism Finance program assisted Indonesia, Philippines, Kenya, Thailand, and Paraguay to draft and/or pass anti-money laundering counterterrorism financing statutes that meet international standards.

Continuing Challenges

  • Strengthen the Foreign Emergency Support Team (FEST) program to adequately respond to international terrorist events and to develop a training and exercise program that will assist the Government of Italy with security arrangements for the 2006 Turin, Italy Winter Olympic Games.
  • Technical Support Working Group: The nature of the terrorist threat is continually changing in terms of tactics, targets, groups, and technical sophistication. There is an ongoing need to invest wisely in appropriate countermeasure technological development in order to stay one step ahead of the terrorists.

 

HOMELAND SECURITY


Positive Results

  • Expanded information sharing between the Department and other USG agencies; improved U.S. border security; and quality of visa adjudications.
  • Worldwide deployment of biometric visa capability achieved ahead of legislative deadline to improve U.S. national security.
  • Measurable gains made in international cybersecurity program.
  • Developed strong ties with Department of Homeland Security on the development and implementation of international cybersecurity programs.

Continuing Challenges

  • Improve coordination of the Department's IT infrastructure with other USG agencies.
  • Support international cybersecurity programs, especially when asked by other nations and multilateral organizations; maintain and build sufficient staffing levels; and travel to and participate in necessary international programs.

 

WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION


Positive Results

  • On December 19, 2003, Libya made a commitment to dismantle or eliminate their nuclear/chemical weapons and MTCR class missile programs. Libya has since signed/ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and IAEA additional Protocol, and is cooperating with the U.S./UK to remove equipment from their nuclear weapons program. Except for irradiated fuel, irradiated targets and yellowcake, virtually all items were transported to the U.S. by March 22, 2004. Libya has acceded to the CWC, destroyed chemical weapons (CW) munitions, and the entire SCUD C missile inventory was removed.
  • Moscow Treaty's Bilateral Implementation Commission held its first meeting in April, 2004.
  • Russia resolved a U.S. concern regarding Russia's practice of basing some deployed SS-25 road-mobile launchers outside their declared START facility.
  • President Bush emphasized that Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) cooperation must not just address shipments of WMD, but should also include efforts to shut down proliferation networks and to bring justice to those involved in facilitating this deadly trade. Core PSI partners have developed a series of practical steps that establish the basis for supportive States' involvement in the PSI activities. To date, over 80 nations have expressed their support for and interest in participating in the PSI. The Operational Experts Working Group, now consisting of 18 nations, continues to move aggressively forward to further implement the initiative.

Continuing Challenges

  • Sustain international agreement on the need for Iranian compliance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and of the threat created by Iran's acquisition and processing of nuclear material.
  • Strengthen Six-Party talks to address the threat posed by North Korea's indigenous ballistic missile program and export of related technologies. Maintain consensus on the need for the complete, verifiable, and irreversible dismantlement of North Korea's nuclear programs.
  • Educating States Parties to the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) on the inherent responsibility for compliance determinations and enforcement of the "Global Norm" against the use or proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
  • Motivating Russia to join the U.S. in translating the "new strategic relationship" declared by Presidents Bush and Putin into practical cooperation and transparency across the broad range of areas of common interest.
  • The U.S. participated in Core Group discussions of the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) to coordinate diplomatic strategy and supported an Austrian effort to submit draft amendments in the fall of 2004. Previously, the Drafting Group concluded its work without reaching consensus on a revision proposal, but did identify a set of possible amendments warranting further consideration by States Parties as the basis for a proposal.

 

INTERNATIONAL CRIME AND DRUGS


Positive Results

  • Latin American coca cultivation projected to decline for third straight year; and opium poppy cultivation expected to decline for second straight year. Opium poppy cultivation in Southeast Asia projected to decline for fourth straight year.
  • To help restore the rule of law in post-conflict Afghanistan and to provide a secure environment for national elections, the Department trained approximately 20,000 civilian police and helped establish the first-ever nationwide police communication system.
  • To help restore stability and build rule of law in post-war Iraq, the Department established training facilities in Jordan and Baghdad on an expedited basis and continues to train Iraqi civilian police.

Continuing Challenges

  • The Afghan government's continuing difficulties in extending its authority throughout the country has limited its efforts to curb the increasing cultivation of opium poppy.
  • Insufficient levels of institutional capacity in Afghanistan following long periods of civil strife and Taliban rule mean that the development of the justice sector -- police, courts, and prisons -- will be a long and slow process.
  • Political violence in Iraq continues to hamper U.S. and international ability to support police development, especially critical field training, and the conduct of normal policing activities and operations.
  • Shortage of anti-money laundering experts continues to create bottlenecks in meeting assistance needs of requesting nations, including high priority terrorist financing countries.
  • International criminal groups - drug traffickers, organized crime, and terrorists - demonstrate increasing sophistication in exploiting the globalized economy and advances in communication, including the Internet.

 

AMERICAN CITIZENS


Positive Results

  • The development of the Department's Online Registration System makes it easier for Americans to inform consular sections of their presence in country, and makes it easier for posts to communicate with Americans in emergency situations.
  • Increased frequency of Consular Information Sheet revisions ensures Americans have access to more up-to-date information on host country conditions and specific concerns for U.S. citizens.

