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12927 Multilateral - Agreement Concerning Cooperation on the International Space Station. With Implementing Arrangement.


   
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TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS SERIES 12927

 

 

SPACE STATION



Agreement Between the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
and OTHER GOVERNMENTS
Signed at Washington January 29, 1998

with

Annex

and

Arrangement Between the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
and OTHER GOVERNMENTS
Signed at Washington January 29, 1998

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOTE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Pursuant to Public Law 89—497, approved July 8, 1966
(80 Stat. 271; 1 U.S.C. 113)—

“. . .the Treaties and Other International Acts Series issued
under the authority of the Secretary of State shall be competent
evidence . . . of the treaties, international agreements other than
treaties, and proclamations by the President of such treaties and
international agreements other than treaties, as the case may be,
therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of maritime
jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the
United States, and of the several States, without any further proof
or authentication thereof.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



MULTILATERAL

Space Station


Agreement signed at Washington January 29, 1998;
Entered into force March 27, 2001.
With annex.

and

Arrangement signed at Washington January 29, 1998;
Entered into force January 29, 1998.

AGREEMENT
AMONG THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA,
GOVERNMENTS OF MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY,
THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN,
THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION,
AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
CONCERNING COOPERATION ON THE
CIVIL INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION
The Government of Canada (hereinafter also "Canada"),
The Governments of the Kingdom of Belgium, the Kingdom of Denmark, the French
Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Kingdom of the
Netherlands, the Kingdom of Norway, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Sweden, the
Swiss Confederation, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, being
Governments of Member States of the European Space Agency (hereinafter collectively "the
European Governments" or "the European Partner"),
The Government of Japan (hereinafter also "Japan"),
The Government of the Russian Federation (hereinafter also "Russia"), and
The Government of the United States of America (hereinafter "the Government of the
United States" or "the United States"),
Recalling that in January 1984 the President of the United States directed the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and place into orbit a
permanently manned Space Station and invited friends and allies of the United States to
participate in its development and use and to share in the benefits thereof,
Recalling the acceptance of the aforementioned invitation by the Prime Minister of Canada
at the March 1985 Quebec Summit meeting with the President of the United States and the
mutual confirmation of interest on cooperation at the March 1986 Washington, D.C. Summit
meeting,
Recalling the terms of the relevant Resolutions adopted on 31 January 1985 and 20 October
1995 by the European Space Agency (ESA) Council meeting at the ministerial level, and
that, within the framework of ESA, and in accordance with its purpose as defined in Article II
of the Convention establishing it, the Columbus programme and the European participation
in the international Space Station development programme have been undertaken to develop
and will develop elements of the civil international Space Station,
Recalling Japan's interest in the Space Station program manifested during the NASA
Administrator's visits to Japan in 1984 and 1985 and Japan's participation in the U.S. space
program through the First Materials Processing Test,
Recalling ESA's and Canada's participation in the U.S. Space Transportation System
through the European development of the first manned space laboratory, Spacelab, and the
Canadian development of the Remote Manipulator System,
Recalling the partnership created by the Agreement Among the Government of the United
States of America, Governments of Member States of the European Space Agency, the
Government of Japan, and the Government of Canada on Cooperation in the Detailed
Design, Development, Operation, and Utilization of the Permanently Manned Civil Space
Station (hereinafter "the 1988 Agreement"), done at Washington on 29 September 1988 and
related Memoranda of Understanding between NASA and the Ministry of State for Science
and Technology (MOSST) of Canada, NASA and ESA, and NASA and the Government of
Japan,
Recognizing that the 1988 Agreement entered into force on 30 January 1992 between the
United States and Japan,
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Recalling that NASA, ESA, the Government of Japan and MOSST have been implementing
cooperative activities to realize the partnership in the Space Station program in accordance
with the 1988 Agreement and the related Memoranda of Understanding, and recognizing
that upon its establishment on 1 March 1989, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) assumed
responsibility for the execution of the Canadian Space Station Program from MOSST,
Convinced that, in view of the Russian Federation's unique experience and accomplishments
in the area of human space flight and long-duration missions, including the successful long-
term operation of the Russian Mir Space Station, its participation in the partnership will
considerably enhance the capabilities of the Space Station to the benefit of all the Partners,
Recalling the invitation extended on 6 December 1993 by the Government of Canada, the
European Governments, the Government of Japan, and the Government of the United States
to the Government of the Russian Federation to become a Partner in the detailed design,
development, operation and utilization of the Space Station within the framework established
by the Space Station Agreements, and the positive response of the Government of the
Russian Federation on 17 December 1993 to that invitation,
Recalling the arrangements between the Chairman of the Government of the Russian
Federation and the Vice President of the United States to promote cooperation on important
human spaceflight activities, including the Russian-U.S. Mir-Shuttle program, to prepare for
building the International Space Station,
Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and
Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (hereinafter "the Outer
Space Treaty"), which entered into force on 10 October 1967,
Recalling the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and the
Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (hereinafter "the Rescue Agreement"), which
entered into force on 3 December 1968,
Recalling the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects
(hereinafter "the Liability Convention"), which entered into force on 1 September 1972,
Recalling the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space (hereinafter
"the Registration Convention"), which entered into force on 15 September 1976,
Convinced that working together on the civil international Space Station will further expand
cooperation through the establishment of a long-term and mutually beneficial relationship,
and will further promote cooperation in the exploration and peaceful use of outer space,
Recognizing that NASA and CSA, NASA and ESA, NASA and the Government of Japan,
and NASA and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) have prepared Memoranda of
Understanding (hereinafter "the MOUs") in conjunction with their Governments'
negotiation of this Agreement, and that the MOUs provide detailed provisions in
implementation of this Agreement,
Recognizing, in light of the foregoing, that it is desirable to establish among the
Government of Canada, the European Governments, the Government of Japan, the
Government of the Russian Federation, and the Government of the United States a
framework for the design, development, operation, and utilization of the Space Station,
Have agreed as follows:
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Article 1
Object and Scope
1. The object of this Agreement is to establish a long-term international cooperative
framework among the Partners, on the basis of genuine partnership, for the detailed design,
development, operation, and utilization of a permanently inhabited civil international Space
Station for peaceful purposes, in accordance with international law. This civil international
