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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Cases Regarding the Border Closure due to BSE Concerns


Several Canadian claimants have submitted notices of arbitration under the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules alleging that the United States has violated NAFTA Chapter Eleven by closing the border to the importation of Canadian cattle after the discovery in 2003 of a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease) in a cow in Alberta, Canada.  Claimants are Canadian citizens and corporations that own and operate cattle feeding, feedlot and transportation businesses in Canada, which they allege were damaged by the border closure. 

Claimants allege that the border closure violates NAFTA Article 1102 (national treatment).  The notices of arbitration seek damages of varying amounts, ranging from CAN$38,000 to CAN$95 million. The total amount of damages sought by claimants is approximately US$235 million.

On January 28, 2008, the tribunal issued its Award on Jurisdiction, dismissing the claims against the United States in their entirety. The tribunal’s award, and other documents in the case, appear below.


-01/28/08   Award on Jurisdiction
-10/10/07   Transcript of the Hearing on the Preliminary Issue - Day Two
-10/09/07   Transcript of the Hearing on the Preliminary Issue - Day One
-08/03/07   Procedural Order No. 3
-07/05/07   Claimants' Rejoinder on the Preliminary Issue
-05/01/07   U.S. Reply on the Preliminary Issue
-03/01/07   Article 1128 Submission of Mexico
-01/30/07   Claimants' Response on the Preliminary Question
-12/01/06   U.S. Memorial on the Preliminary Issue
-11/07/06   Procedural Order No. 2
-10/20/06   Procedural Order No. 1
-06/02/05   Jim McNall Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   Leslie Smith Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   Michael Sears Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   Rex Vandenberg Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   Richard Hiebert Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   Rod Oosterbroek Notice of Arbitration
-06/02/05   TER Cattle Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Andrew Oosterbroek Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Brad Hopkins Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Brent Byers Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Brent Fisher Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Byron Sedore Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Chris Irwin Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Cornelius Van Hal Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Darren Johnston Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Dave Knapp Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   David Hewitt Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Donald Procter Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   George Adams Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Glen Thompson Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Graham Alexander Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Helmut Friesen Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   James Wiskerke Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Joseph Daunt Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Keith Kerr Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Ken Andreychuk Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Kevin Freiburger Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Larry Brodersen Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Lee Robson Notice of Arbitraiton
-05/20/05   Maria Vanden Elzen Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Murray Johnston Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   NFL Holdings Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Paul Gowing Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Paul MacIntyre Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Peter Schwenk Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Peter Vander Heyden Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Robert Emerson Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Robert Laidlaw Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Ron Coulter Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Ross McCall Notice of Arbitration
-05/20/05   Ryan Kasko Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Barry Hillman Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Ben Gardiner Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Bernie Loman Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Blair Bieman Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Blake Holtman Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Bruce Groenenboom Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Butch Martin Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Dale Pallister Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Darwin Ullery Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Dave Gardiner Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Dave Johnston Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Dave Matthies, Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   David Millsap Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Doug Briggs Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Doug Nieboer Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Doug Shelswel Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Ed Stronks Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Eric Thacker Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Evert Kraayenbrink Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Firmin Declercq Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Frank Zettler Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   G. Lee Hochstein Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   George Alton Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   George Maxwell Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Glen Armitage Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Grant Nelson Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Harry Duban Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Harry Vandersteen Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Harry Welsch Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Henry Van Hall Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Herb Groenenboom Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Herbert Serfas Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Herman Stroeve Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Ian MacLean Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Jim Steed Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Joe Stroeve Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   John Schooten Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   John Stroeve Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   John Vander Heyden Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Julie Coe Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Keith Scott Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Larry Lehrbass Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Leighton Kolk Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Lloyd Sproule Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Louis Ypma Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Marty Wren Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Mary Conlin Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Murray Brodhagen Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Nick Popovic Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Paul Adams Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Renus Van Hal Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Richard Visser Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Rients Wever Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Robert Cooke Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Robert Vander Heyden Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Ryan Gibson Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Steve McKague Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Stuart Alton Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Ward Takeda Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Wayne Beattie Notice of Arbitration
-05/11/05   Wilfred Haines Notice of Arbitration
-03/16/05   Cor Van Raay Notice of Arbitration
-03/16/05   Joe Groenenboom Notice of Arbitration
-03/16/05   John Vander Heyden Notice of Arbitration
-03/16/05   Larry Nolan Notice of Arbitration
-03/16/05   Theodorus de Boer Notice of Arbitration

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