Continuing Challenges

  • Several steps remain in the implementation of the Inter-country Adoption Act and Entry into Force of the Hague Adoption Convention, including: (1) meeting and negotiating with potential private non-profit and state licensing accrediting entities; and (2) issuing revised regulations on accrediting adoption service providers in the Federal Register.
  • Meet challenges of assisting Americans abroad in the face of continued terrorist threats.

 

DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS


Positive Results

  • Elections in Afghanistan in early October 2004 drew millions of voters and the results were respected internationally and among the Afghan people.
  • Efforts taken to expose the human rights crisis in Darfur through multilateral efforts, public outreach, and reporting.
  • Advancement of religious freedom in Turkmenistan.
  • Sustained improvements in reporting, particularly the continued publication of Supporting Human Rights and Democracy.
  • Expansion of programming efforts through the Human Rights and Democracy Fund.

Continuing Challenges

  • Promotion and acceptance of religious freedom in countries of particular concern and problem regions.
  • Viability of the UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) and the ability to address the worst human rights violations.
  • Continuing to support democratic reform in the Middle East.

 

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY AND SECURITY


Positive Results

  • Expanded market opportunities for U.S. businesses, including telecommunications and IT sectors, through trade agreements, international commitments on standards (agreements with China and Korea), and advocacy with host nations on behalf of U.S. firms.
  • Successful negotiation of five aviation liberalization agreements, including one with China, resulted in millions of dollars of revenue to U.S. firms and cities due to direct and indirect income generation.
  • The Department provided key support to the emergent Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), including determining the selection criteria and naming of the first sixteen candidate countries. The MCC initiative assists developing countries that govern justly, invest in their own people, and promote economic freedom.
  • Energy supplies secured through concluding the financing arrangements for Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan oil and gas pipelines.
  • Successful negotiation of Paris Club debt relief for developing countries in support of the international financial architecture.
  • Concluded four free trade agreements (FTAs) and initiated a fifth, each involving countries offering important business expansion opportunities for U.S. firms.

Continuing Challenges

  • The Department will continue to assist the now-independent MCC to facilitate interactions with candidate countries and provide essential economic and political analysis as the initiative matures.
  • While China's implementation of World Trade Organization commitments has shown a positive trend in general, protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) has lagged behind, harming U.S. business interests.

 

SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES


Positive Results

  • The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) received $2 billion in FY 2004, the first year of the five-year and $15 billion initiative committed to turning the tide in combating the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Eighteen high value projects totaling $3 million that enhance capacity in areas of health, water supply and quality, standards and accreditation, education, digital technologies, and strengthening the scientific links were initiated under the U.S.-Pakistan Science and Technology Agreement.
  • The U.S. is in the final phases of negotiating a set of Science and Technology Agreements with Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia that will enable each of these countries to collaborate with the U.S. both on a bilateral basis and regionally as a group.
  • Significantly expanded verification and training in the use of turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in shrimp trawl fisheries around the world and broadened the program to the Western Indian Ocean for the first time.
  • In support of U.S. efforts to enhance global health and security, the Department and the other countries of the Global Health Security Action Group (GHSAG) completed a successful international anthrax workshop to test laboratory procedures and also developed plans with the World Health Organization (WHO) for distribution of training materials on smallpox vaccination procedures. Furthermore, Germany, Canada, and the U.K. have made contributions (in-kind or financial) to the WHO Global Smallpox Vaccine Reserve.

Continuing Challenges

  • The agreements in North Africa, along with the existing Agreements with Bangladesh, Egypt and Pakistan, and the environmental cooperation with Morocco and Jordan, reinforce public participation, foster science-based economic development and environmental stewardship, and promote regional stability. Although the Agreements address many of the fundamental sources of extremism in these countries, and are strategic in their value to U.S. public diplomacy and our outreach to the Muslim world, funding for a rigorous program under each Agreement is uneven, or non-existent.
  • Until the WHO clarifies the legal and liability issues surrounding the Global Smallpox Vaccine Reserve, many nations will continue to defer decisions on whether to participate in and contribute towards the reserve.
  • Nations-including the U.S.-remain hesitant to discuss mechanisms for possible international sharing of medical countermeasures (i.e., vaccines, drugs) in the event of a bioterrorist attack.

 

HUMANITARIAN RESPONSE


Positive Results

  • Repatriation and reintegration have been achieved on a near historic scale for refugees from several protracted situations. Over 1.5 million refugees and Internally Displaced Persons returned to Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Iraq, and Liberia in 2004.
  • For the first time since September 11, 2001, U.S. refugee admissions reached the regional ceiling authorized by the President. As a result of significant effort, resources and coordination among USG agencies and partners, over 52,868 refugees achieved a durable solution through resettlement to the United States.
  • Rumbeck Airfield in Sudan was demined in order to allow upgrades that will facilitate the delivery of World Food Program aid.
  • In the Fizuli area of Azerbaijan, both a water pipe route and a power line route were cleared in order to provide water and electricity for returning Internally Displaced Persons.