Space Station will enhance the scientific, technological, and commercial use of outer space.
This Agreement specifically defines the civil international Space Station program and the
nature of this partnership, including the respective rights and obligations of the Partners in
this cooperation. This Agreement further provides for mechanisms and arrangements
designed to ensure that its object is fulfilled.
2. The Partners will join their efforts, under the lead role of the United States for overall
management and coordination, to create an integrated international Space Station. The
United States and Russia, drawing on their extensive experience in human space flight, will
produce elements which serve as the foundation for the international Space Station. The
European Partner and Japan will produce elements that will significantly enhance the Space
Station's capabilities. Canada's contribution will be an essential part of the Space Station.
This Agreement lists in the Annex the elements to be provided by the Partners to form the
international Space Station.
3. The permanently inhabited civil international Space Station (hereinafter "the Space
Station") will be a multi-use facility in low-earth orbit, with flight elements and Space
Station-unique ground elements provided by all the Partners. By providing Space Station
flight elements, each Partner acquires certain rights to use the Space Station and participates
in its management in accordance with this Agreement, the MOUs, and implementing
arrangements.
4. The Space Station is conceived as having an evolutionary character. The Partner States'
rights and obligations regarding evolution shall be subject to specific provisions in
accordance with Article 14.
Article 2
International Rights and Obligations
1. The Space Station shall be developed, operated, and utilized in accordance with
international law, including the Outer Space Treaty, the Rescue Agreement, the Liability
Convention, and the Registration Convention.
2. Nothing in this Agreement shall be interpreted as:
(a) modifying the rights and obligations of the Partner States found in the treaties
listed in paragraph 1 above, either toward each other or toward other States, except as
otherwise provided in Article 16;
(b) affecting the rights and obligations of the Partner States when exploring or using
outer space, whether individually or in cooperation with other States, in activities
unrelated to the Space Station; or
(c) constituting a basis for asserting a claim to national appropriation over outer space
or over any portion of outer space.
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Article 3
Definitions
For the purposes of this Agreement, the following definitions shall apply:
(a) "this Agreement":
the present Agreement, including the Annex;
(b) "the Partners" (or, where appropriate, "each Partner"):
the Government of Canada; the European Governments listed in the Preamble
which become parties to this Agreement, as well as any other European
Government that may accede to this Agreement in accordance with Article
25(3), acting collectively as one Partner; the Government of Japan; the
Government of the Russian Federation; and the Government of the United
States;
(c) "Partner State":
each Contracting Party for which this Agreement has entered into force, in
accordance with Article 25.
Article 4
Cooperating Agencies
1. The Partners agree that the Canadian Space Agency (hereinafter "CSA") for the
Government of Canada, the European Space Agency (hereinafter "ESA") for the European
Governments, the Russian Space Agency (hereinafter "RSA") for Russia, and the National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (hereinafter "NASA") for the United States shall be
the Cooperating Agencies responsible for implementing Space Station cooperation. The
Government of Japan's Cooperating Agency designation for implementing Space Station
cooperation shall be made in the Memorandum of Understanding between NASA and the
Government of Japan referred to in paragraph 2 below.
2. The Cooperating Agencies shall implement Space Station cooperation in accordance
with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, the respective Memoranda of Understanding
(MOUs) between NASA and CSA, NASA and ESA, NASA and the Government of Japan,
and NASA and RSA concerning cooperation on the civil international Space Station, and
arrangements between or among NASA and the other Cooperating Agencies implementing
the MOUs (implementing arrangements). The MOUs shall be subject to this Agreement,
and the implementing arrangements shall be consistent with and subject to the MOUs.
3. Where a provision of an MOU sets forth rights or obligations accepted by a Cooperating
Agency (or, in the case of Japan, the Government of Japan) not a party to that MOU, such
provision may not be amended without the written consent of that Cooperating Agency (or,
in the case of Japan, the Government of Japan).
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Article 5
Registration; Jurisdiction and Control
1. In accordance with Article II of the Registration Convention, each Partner shall register
as space objects the flight elements listed in the Annex which it provides, the European
Partner having delegated this responsibility to ESA, acting in its name and on its behalf
2. Pursuant to Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty and Article II of the Registration
Convention, each Partner shall retain jurisdiction and control over the elements it registers in
accordance with paragraph 1 above and over personnel in or on the Space Station who are its
nationals. The exercise of such jurisdiction and control shall be subject to any relevant
provisions of this Agreement, the MOUs, and implementing arrangements, including relevant
procedural mechanisms established therein.
Article 6
Ownership of Elements and Equipment
1. Canada, the European Partner, Russia, and the United States, through their respective
Cooperating Agencies, and an entity designated by Japan at the time of the deposit of its
instrument under Article 25(2), shall own the elements listed in the Annex that they
respectively provide, except as otherwise provided for in this Agreement. The Partners,
acting through their Cooperating Agencies, shall notify each other regarding the ownership of
any equipment in or on the Space Station.
2. The European Partner shall entrust ESA, acting in its name and on its behalf, with
ownership over the elements it provides, as well as over any other equipment developed and
funded under an ESA programme as a contribution to the Space Station, its operation or
utilization.
3. The transfer of ownership of the elements listed in the Annex or of equipment in or on
the Space Station shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Partners under this
Agreement, the MOUs, or implementing arrangements.
4. Equipment in or on the Space Station shall not be owned by, and ownership of elements
listed in the Annex shall not be transferred to, any non-Partner or private entity under the
jurisdiction of a non-Partner without the prior concurrence of the other Partners. Any transfer
of ownership of any element listed in the Annex shall require prior notification of the other
Partners.
5. The ownership of equipment or material provided by a user shall not be affected by the
mere presence of such equipment or material in or on the Space Station.
6. The ownership or registration of elements or the ownership of equipment shall in no way
be deemed to be an indication of ownership of material or data resulting from the conduct of
activities in or on the Space Station.
7. The exercise of ownership of elements and equipment shall be subject to any relevant
provisions of this Agreement, the MOUs, and implementing arrangements, including relevant
procedural mechanisms established therein.
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Article 7
Management
1. Management of the Space Station will be established on a multilateral basis and the
Partners, acting through their Cooperating Agencies, will participate and discharge
responsibilities in management bodies established in accordance with the MOUs and
implementing arrangements as provided below. These management bodies shall plan and
coordinate activities affecting the design and development of the Space Station and its safe,
efficient, and effective operation and utilization, as provided in this Agreement and the
MOUs. In these management bodies, decision-making by consensus shall be the goal.
Mechanisms for decision-making within these management bodies where it is not possible for
the Cooperating Agencies to reach consensus are specified in the MOUs. Decision-making
responsibilities which the Partners and their Cooperating Agencies have with respect to the
elements they provide are specified in this Agreement and the MOUs.
