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Diplomacy in Action

Strategic Goal 1: Achieving Peace and Security


Bureau of Resource Management
Report
November 15, 2010

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Photo showing Secretary of State Clinton and Secretary of Defense Gates participating in a ceremony at the Korean War Memorial in Seoul, July 2010.

Secretary of State Clinton and Secretary of Defense Gates participate in a ceremony at the Korean War Memorial in Seoul, July 2010. ©AP Image

Preserve international peace by preventing regional conflicts and transnational crime, combating terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, and supporting homeland security and security cooperation.

Public Benefit. The United States faces a broad set of dangers that know no borders and that threaten our national security, including the grave danger of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) falling into the wrong hands, terrorism and violent extremism, transnational crime, and persistent conflict in geostrategic States with repercussions that are felt well beyond those States’ borders.

The U.S. Government responds to these challenges using Smart Power – the deliberate and balanced application of the three pillars of U.S. foreign policy – diplomacy, development, and defense. In the U.S. Government’s efforts to build a safer and more secure world, our priorities include: seeking the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons by working to reduce the role of nuclear weapons in our own national security strategy and through bilateral and multilateral arms control efforts; combating weapons of mass destruction through cooperative efforts with friends and allies; countering terrorism, including fighting transnational crime and reducing the potential for terrorists to acquire WMD; supporting stabilization operations activities, security sector reforms, and counternarcotics activities; sponsoring conflict mitigation and reconciliation; and ensuring homeland security. The challenges are daunting but we have made some notable progress.

In FY 2010, we strengthened our national security by implementing Smart Power in a variety of ways. We deepened our collaboration with the Department of Defense (DOD) across all security sector assistance accounts. We provided robust security assistance to Pakistan forces battling terrorists and insurgents within its borders, and began to focus on the threats emanating from within Yemen. We enabled the training of over 31,000 new peacekeepers from 71 countries. We negotiated air and land transit agreements with Kazakhstan to enhance the Northern Distribution Network’s support to NATO in Afghanistan, a Defense Cooperation Agreement with Colombia, and a Supplemental Status of Forces Agreement with Poland to bolster ballistic missile defense. Our weapons removal programs destroyed thousands of unneeded or unsecured Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), small arms, light weapons, and tons of munitions from dozens of countries before the armaments could potentially fall into the wrong hands. We took a seminal step toward eliminating unnecessary complications from the sale of U.S. defense articles to our closest allies when the Senate ratified the Defense Trade Treaties with the United Kingdom and Australia and the full Congress passed the implementing legislation.

In December 2009, the President released the U.S. National Strategy on Countering Biological Threats. Pursuant to this Strategy, the Department is working to bolster the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) by developing a rigorous, comprehensive program of cooperation, information exchange, and coordination; increasing participation in confidence-building measures; and increasing international capacity to detect, report, and respond to outbreaks of disease whether deliberate, accidental, or natural. At the 2011 Review Conference of the BWC, our goal is to develop a work plan that addresses these areas.

Through diplomatic leadership, we nearly doubled the size of the Contact Group for Piracy off the Coast of Somalia, helping to draw force contributions to the international counter-piracy “armada” operating off the Horn of Africa and improving the implementation of commercial shipping self-protection best practices, resulting in reduced pirate attack success rates. We further coordinated diplomacy and defense by providing foreign policy input to the Defense Department’s top strategic documents, including the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review and the Guide for the Employment of the Force, and by assigning to DOD 82 Foreign Policy Advisors (POLADs) to provide guidance to our senior military leaders on international relations.

Transition in Iraq

In 2010, the U.S. Government continued to execute the Administration’s plan for a responsible drawdown of military force levels in Iraq, achieving the target of reducing to 50,000 combat troops in August 2010. The President intends to keep the U.S. commitment under the Security Agreement to remove all U.S. troops from Iraq by the end of 2011. The bilateral relationship between the United States and Iraq is evolving accordingly with civilian agencies assuming the lead for the United States. This transition will be manifested through: the expansion of the State Department’s police development program; a realignment of assistance to provide greater emphasis on governance, economic development, agriculture, health and education; and the phasing down of the U.S. Government provisional presence.

In April 2010, the United States took three bold steps in the direction of creating the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons. The first step was the release of a Nuclear Posture Review that reduces the role of nuclear weapons in our national security strategy. The United States reaffirmed “negative security assurances” to all non-nuclear weapon states party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and in compliance with their nuclear nonproliferation obligations. This means that the United States will not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against these non-nuclear weapon states. The second step was the signing of the New START Treaty with Russia that further reduces and limits the number of strategic arms on both sides and renews U.S.-Russian leadership on nuclear issues. The third step was the Nuclear Security Summit, which President Obama hosted in Washington, D.C., during which world leaders reached a consensus about the nature of the threat and agreed to a collective effort to secure nuclear material within four years.