Continuing Challenges

  • Ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan continues to force refugees to flee, with over 200,000 arriving in neighboring Chad in FY 2004. Harsh environmental conditions and protection concerns have hindered humanitarian access. Meeting refugees' basic needs (in order to prevent excess mortality and malnutrition) continues to be a serious challenge.
  • Disruptions in feeding operations by the World Food Program continue to jeopardize the lives of refugees, Internally Displaced Persons, and conflict victims. Such breaks in the supply of food commodities force humanitarian agencies to cut rations, placing refugees' health at serious risk, impairing their ability to work and participate in the local economy and, in some cases, creating a source of conflict.
  • Many countries lack sufficient information on the impact of landmines in their territory to support the creation of results-based national plans. This complicates the Department's process to allocate resources and monitor program performance.

 

PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS


Positive Results

  • Reinstated the Fulbright Program with Iraq and Afghanistan, helping those nations rejoin the community of nations.
  • Expanded U.S. outreach to and engagement of Arab and Muslim successor generations by implementing the U.S. Government's first-ever high school program, Partnerships for Learning YES (Youth Exchange and Study) and a new undergraduate program, PLUS (Partnerships for Learning Undergraduate Studies), directed at young people from non-elite and under-served sectors of society.
  • Created CultureConnect, a public-private partnership that brings American men and women of accomplishment together with broad and diverse groups of young people around the world.
  • After coming to the United States, several Afghan teachers are now back in Afghanistan conducting workshops in basic education and English language skills for approximately 500 teachers and distributing educational materials and recruiting other teachers to their profession.
  • Over 400,000 copies of the Department's publication, Muslim Life in America, were distributed in 28 languages around the world, including to Islamic schools, madrassas and mosques.
  • The Arabic language "hi" Magazine and its associated websites, produced for 18-35 year olds, are now available at newsstands in 18 countries. A website survey of readers shows that 50 percent of respondents said "hi" gave them a more positive view of America.
  • Meiguo Cankao (MCGK), the Department's Chinese language Internet service, averaged 20,000 page requests per day, and its material on America and its policies appeared with attribution frequently on major Chinese websites.
  • Based on information gained through U.S. Speakers programs and International Visitor grants, the Korean Judicial Reform Committee announced a new American-style law school system to be introduced in 2008.
  • The Department created a Public Diplomacy Office of Policy, Planning and Resources to better coordinate and measure the impact of public diplomacy. This office will address the issues raised in public diplomacy studies and reviews.

Continuing Challenges

  • Visa requirements for exchange visitors still result in some invited and selected visitors not being able to participate in programs.
  • With a global audience, a significant challenge is measuring the impact of our messages to targeted audiences. Measuring the effect on the hearts and minds in foreign media markets, including whether our wide range of products influences attitudes towards the U.S. and increases understanding of U.S. foreign policy, is a universal challenge.
  • More comprehensive, systematic efforts to counter anti-American misinformation need to be established, to answer false charges that are increasingly common in certain parts of the world.
  • Chinese official government press continues to portray the United States in a negative light. Large numbers of Chinese hold less than positive images of the United States.
  • Through the interagency Muslim World Outreach Policy Coordinating Committee, the Department is making a major effort to identify new approaches and technologies for more effective communication with the Muslim and Arab worlds and to counter the impact of hostile influences.

 

MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL EXCELLENCE


Positive Results

  • The Department began awarding "bonus points" for hiring persons who proficiently speak a critical needs language and who independently pass the Foreign Service oral exam. This practice has already assisted in the hiring of many speakers of Arabic, Russian, and Chinese, among others.
  • Training hours for State personnel in critical languages such as Arabic, Pashtu, Dari/Afghan, Tajiki, Persian/Farsi/Iranian, Urdu, and Uzbek have increased almost 20% over FY 2003.
  • The Department is 15% ahead of schedule in its plan to provide mandatory leadership training to a target of approximately 7,000 employees by the end of CY 2006.
  • The Department established a new Global Information Technology Modernization office, which is providing an aggressive life-cycle modernization program for both classified and unclassified IT infrastructure.
  • Increased partnerships with Homeland Security, Intelligence community, Joint Terrorism Task Forces, INTERPOL, International Law Enforcement Academy, federal state and local law enforcement organizations.
  • Accelerated acquisition of New Embassy Compound sites: seven in FY 2004 and another eight under contract to ensure that Capital Construction Program will remain in "high gear."

Continuing Challenges

  • Additional training positions are required to assure readiness in critical needs languages and area studies, especially in Arabic and other hard languages. The training and development of our officers must adjust to meet the demands of diplomacy in the 21st Century.
  • Providing additional offerings of mandatory leadership training to meet a shifting audience as employees are promoted into and retire out of the target grades.
  • Maintain Department's mandatory cyber security compliance, continue cyber security institutionalization and verify proper security.
  • Meeting the security responsibilities of ever-changing international events, supporting the global war on terrorism, and opening our embassy in Baghdad.
  • Working closely with other agencies and stakeholders to ensure close coordination when planning and executing capital construction projects.

 


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