2. The United States, acting through NASA, and in accordance with the MOUs and
implementing arrangements, shall be responsible for management of its own program,
including its utilization activities. The United States, acting through NASA, and in
accordance with the MOUs and implementing arrangements, shall also be responsible for:
overall program management and coordination of the Space Station, except as otherwise
provided in this Article and in the MOUs; overall system engineering and integration;
establishment of overall safety requirements and plans; and overall planning for and
coordination of the execution of the overall integrated operation of the Space Station.
3. Canada, the European Partner, Japan and Russia, acting through their Cooperating
Agencies, and in accordance with the MOUs and implementing arrangements, shall each be
responsible for: management of their own programs, including their utilization activities;
system engineering and integration of the elements they provide; development and
implementation of detailed safety requirements and plans for the elements they provide; and,
consistent with paragraph 2 above, supporting the United States in the performance of its
overall responsibilities, including participating in planning for and coordination of the
execution of the integrated operation of the Space Station.
4. To the extent that a design and development matter concerns only a Space Station
element provided by Canada, the European Partner, Japan, or Russia and is not covered in the
agreed program documentation provided for in the MOUs, that Partner, acting through its
Cooperating Agency, may make decisions related to that element.
Article 8
Detailed Design and Development
In accordance with Article 7 and other relevant provisions of this Agreement, and in
accordance with the MOUs and implementing arrangements, each Partner, acting through its
Cooperating Agency, shall design and develop the elements which it provides, including
Space Station-unique ground elements adequate to support the continuing operation and full
international utilization of the flight elements, and shall interact with the other Partners,
through their Cooperating Agencies, to reach solutions on design and development of their
respective elements.
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Article 9
Utilization
1. Utilization rights are derived from Partner provision of user elements, infrastructure
elements, or both. Any Partner that provides Space Station user elements shall retain use of
those elements, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph. Partners which provide
resources to operate and use the Space Station, which are derived from their Space Station
infrastructure elements, shall receive in exchange a fixed share of the use of certain user
elements. Partners' specific allocations of Space Station user elements and of resources
derived from Space Station infrastructure are set forth in the MOUs and implementing
arrangements.
2. The Partners shall have the right to barter or sell any portion of their respective
allocations. The terms and conditions of any barter or sale shall be determined on a
case-by-case basis by the parties to the transaction.
3. Each Partner may use and select users for its allocations for any purpose consistent with
the object of this Agreement and provisions set forth in the MOUs and implementing
arrangements, except that:
(a) any proposed use of a user element by a non-Partner or private entity under the
jurisdiction of a non-Partner shall require the prior notification to and timely
consensus among all Partners through their Cooperating Agencies; and
(b) the Partner providing an element shall determine whether a contemplated use of
that element is for peaceful purposes, except that this subparagraph shall not be
invoked to prevent any Partner from using resources derived from the Space Station
infrastructure.
4. In its use of the Space Station, each Partner, through its Cooperating Agency, shall seek
through the mechanisms established in the MOUs to avoid causing serious adverse effects on
the use of the Space Station by the other Partners.
5. Each Partner shall assure access to and use of its Space Station elements to the other
Partners in accordance with their respective allocations.
6. For purposes of this Article, an ESA Member State shall not be considered a
"non-Partner".
Article 10
Operation
The Partners, acting through their Cooperating Agencies, shall have responsibilities in the
operation of the elements they respectively provide, in accordance with Article 7 and other
relevant provisions of this Agreement, and in accordance with the MOUs and implementing
arrangements. The Partners, acting through their Cooperating Agencies, shall develop and
implement procedures for operating the Space Station in a manner that is safe, efficient, and
effective for Space Station users and operators, in accordance with the MOUs and
implementing arrangements. Further, each Partner, acting through its Cooperating Agency,
shall be responsible for sustaining the functional performance of the elements it provides.
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Article 11
Crew
1. Each Partner has the right to provide qualified personnel to serve on an equitable basis
as Space Station crew members. Selections and decisions regarding the flight assignments of
a Partner's crew members shall be made in accordance with procedures provided in the
MOUs and implementing arrangements.
2. The Code of Conduct for the Space Station crew will be developed and approved by all
the Partners in accordance with the individual Partner's internal procedures, and in
accordance with the MOUs. A Partner must have approved the Code of Conduct before it
provides Space Station crew. Each Partner, in exercising its right to provide crew, shall
ensure that its crew members observe the Code of Conduct.
Article 12
Transportation
1. Each of the Partners shall have the right of access to the Space Station using its
respective government and private sector space transportation systems, if they are compatible
with the Space Station. The United States, Russia, the European Partner, and Japan, through
their respective Cooperating Agencies, shall make available launch and return transportation
services for the Space Station (using such space transportation systems as the U.S. Space
Shuttle, the Russian Proton and Soyuz, the European Ariane-5, and the Japanese H-II).
Initially, the U.S. and Russian space transportation systems will be used to provide launch
and return transportation services for the Space Station and, in addition, the other space
transportation systems will be used as those systems become available. Access and launch
and return transportation services shall be in accordance with the provisions of the relevant
MOUs and implementing arrangements.
2. Those Partners providing launch and return transportation services to other Partners and
their respective users on a reimbursable or other basis shall provide such services consistent
with conditions specified in the relevant MOUs and implementing arrangements. Those
Partners providing launch and return transportation services on a reimbursable basis shall
provide such services to another Partner or the users of that Partner, in comparable
circumstances, on the same basis they provide such services to any other Partner or the users
of such other Partner. Partners shall use their best efforts to accommodate proposed
requirements and flight schedules of the other Partners.
3. The United States, through NASA, working with the other Partners' Cooperating
Agencies in management bodies, shall plan and coordinate launch and return transportation
services for the Space Station in accordance with the integrated traffic planning process, as
provided in the MOUs and implementing arrangements.
4. Each Partner shall respect the proprietary rights in and the confidentiality of
appropriately marked data and goods to be transported on its space transportation system.
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Article 13
Communications
1. The United States and Russia, through their Cooperating Agencies, shall provide the two
primary data relay satellite system space and ground communications networks for
command, control, and operations of Space Station elements and payloads, and other Space
Station communication purposes. Other Partners may provide data relay satellite system
space and ground communication networks, if they are compatible with the Space Station and
with Space Station use of the two primary networks. The provision of Space Station
communications shall be in accordance with provisions in the relevant MOUs and
implementing arrangements.
2. On a reimbursable basis, the Cooperating Agencies shall use their best efforts to
