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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goal 11: Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs

FY 2005 Performance and Accountability Highlights
Bureau of Resource Management
November 2005



Increase understanding for American values, policies, and initiatives to create a
receptive international environment


I. Public Benefit


Photo showing Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes chatting with Turkish children as she gives them books during her visit to Istanbul, Turkey, September, 2005.

Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Karen Hughes chats with Turkish children as she gives them books during her visit to Istanbul, Turkey, September, 2005. AP/Wide World Photo


The four pillars of our public diplomacy are engagement, exchange, education, and empowerment. We vigorously engage, listening as well as advocating, responding rapidly and aggressively to inaccuracies and hate messaging. The power of exchanges to change lives makes people-to-people exchanges our most important public diplomacy program. We will expand our two-way exchanges so that more Americans and American organizations can find common values and common interests with foreign counterparts around the world. Through education programs we will offer both hope and opportunity for a better life, while increasing mutual understanding. We will also educate ourselves to be better citizens of the world. We will empower the individuals whose lives our programs touch to pursue their goals as citizens of the world and we will work closely with the private sector to foster greater communication and dialogue by empowering our most important national asset—the individual American citizen. Through public affairs programs, the Department also informs the American people of U.S. foreign policy and initiatives that have a direct impact on their lives and provides opportunities for Americans to participate in programs that build individual capacity and deeper resources for the nation.


II. Performance Summary

The table below shows the performance rating distribution of the FY 2005 results for the Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs strategic goal.


Strategic Goal Results Achieved for FY 2005

  Significantly Below Target Below Target On Target Above Target Significantly Above Target Totals
Number of Results 0 2 18 3 0 23
Percent of Total 0% 8% 79% 13% 0% 100%


III. Resources Invested


Human Resources
(Direct Funded Positions)

Performance Goal FY 2004 FY 2005
International Public Opinion 879 887
Mutual Understanding 830 838
American Values Respected Abroad 250 252
Domestic Understanding of Foreign Policy 271 274
Total 2,230 2,251

Budget Authority
(Dollars in Millions)

Performance Goal FY 2004 FY 2005
International Public Opinion $141 $156
Mutual Understanding $286 $317
American Values Respected Abroad $79 $88
Domestic Understanding of Foreign Policy $32 $36
Total $538 $597


IV. Performance Analysis

Performance Trends. The Department's academic and professional exchange programs continue to increase in popularity worldwide. In particular, there was a significant increase in the number of exchange students from the Middle East in FY 2005. Furthermore, the Department continues to assess the impact of exchange programs; in addition to counting the number of participants, for example, the Department tracks the percentage of participants who gain a better understanding of the United States, those who remain in contact with host country colleagues over time, and the number of those who initiate change in their home countries after completing an exchange program. The two-year performance trend has been positive.

Outcome-level Results. Due to the long term and complexity of results, it can be difficult to measure the impact of U.S. public diplomacy and public affairs programs, but many Department programs have achieved their desired result. For example, public opinion polls and surveys taken in Indonesia in the aftermath of the tsunami showed that for the first time ever in a major Muslim nation, more people favored U.S.-led efforts to fight terrorism than opposed them. The fact that more than 85% of exchange program participants remain in contact with their American hosts as long as 15 years or more after the completion of their program also indicates that the Department is having some success improving understanding and appreciation of U.S. values and policies.

Results Significantly Above or Below Target. There were no results rated significantly below target in the strategic goal of Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs, although the percentage of readers of Hi Magazine with an interest in learning more about U.S. society and values was less than expected in FY 2005 (76% versus a target of 90%). Results above target included:

  • A 30% increase in International Information Programs listserv subscribers;
  • 98.63% of exchange participants initiated positive change in their community within five years of their program experience; and
  • 78.74% of program participants demonstrated an affinity for democratic values three or more years after their program experience.

Resources Invested. The Department continued to increase its investment in public diplomacy and public affairs, targeting audiences in the Middle East in particular. For example, resources invested in academic, professional and cultural exchanges increased 12.4% from FY 2004 to FY 2005 (from $316 million to $356 million).


FY 2005 Performance Report Card

The indicators below are representative of the Department's priorities and overall performance for this Strategic Goal. The FY 2005 PAR contains all indicators with detailed performance information.