Additionally, at the 2010 NPT Review Conference, the 189 NPT States Party committed to a concrete action plan that, if implemented by all States, will yield further international progress toward a world without nuclear weapons. The President chaired a 47-nation Nuclear Security Summit that endorsed his call to secure all vulnerable nuclear material in four years and pledged to work together to strengthen nuclear security and reduce the threat of nuclear terrorism. Participants issued a work plan identifying 50 specific commitments requiring action in order to meet these objectives. On May 3, 2010, the Review Conference of the NPT, held every five years, began its month-long work to review and strengthen the NPT. A consensus final document on substantive issues was achieved for the first time in ten years and consensus was reached on a plan of follow-on actions to strengthen each of the three pillars of the NPT — disarmament, nonproliferation, and access to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy — making this the first NPT Action Plan to cover all three pillars. The Secretary announced an initiative to broaden access to peaceful uses of nuclear energy, pledging $50 million over five years to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to expand efforts to broaden the use of nuclear energy for cancer treatment, food and water security, and the development of infrastructure for the safe, secure use of civil nuclear power. Our efforts led to the P-5 (United States, Russia, China, France, and United Kingdom) announcement on October 1, 2010 of plans for a P-5 conference in the spring of 2011 to examine further transparency and verification steps toward that goal.

The United States, in partnership with its P5+1 allies (the United Kingdom, France, Germany, China, and Russia), remains committed to the dual track policy of engagement and pressure as a means to persuade Iran to comply with its obligations. The United States and the international community are committed to meaningful negotiations with Iran to resolve the concerns about Iran’s nuclear program. The United States and the international community will continue to pressure Iran to make a choice between complying with its international nuclear obligations or face increasing isolation. International consensus remains solid that Iran must comply with its nonproliferation obligations.

Key Achievements

  • Signed and transmitted to the Senate for its advice and consent to ratification, the New START Treaty with Russia that replaced the original Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) with an agreement to reduce and limit nuclear strategic offensive arms to levels lower than those in the Moscow Treaty, while including effective verification measures drawn from START.
  • Took additional steps — including those identified above and with regard to strengthening the implementation of other international treaties related to WMD and the Euro-Atlantic security relationship — that represent further efforts towards establishing the conditions for a world without nuclear weapons.
  • Maintained an international coalition that condemned North Korea’s missile and nuclear tests through the adoption of the United Nations (UN) Security Council Resolution 1874.
  • Held the first round of the U.S.- China Strategic and Economic Dialogue, engaging China on regional security concerns, nonproliferation, and military-to-military relations.
  • Surpassed our goal to train and equip 75,000 new peacekeepers to participate in peacekeeping operations worldwide by 2010.
  • Succeeded in getting the UN Security Council to adopt a fourth legally binding Resolution (UNSCR 1929) that places additional restrictions on Iran’s nuclear activities, ballistic missile programs and, for the first time, conventional military.

Summary and Analysis of Performance Trends

The Department focuses significant efforts in this goal on peacekeeping operations in Africa and Near East Asia. Peacekeeping operations ratings is an illustrative indicator for this Strategic Goal. UN Peacekeeping Missions in Near East Asia received an average rating of 3 out of 4 by Department analysts for FY 2010, surpassing the target of 2.5. The rating mirrors the score received in FY 2008 and FY 2009. The FY 2010 average rating for United Nations Peacekeeping Missions in Africa remained at FY 2009 levels, with a score of 2.3 which is slightly below the target of 2.5. This decline reflects the increasingly difficult security, political, and economic environment in many parts of Africa.

Peacekeeping Operations Ratings in Africa and Near East Asia
FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009 FY 2010 FY 2011
Africa Result 1.8 2.3 2.3 2.3 N/A
Near East Result 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 N/A
Target 2.0 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5

Source: Internal State Department Mission Reports, UN Secretary General Reports, UN Security Council Reports

In a rapidly and continuously changing global environment, failing and post-conflict states pose one of the greatest national and international security challenges of our time. Through the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization, the Department is addressing the urgent need for a set of formalized, collaborative, and institutionalized foreign policy tools that can adequately address the diverse stabilization needs of the global community by pulling together the government’s wide range of expertise. The U.S. Government can better influence key transitional moments in fragile states if it can deploy civilians early enough in the cycle of reconstruction and stabilization operations. The Department has begun to do so in connection with the scheduled January 2011 referendum in South Sudan. In step with this strategy, the Department is tracking an output indicator measuring the average number of civilian deployments per month. Deployments increased over five fold in FY 2010 compared to FY 2009. The Department exceeded its target of 70 deployments per month in the fourth quarter of FY 2010, but did not meet the target for the full year.

Average Monthly Number of Civilian Reconstruction and
Stabilization Deployments to Conflict Zones1,2
FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009 FY 2010
Result 2.3 2.0 11.4 60
Target N/A N/A N/A 70

Source: Field reports and reach-back information from deployed employees, and S/CRS database.

1 Indicator new in FY 2009, targets established beginning in FY 2010. (back to text)

2 FY 2011 target to be determined upon passage of final FY 2011 congressional appropriation for the Civilian Stabilization Initiative. (back to text)




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