accommodate, with their respective communication systems, specific Space Station-related
requirements of one another, consistent with conditions specified in the relevant MOUs and
implementing arrangements.
3. The United States, through NASA, working with the other Partners' Cooperating
Agencies in management bodies, shall plan and coordinate space and ground
communications services for the Space Station in accordance with relevant program
documentation, as provided in the MOUs and implementing arrangements.
4. Measures to ensure the confidentiality of utilization data passing through the Space
Station Information System and other communication systems being used in connection with
the Space Station may be implemented, as provided in the MOUs. Each Partner shall respect
the proprietary rights in, and the confidentiality of, the utilization data passing through its
communication systems, including its ground network and the communication systems of its
contractors, when providing communication services to another Partner.
Article 14
Evolution
1. The Partners intend that the Space Station shall evolve through the addition of capability
and shall strive to maximize the likelihood that such evolution will be effected through
contributions from all the Partners. To this end, it shall be the object of each Partner to
provide, where appropriate, the opportunity to the other Partners to cooperate in its proposals
for additions of evolutionary capability. The Space Station together with its additions of
evolutionary capability shall remain a civil station, and its operation and utilization shall be
for peaceful purposes, in accordance with international law.
2. This Agreement sets forth rights and obligations concerning only the elements listed in
the Annex, except that this Article and Article 16 shall apply to any additions of evolutionary
capability. This Agreement does not commit any Partner State to participate in, or otherwise
grant any Partner rights in, the addition of evolutionary capability.
3. Procedures for the coordination of the Partners' respective evolution studies and for the
review of specific proposals for the addition of evolutionary capability are provided in the
MOUs.
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4. Cooperation between or among Partners regarding the sharing of addition(s) of
evolutionary capability shall require, following the coordination and review provided for in
paragraph 3 above, either the amendment of this Agreement, or a separate agreement to
which the United States, to ensure that any addition is consistent with the overall program,
and any other Partner providing a Space Station element or space transportation system on
which there is an operational or technical impact, shall be parties.
5. Following the coordination and review provided for in paragraph 3 above, the addition
of evolutionary capability by one Partner shall require prior notification of the other Partners,
and an agreement with the United States to ensure that any addition is consistent with the
overall program, and with any other Partner providing a Space Station element or space
transportation system on which there is an operational or technical impact.
6. A Partner which may be affected by the addition of evolutionary capability under
paragraph 4 or 5 above may request consultations with the other Partners in accordance with
Article 23.
7. The addition of evolutionary capability shall in no event modify the rights and
obligations of any Partner State under this Agreement and the MOUs concerning the
elements listed in the Annex, unless the affected Partner State otherwise agrees.
Article 15
Funding
1. Each Partner shall bear the costs of fulfilling its respective responsibilities under this
Agreement, including sharing on an equitable basis the agreed common system operations
costs or activities attributed to the operation of the Space Station as a whole, as provided in
the MOUs and implementing arrangements.
2. Financial obligations of each Partner pursuant to this Agreement are subject to its
funding procedures and the availability of appropriated funds. Recognizing the importance
of Space Station cooperation, each Partner undertakes to make its best efforts to obtain
approval for funds to meet those obligations, consistent with its respective funding
procedures.
3. In the event that funding problems arise that may affect a Partner's ability to fulfill its
responsibilities in Space Station cooperation, that Partner, acting through its Cooperating
Agency, shall notify and consult with the other Cooperating Agencies. If necessary, the
Partners may also consult.
4. The Partners shall seek to minimize operations costs for the Space Station. In particular,
the Partners, through their Cooperating Agencies, in accordance with the provisions of the
MOUs, shall develop procedures intended to contain the common system operations costs
and activities within approved estimated levels.
5. The Partners shall also seek to minimize the exchange of funds in the implementation of
Space Station cooperation, including through the performance of specific operations
activities as provided in the MOUs and implementing arrangements or, if the concerned
Partners agree, through the use of barter.
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Article 16
Cross-Waiver of Liability
1. The objective of this Article is to establish a cross-waiver of liability by the Partner
States and related entities in the interest of encouraging participation in the exploration,
exploitation, and use of outer space through the Space Station. This cross-waiver of liability
shall be broadly construed to achieve this objective.
2. For the purposes of this Article:
(a) A "Partner State" includes its Cooperating Agency. It also includes any entity
specified in the MOU between NASA and the Government of Japan to assist the
Government of Japan's Cooperating Agency in the implementation of that MOU.
(b) The term "related entity" means:
(1) a contractor or subcontractor of a Partner State at any tier;
(2) a user or customer of a Partner State at any tier; or
(3) a contractor or subcontractor of a user or customer of a Partner State at any
tier.
This subparagraph may also apply to a State, or an agency or institution of a
State, having the same relationship to a Partner State as described in
subparagraphs 2(b)(1) through 2(b)(3) above or otherwise engaged in the
implementation of Protected Space Operations as defined in subparagraph 2 (f)
below.
"Contractors" and "subcontractors" include suppliers of any kind.
(c) The term "damage" means:
(1) bodily injury to, or other impairment of health of, or death of, any person;
(2) damage to, loss of, or loss of use of any property;
(3) loss of revenue or profits; or
(4) other direct, indirect or consequential damage.
(d) The term "launch vehicle" means an object (or any part thereof) intended for
launch, launched from Earth, or returning to Earth which carries payloads or persons,
or both.
(e) The term "payload" means all property to be flown or used on or in a launch
vehicle or the Space Station.
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(f) The term "Protected Space Operations" means all launch vehicle activities, Space
Station activities, and payload activities on Earth, in outer space, or in transit between
Earth and outer space in implementation of this Agreement, the MOUs, and
implementing arrangements. It includes, but is not limited to:
(1) research, design, development, test, manufacture, assembly, integration,
operation, or use of launch or transfer vehicles , the Space Station, or a payload,
as well as related support equipment and facilities and services; and
(2) all activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance
and control equipment and related facilities or services.
"Protected Space Operations" also includes all activities related to evolution of the
Space Station, as provided for in Article 14. "Protected Space Operations" excludes
activities on Earth which are conducted on return from the Space Station to develop
further a payload's product or process for use other than for Space Station related
activities in implementation of this Agreement.
3. (a) Each Partner State agrees to a cross-waiver of liability pursuant to which each
Partner State waives all claims against any of the entities or persons listed in
subparagraphs 3(a)(1) through 3(a)(3) below based on damage arising out of
Protected Space Operations. This cross-waiver shall apply only if the person, entity,
or property causing the damage is involved in Protected Space Operations and the
person, entity, or property damaged is damaged by virtue of its involvement in
Protected Space Operations. The cross-waiver shall apply to any claims for damage,
whatever the legal basis for such claims against:
(1) another Partner State;
(2) a related entity of another Partner State;