PERFORMANCE GOAL ONE: Public Diplomacy Influences Global Public Opinion and Decision-Making Consistent with U.S. National Interests
Degree of Independent Media in Afghanistan
Rating On Target
  1. Reporters without Borders notes no incidences of government harassment of journalists in annual report on media freedom.
  2. Seventy-five percent of electronic media are privately controlled and no incidences of government harassment.
  1. According to Reporters without Borders, the Afghan media continued to develop but independent journalists ran afoul of old enemies in 2003: warlords, conservative judges and the Taliban. The draft constitution guaranteed press freedom but provided for prison sentences for press offences. The blasphemy law continues to be the biggest menace for journalists. Two were sentenced to death for what they had written and had to flee the country. According to Reporters without Borders, the government also intervened to halt "Islamicly incorrect" television broadcasts.
  2. At least 75% of electronic media are privately controlled. The U.S. Government is supporting an emerging independent media, with 45 independent radio stations established and broadcasting programs to 52% of the Afghan population. 40,000 radios have been distributed to hard-to-reach populations including rural women. Our programs provided training to almost 2,000 media professionals. 4,500 women have graduated from a community literacy program.
  1. There is marked and continued progress in the emergence of an independent media. Radio is the most important medium in Afghanistan, with 79 percent of respondents listening "yesterday"; 54 percent watched television.
  2. Newspapers and the Internet are not comparatively important information sources. In addition, Internet access in Afghanistan is scarce. Users can log on in Internet cafes in provincial capitals. Various NGOs and international organizations are opening public access points as well. However, computer literacy and ownership rates are miniscule, and internet infrastructure is in the first days of its development. Internet use by demographic group conforms to user profiles in most developing countries, with users tending to be younger and better-educated. However, unlike in most developing countries, women in Afghanistan are more likely to use the internet than are men.


PERFORMANCE GOAL TWO: International Exchanges Increase Mutual Understanding and Build Trust Between Americans and People and Institutions Around the World
Number of Foreign Youth Participants in Regions With Significant Muslim and Arab Populations in Youth Exchange and Study Program (PART Program)
Rating Above Target
Target 30% increase in new participants in youth exchange programs from 2004.
NEA: 245
EAP: 150
SA: 130
AF: 50
EUR: 25
Total: 600
Results 660
Impact By providing opportunities for foreign youth to participate in exchange programs, doors are opening in new sectors of foreign societies and exposing them to U.S. values, culture and society.


PERFORMANCE GOAL THREE: Basic Human Values Embraced by Americans are Respected and Understood by Global Publics and Institutions
Percentage of Participants Who Improve Their Understanding of U.S. Society and Values
Rating Below Target
Target 90%
  1. A survey of Hi Magazine's online readers shows increased interest in learning more about the United States (76%).
  2. 736 speakers, 449 digital video conferences and 650,000 publications reached their intended target audiences with information about U.S. policy, society and values.
Impact By reaching out to the successor generation and opinion leaders, the Department will improve perceptions and acceptance of U.S. policy, society and values.
Reason for Shortfall: 90% target was a worldwide goal under which regional variations were expected. Currently the Department only has data for an audience largely located in the Near East region, a region that presents major challenges for U.S. public diplomacy.
Steps to Improve: Data must be gathered from worldwide audiences to more accurately assess the performance of these programs.


PERFORMANCE GOAL FOUR: American Understanding and Support for U.S. Foreign Policy, Development Programs, the Department Of State, and the U.S. Agency for International Development
Number of Interviews and Contacts With U.S. Media
Rating On Target
Target 16,000 interviews/contacts per year with the media.
Results Daily and special press briefings; 15,200 inquiries from the press; and 1,151 print, radio and TV interviews.
Impact Daily press briefings and responses to journalists' policy questions give the press accurate, authoritative statements of U.S. policy. Transcripts of press briefings and the Secretary's remarks are available to an enormous number of readers via the Department's website. Press events with Department officials explain U.S. foreign policy to the broadest possible audience.


Photo showing Kyrgyz President Bakiyev, left, greeting supporters during a meeting in Balykchi, east of the capital, Bishkek, July 2005.

Former Exchange Participants Form New Government in Kyrgyz Republic

When protests following March 2005 parliamentary elections led to the end of President Akayev's rule, the new Kyrgyz Government included eight people who had been on International Visitor Leadership Programs between 1994 and 2004, including current President Bakiyev. Democracy Commission and other Embassy grants supported the initiatives of Kyrgyz civil society groups to promote free and fair elections, the highlight of which was a series of "Rock the Vote" concerts held across Kyrgyzstan in the run up to the July presidential election. Widely attended and nationally televised, these concerts helped raise awareness of election fraud and voter rights, and encouraged young voters to participate in the July 2005 presidential election.

Kyrgyz President Bakiyev, left, greets supporters during a meeting in Balykchi, east of the capital, Bishkek, July 2005. AP/Wide World Photo


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