(3) the employees of any of the entities identified in subparagraphs 3(a)(1) and
3(a)(2) above.
(b) In addition, each Partner State shall, by contract or otherwise, extend the
cross-waiver of liability as set forth in subparagraph 3(a) above to its related entities
by requiring them to:
(1) waive all claims against the entities or persons identified in subparagraphs
3(a)(1) through 3(a)(3) above; and
(2) require that their related entities waive all claims against the entities or
persons identified in subparagraphs 3(a)(1) through 3(a)(3) above.
(c) For avoidance of doubt, this cross-waiver of liability includes a cross-waiver of
liability arising from the Liability Convention where the person, entity, or property
causing the damage is involved in Protected Space Operations and the person, entity,
or property damaged is damaged by virtue of its involvement in Protected Space
Operations.
(d) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Article, this cross-waiver of liability
shall not be applicable to:
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(1) claims between a Partner State and its related entity or between its own
related entities;
(2) claims made by a natural person, his/her estate, survivors or subrogees
(except when a subrogee is a Partner State) for bodily injury to, or other
impairment of health of, or death of such natural person;
(3) claims for damage caused by willful misconduct;
(4) intellectual property claims;
(5) claims for damage resulting from a failure of a Partner State to extend the
cross-waiver of liability to its related entities, pursuant to subparagraph 3(b)
above.
(e) With respect to subparagraph 3(d)(2) above, in the event that a subrogated claim
of the Government of Japan is not based upon government employee accident
compensation law, the Government of Japan shall fulfill its obligation to waive such
subrogated claim by ensuring that any assisting entity specified pursuant to
subparagraph 2(a) above indemnifies, in a manner consistent with Article 15(2) and
in accordance with applicable laws and regulations of Japan, any entity or person
identified in subparagraphs 3(a)(1) through 3(a)(3) above against liability arising from
such subrogated claim by the Government of Japan. Nothing in this Article shall
preclude the Government of Japan from waiving the foregoing subrogated claims.
(f) Nothing in this Article shall be construed to create the basis for a claim or suit
where none would otherwise exist.
Article 17
Liability Convention
1. Except as otherwise provided in Article 16, the Partner States, as well as ESA, shall
remain liable in accordance with the Liability Convention.
2. In the event of a claim arising out of the Liability Convention, the Partners (and ESA, if
appropriate) shall consult promptly on any potential liability, on any apportionment of such
liability, and on the defense of such claim.
3. Regarding the provision of launch and return services provided for in Article 12(2), the
Partners concerned (and ESA, if appropriate) may conclude separate agreements regarding
the apportionment of any potential joint and several liability arising out of the Liability
Convention.
Article 18
Customs and Immigration
1. Each Partner State shall facilitate the movement of persons and goods necessary to
implement this Agreement into and out of its territory, subject to its laws and regulations.
-14-
2. Subject to its laws and regulations, each Partner State shall facilitate provision of the
appropriate entry and residence documentation for nationals and families of nationals of
another Partner State who enter or exit or reside within the territory of the first Partner State
in order to carry out functions necessary for the implementation of this Agreement.
3. Each Partner State shall grant permission for duty-free importation and exportation to
and from its territory of goods and software which are necessary for implementation of this
Agreement and shall ensure their exemption from any other taxes and duties collected by the
customs authorities. This paragraph shall be implemented without regard to the country of
origin of such necessary goods and software.
Article 19
Exchange of Data and Goods
1. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, each Partner, acting through its
Cooperating Agency shall transfer all technical data and goods considered to be necessary
(by both parties to any transfer) to fulfill the responsibilities of that Partner's Cooperating
Agency under the relevant MOUs and implementing arrangements. Each Partner undertakes
to handle expeditiously any request for technical data or goods presented by the Cooperating
Agency of another Partner for the purposes of Space Station cooperation. This Article shall
not require a Partner State to transfer any technical data and goods in contravention of its
national laws or regulations.
2. The Partners shall make their best efforts to handle expeditiously requests for
authorization of transfers of technical data and goods by persons or entities other than the
Partners or their Cooperating Agencies (for example, company-to-company exchanges which
are likely to develop), and they shall encourage and facilitate such transfers in connection
with the Space Station cooperation under this Agreement. Otherwise, such transfers are not
covered by the terms and conditions of this Article. National laws and regulations shall
apply to such transfers.
3. The Partners agree that transfers of technical data and goods under this Agreement shall
be subject to the restrictions set forth in this paragraph. The transfer of technical data for the
purposes of discharging the Partners' responsibilities with regard to interface, integration and
safety shall normally be made without the restrictions set forth in this paragraph. If detailed
design, manufacturing, and processing data and associated software is necessary for interface,
integration or safety purposes, the transfer shall be made in accordance with paragraph 1
above, but the data and associated software may be appropriately marked as set out below.
Technical data and goods not covered by the restrictions set forth in this paragraph shall be
transferred without restriction, except as otherwise restricted by national laws or regulations.
(a) The furnishing Cooperating Agency shall mark with a notice, or otherwise
specifically identify, the technical data or goods that are to be protected for export
control purposes. Such a notice or identification shall indicate any specific conditions
regarding how such technical data or goods may be used by the receiving Cooperating
Agency and its contractors and subcontractors, including (1) that such technical data
or goods shall be used only for the purposes of fulfilling the receiving Cooperating
Agency's responsibilities under this Agreement and the relevant MOUs, and (2) that
such technical data or goods shall not be used by persons or entities other than the
receiving Cooperating Agency, its contractors or subcontractors, or for any other
purposes, without the prior written permission of the furnishing Partner State, acting
through its Cooperating Agency.
-15-
(b) The furnishing Cooperating Agency shall mark with a notice the technical data
that are to be protected for proprietary rights purposes. Such notice shall indicate any
specific conditions regarding how such technical data may be used by the receiving
Cooperating Agency and its contractors and subcontractors, including (1) that such
technical data shall be used, duplicated, or disclosed only for the purposes of fulfilling
the receiving Cooperating Agency's responsibilities under this Agreement and the
relevant MOUs, and (2) that such technical data shall not be used by persons or
entities other than the receiving Cooperating Agency, its contractors or
subcontractors, or for any other purposes, without the prior written permission of the
furnishing Partner State, acting through its Cooperating Agency.
(c) In the event that any technical data or goods transferred under this Agreement
are classified, the furnishing Cooperating Agency shall mark with a notice, or
otherwise specifically identify, such technical data or goods. The requested Partner
State may require that any such transfer shall be pursuant to a security of information
agreement or arrangement which sets forth the conditions for transferring and
protecting such technical data or goods. A transfer need not be conducted if the
receiving Partner State does not provide for the protection of the secrecy of patent
applications containing information that is classified or otherwise held in secrecy for
national security purposes. No classified technical data or goods shall be transferred
under this Agreement unless both parties agree to the transfer.
4. Each Partner State shall take all necessary steps to ensure that technical data or goods
received by it under subparagraphs 3(a), 3(b), or 3(c) above shall be treated by the receiving
Partner State, its Cooperating Agency, and other persons and entities (including contractors
and subcontractors) to which the technical data or goods are subsequently transferred in
accordance with the terms of the notice or identification. Each Partner State and Cooperating
Agency shall take all reasonably necessary steps, including ensuring appropriate contractual
conditions in their contracts and subcontracts, to prevent unauthorized use, disclosure, or
retransfer of, or unauthorized access to, such technical data or goods. In the case of technical
data or goods received under subparagraph 3(c) above, the receiving Partner State or
Cooperating Agency shall accord such technical data or goods a level of protection at least
equivalent to the level of protection accorded by the furnishing Partner State or Cooperating
Agency.
5. It is not the intent of the Partners to grant, through this Agreement or the relevant MOUs,
any rights to a recipient beyond the right to use, disclose, or retransfer received technical data
or goods consistent with conditions imposed under this Article.
6. Withdrawal from this Agreement by a Partner State shall not affect rights or obligations
regarding the protection of technical data and goods transferred under this Agreement prior to
such withdrawal, unless otherwise agreed in a withdrawal agreement pursuant to Article 28.
7. For the purposes of this Article, any transfer of technical data and goods by a
Cooperating Agency to ESA shall be deemed to be destined to ESA, to all of the European
Partner States, and to ESA's designated Space Station contractors and subcontractors, unless
otherwise specifically provided for at the time of transfer.
8. The Partners, through their Cooperating Agencies, will establish guidelines for security
of information.
- 16 -
Article 20
Treatment of Data and Goods in Transit
Recognizing the importance of the continuing operation and full international utilization of
the Space Station, each Partner State shall, to the extent its applicable laws and regulations
permit, allow the expeditious transit of data and goods of the other Partners, their
Cooperating Agencies, and their users. This Article shall only apply to data and goods
transiting to and from the Space Station, including but not limited to transit between its
national border and a launch or landing site within its territory, and between a launch or
landing site and the Space Station.
Article 21
Intellectual Property
1. For the purposes of this Agreement, "intellectual property" is understood to have the
meaning of Article 2 of the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property
Organization, done at Stockholm on 14 July 1967.
2. Subject to the provisions of this Article, for purposes of intellectual property law, an
activity occurring in or on a Space Station flight element shall be deemed to have occurred
only in the territory of the Partner State of that element's registry, except that for
ESA-registered elements any European Partner State may deem the activity to have occurred
within its territory. For avoidance of doubt, participation by a Partner State, its Cooperating
Agency, or its related entities in an activity occurring in or on any other Partner's Space
Station flight element shall not in and of itself alter or affect the jurisdiction over such
activity provided for in the previous sentence.
3. In respect of an invention made in or on any Space Station flight element by a person
who is not its national or resident, a Partner State shall not apply its laws concerning secrecy
of inventions so as to prevent the filing of a patent application (for example, by imposing a
delay or requiring prior authorization) in any other Partner State that provides for the
protection of the secrecy of patent applications containing information that is classified or
otherwise protected for national security purposes. This provision does not prejudice (a) the
right of any Partner State in which a patent application is first filed to control the secrecy of
such patent application or restrict its further filing; or (b) the right of any other Partner State
in which an application is subsequently filed to restrict, pursuant to any international
obligation, the dissemination of an application.
4. Where a person or entity owns intellectual property which is protected in more than one
European Partner State, that person or entity may not recover in more than one such State for
the same act of infringement of the same rights in such intellectual property which occurs in
or on an ESA-registered element. Where the same act of infringement in or on an
ESA-registered element gives rise to actions by different intellectual property owners by
virtue of more than one European Partner State's deeming the activity to have occurred in its
territory, a court may grant a temporary stay of proceeding in a later-filed action pending the
outcome of an earlier-filed action. Where more than one action is brought, satisfaction of a
judgment rendered for damages in any of the actions shall bar further recovery of damages in
any pending or future action for infringement based upon the same act of infringement.
-17-
5. With respect to an activity occurring in or on an ESA-registered element, no European
Partner State shall refuse to recognize a license for the exercise of any intellectual property
right if that license is enforceable under the laws of any European Partner State, and
compliance with the provisions of such license shall also bar recovery for infringement in any
European Partner State.
6. The temporary presence in the territory of a Partner State of any articles, including the
components of a flight element, in transit between any place on Earth and any flight element
of the Space Station registered by another Partner State or ESA shall not in itself form the
basis for any proceedings in the first Partner State for patent infringement.
Article 22
Criminal Jurisdiction
In view of the unique and unprecedented nature of this particular international cooperation in
space:
1. Canada, the European Partner States, Japan, Russia, and the United States may exercise
criminal jurisdiction over personnel in or on any flight element who are their respective
nationals.
2. In a case involving misconduct on orbit that: (a) affects the life or safety of a national of
another Partner State or (b) occurs in or on or causes damage to the flight element of another
Partner State, the Partner State whose national is the alleged perpetrator shall, at the request
of any affected Partner State, consult with such State concerning their respective
prosecutorial interests. An affected Partner State may, following such consultation, exercise
criminal jurisdiction over the alleged perpetrator provided that, within 90 days of the date of
such consultation or within such other period as may be mutually agreed, the Partner State
whose national is the alleged perpetrator either:
(1) concurs in such exercise of criminal jurisdiction, or
(2) fails to provide assurances that it will submit the case to its competent authorities
for the purpose of prosecution.
3. If a Partner State which makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty
receives a request for extradition from another Partner State with which it has no extradition
treaty, it may at its option consider this Agreement as the legal basis for extradition in respect
of the alleged misconduct on orbit. Extradition shall be subject to the procedural provisions
and the other conditions of the law of the requested Partner State.
4. Each Partner State shall, subject to its national laws and regulations, afford the other
Partners assistance in connection with alleged misconduct on orbit.
5. This Article is not intended to limit the authorities and procedures for the maintenance of
order and the conduct of crew activities in or on the Space Station which shall be established
in the Code of Conduct pursuant to Article 11, and the Code of Conduct is not intended to
limit the application of this Article.
-18-
Article 23
Consultations
1. The Partners, acting through their Cooperating Agencies, may consult with each other on
any matter arising out of Space Station cooperation. The Partners shall exert their best efforts
to settle such matters through consultation between or among their Cooperating Agencies in
accordance with procedures provided in the MOUs.
2. Any Partner may request that government-level consultations be held with another
Partner on any matter arising out of Space Station cooperation. The requested Partner shall
accede to such request promptly. If the requesting Partner notifies the United States that the
subject of such consultations is appropriate for consideration by all the Partners, the United
States shall convene multilateral consultations at the earliest practicable time, to which it
shall invite all the Partners.
3. Any Partner which intends to proceed with significant flight element design changes
which may have an impact on the other Partners shall notify the other Partners accordingly at
the earliest opportunity. A Partner so notified may request that the matter be submitted to
consultations in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 above.
4. If an issue not resolved through consultations still needs to be resolved, the concerned
Partners may submit that issue to an agreed form of dispute resolution such as conciliation,
mediation, or arbitration.
Article 24
Space Station Cooperation Review
In view of the long-term, complex, and evolving character of their cooperation under this
Agreement, the Partners shall keep each other informed of developments which might affect
this cooperation. Beginning in 1999, and every three years thereafter, the Partners shall meet
to deal with matters involved in their cooperation and to review and promote Space Station
cooperation.
Article 25
Entry into Force
1. This Agreement shall remain open for signature by the States listed in the Preamble of
this Agreement.
2. This Agreement is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession.
Ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession shall be effected by each State in accordance
with its constitutional processes. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, or
accession shall be deposited with the Government of the United States, hereby designated as
the Depositary.
3. (a) This Agreement shall enter into force on the date on which the last instrument of
ratification, acceptance, or approval of Japan, Russia and the United States has been
deposited. The Depositary shall notify all signatory States of this Agreement's entry
into force.
-19-
(b) This Agreement shall not enter into force for a European Partner State before it
enters into force for the European Partner. It shall enter into force for the European
Partner after the Depositary receives instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval,
or accession from at least four European signatory or acceding States, and, in
addition, a formal notification by the Chairman of the ESA Council.
(c) Following entry into force of this Agreement for the European Partner, it shall
enter into force for any European State listed in the Preamble that has not deposited
its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval upon deposit of such instrument.
Any ESA Member State not listed in the Preamble may accede to this Agreement by
depositing its instrument of accession with the Depositary.
Upon entry into force of this Agreement, the 1988 Agreement shall cease to be in force.
5. If this Agreement has not entered into force for a Partner within a period of two years
after its signature, the United States may convene a conference of the signatories to this
Agreement to consider what steps, including any modifications to this Agreement, are
necessary to take account of that circumstance.
Article 26
Operative Effect as Between Certain Parties
Notwithstanding Article 25 (3)(a) above, this Agreement shall become operative as between
the United States and Russia on the date they have expressed their consent to be bound by
depositing their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval. The Depositary shall
notify all signatory States if this Agreement becomes operative between the United States
and Russia pursuant to this Article.
Article 27
Amendments
This Agreement, including its Annex, may be amended by written agreement of the
Governments of the Partner States for which this Agreement has entered into force.
Amendments to this Agreement, except for those made exclusively to the Annex, shall be
subject to ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession by those States in accordance with
their respective constitutional processes. Amendments made exclusively to the Annex shall
require only a written agreement of the Governments of the Partner States for which this
Agreement has entered into force.
Article 28
Withdrawal
1. Any Partner State may withdraw from this Agreement at any time by giving to the
Depositary at least one year's prior written notice. Withdrawal by a European Partner State
shall not affect the rights and obligations of the European Partner under this Agreement.
-20-
2. If a Partner gives notice of withdrawal from this Agreement, with a view toward
ensuring the continuation of the overall program, the Partners shall endeavor to reach
agreement concerning the terms and conditions of that Partner's withdrawal before the
effective date of withdrawal.
3. (a) Because Canada's contribution is an essential part of the Space Station , upon its
withdrawal, Canada shall ensure the effective use and operation by the United States
of the Canadian elements listed in the Annex. To this end, Canada shall expeditiously
provide hardware, drawings, documentation, software, spares, tooling, special test
equipment, and/or any other necessary items requested by the United States.
(b) Upon Canada's notice of withdrawal for any reason, the United States and Canada
shall expeditiously negotiate a withdrawal agreement. Assuming that such agreement
provides for the transfer to the United States of those elements required for the
continuation of the overall program, it shall also provide for the United States to give
Canada adequate compensation for such transfer.
4. If a Partner gives notice of withdrawal from this Agreement, its Cooperating Agency
shall be deemed to have withdrawn from its corresponding MOU with NASA, effective from
the same date as its withdrawal from this Agreement.
5. Withdrawal by any Partner State shall not affect that Partner State's continuing rights and
obligations under Articles 16, 17, and 19, unless otherwise agreed in a withdrawal agreement
pursuant to paragraph 2 or 3 above.
-21-
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective
Governments, have signed this Agreement.
DONE at Washington, this 29th day of January, 1998. The texts of this Agreement in the
English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian languages shall be equally authentic.
A single original text in each language shall be deposited in the archives of the Government
of the United States. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies to all signatory States.
Upon entry into force of this Agreement, the Depositary shall register it pursuant to
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
NOTE: Only English text of Agreement will be printed in this publication.
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF BELGIUM:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE ITALIAN REPUBLIC:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
NORTHERN IRELAND:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
ANNEX
Space Station Elements to be Provided by the Partners
The Space Station elements to be provided by the Partners are summarized below and are
further elaborated in the MOUs:
1. The Government of Canada, through CSA, shall provide:
as a Space Station infrastructure element, the Mobile Servicing Center (MSC);
as an additional flight element, the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator; and
in addition to the flight elements above, Space Station-unique ground elements.
2. The European Governments, through ESA, shall provide:
as a user element, the European pressurized laboratory (including basic functional
outfitting);
other flight elements to supply and to reboost the Space Station; and
in addition to the flight elements above, Space Station-unique ground elements.
3. The Government of Japan shall provide:
as a user element, the Japanese Experiment Module (including basic functional
outfitting, as well as the Exposed Facility and the Experiment Logistics Modules);
other flight elements to supply the Space Station; and
in addition to the flight elements above, Space Station-unique ground elements.
4. The Government of Russia, through RSA, shall provide:
Space Station infrastructure elements, including service and other modules;
as user elements, research modules (including basic functional outfitting) and attached
payload accommodation equipment;
other flight elements to supply and to reboost the Space Station; and
in addition to the flight elements above, Space Station-unique ground elements.
5. The Government of the United States, through NASA, shall provide:
Space Station infrastructure elements, including a habitation module;
as user elements, laboratory modules (including basic functional outfitting), and
attached payload accommodation equipment;
other flight elements to supply the Space Station; and
in addition to the flight elements above, Space Station-unique ground elements.

ARRANGEMENT CONCERNING APPLICATION
OF THE SPACE STATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL AGREEMENT
PENDING ITS ENTRY INTO FORCE
1. The Parties to this Arrangement are all signatories to the Agreement among the
Government of Canada, Governments of Member States of the European Space Agency, the
Government of Japan, the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the
United States of America Concerning Cooperation on the Civil International Space Station
(hereinafter "the Intergovernmental Agreement") done at Washington on January 29, 1998.
2. In accordance with its terms, the Intergovernmental Agreement will enter into force on the
date on which the last instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of Japan, Russia and
the United States has been deposited. Thereafter, the Intergovernmental Agreement will enter
into force for a Partner upon the deposit of that Partner's instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession. For these purposes, the European Partner will be considered to have
deposited its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession when the Depositary
receives instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession from at least four
European signatory or acceding States, and, in addition, a formal notification by the Chairman
of the European Space Agency's Council.
3. The Parties to this Arrangement desire to pursue cooperation as provided in the
Intergovernmental Agreement to the fullest possible extent, pending completion by each of
them of all domestic actions required prior to ratification, acceptance or approval of, or
accession to, the Intergovernmental Agreement.
4. The Parties to this Arrangement therefore undertake, to the fullest extent possible
consistent with their domestic laws and regulations, to abide by the terms of the
Intergovernmental Agreement until it enters into force or becomes operative with respect to
each of them.
5. A. Party may withdraw from this Arrangement upon 120 days' written notice to the other
Parties.
6. This Arrangement will be effective upon signature. Thereafter, this Arrangement may be
acceded to by a signatory to the Intergovernmental Agreement by signature or by depositing an
instrument of accession with the Depositary.
7. This Arrangement supersedes the Arrangement Concerning Application of the Space
Station Intergovernmental Agreement Pending Its Entry Into Force, done at Washington on
September 29, 1988, which is hereby terminated.
Done at Washington this 29th day of January, 1998, in one original, the English, French,
German, Italian, Japanese and Russian texts being equally authentic.
NOTE: Only English text of Arrangement will be printed in this publication.

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF NORWAY:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SPAIN:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE SWISS CONFEDERATION:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND
NORTHERN IRELAND:
FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:



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