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13127 Multilateral - United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, with Protocols


   
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TREATIES AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL ACTS SERIES 13127

 

ORGANIZED CRIME

 

 

 


Convention Between the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
and OTHER GOVERNMENTS

 

Done at New York November 15, 2000

with

Protocols

 

 

 

 



 

 


NOTE BY THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE

Pursuant to Public Law 89—497, approved July 8, 1966
(80 Stat. 271; 1 U.S.C. 113)—

“. . .the Treaties and Other International Acts Series issued
under the authority of the Secretary of State shall be competent
evidence . . . of the treaties, international agreements other than
treaties, and proclamations by the President of such treaties and
international agreements other than treaties, as the case may be,
therein contained, in all the courts of law and equity and of maritime
jurisdiction, and in all the tribunals and public offices of the
United States, and of the several States, without any further proof
or authentication thereof.”


 

 

 

 


MULTILATERAL

Organized Crime

Convention done at New York November 15, 2000;
Transmitted by the President of the United States of America
to the Senate February 23, 2004 (Treaty Doc. 108-16,
108th Congress, 2d Session);
Reported favorably by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
July 26, 2005 (Senate Executive Report No. 109-4,
109th Congress, 1st Session);
Advice and consent to ratification by the Senate
October 7, 2005;
Ratified by the President October 19, 2005;
Instrument of Ratification deposited November 3, 2005;
Entered into force December 3, 2005.
With protocols.

 

 

 

 

 

UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST
TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
UNITED NATIONS
2000
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL
ORGANIZED CRIME
Article 1
Statement of purpose
The purpose of this Convention is to promote cooperation to prevent
and combat transnational organized crime more effectively.
Article 2
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) "Organized criminal group" shall mean a structured group of
three or more persons, existing for a period of time and acting in concert with
the aim of committing one or more serious crimes or offences established in
accordance with this Convention, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a
financial or other material benefit;
(b) "Serious crime" shall mean conduct constituting an offence
punishable by a maximum deprivation of liberty of at least four years or a
more serious penalty;
(c) "Structured group" shall mean a group that is not randomly
formed for the immediate commission of an offence and that does not need to
have formally defined roles for its members, continuity of its membership or a
developed structure;
(d) "Property" shall mean assets of every kind, whether corporeal or
incorporeal, movable or immovable, tangible or intangible, and legal
documents or instruments evidencing title to, or interest in, such assets;
(e) "Proceeds of crime" shall mean any property derived from or
obtained, directly or indirectly, through the commission of an offence;
(f) "Freezing" or "seizure" shall mean temporarily prohibiting the
transfer, conversion, disposition or movement of property or temporarily
assuming custody or control of property on the basis of an order issued by a
court or other competent authority;
(g) "Confiscation", which includes forfeiture where applicable, shall
mean the permanent deprivation of property by order of a court or other
competent authority;
(h) "Predicate offence" shall mean any offence as a result of which
proceeds have been generated that may become the subject of an offence as
defined in article 6 of this Convention;
(i) "Controlled delivery" shall mean the technique of allowing illicit
or suspect consignments to pass out of, through or into the territory of one or
more States, with the knowledge and under the supervision of their competent
authorities, with a view to the investigation of an offence and the identification
of persons involved in the commission of the offence;
(j) "Regional economic integration organization" shall mean an
organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, to which its
member States have transferred competence in respect of matters governed by
this Convention and which has been duly authorized, in accordance with its
internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to it; references
to "States Parties" under this Convention shall apply to such organizations
within the limits of their competence.
Article 3
Scope of application
1. This Convention shall apply, except as otherwise stated herein, to
the prevention, investigation and prosecution of:
(a) The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and
23 of this Convention; and
(b) Serious crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention;
where the offence is transnational in nature and involves an organized criminal
group.
2. For the purpose of paragraph 1 of this article, an offence is
transnational in nature if:
(a) It is committed in more than one State;
(b) It is committed in one State but a substantial part of its
preparation, planning, direction or control takes place in another State;
(c) It is committed in one State but involves an organized criminal
group that engages in criminal activities in more than one State; or
(d) It is committed in one State but has substantial effects in another
State.
Article 4
Protection of sovereignty
1. States Parties shall carry out their obligations under this
Convention in a manner consistent with the principles of sovereign equality
and territorial integrity of States and that of non-intervention in the domestic
affairs of other States.
2. Nothing in this Convention entitles a State Party to undertake in
the territory of another State the exercise of jurisdiction and performance of
functions that are reserved exclusively for the authorities of that other State by
its domestic law.
—2—
Article 5
Criminalization of participation in an organized
criminal group
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures
as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed
intentionally:
(a) Either or both of the following as criminal offences distinct from
those involving the attempt or completion of the criminal activity:
(i) Agreeing with one or more other persons to commit a serious
crime for a purpose relating directly or indirectly to the obtaining of a
financial or other material benefit and, where required by domestic law,
involving an act undertaken by one of the participants in furtherance of
the agreement or involving an organized criminal group;
(ii) Conduct by a person who, with knowledge of either the aim and
general criminal activity of an organized criminal group or its intention
to commit the crimes in question, takes an active part in:
a. Criminal activities of the organized criminal group;
b. Other activities of the organized criminal group in the
knowledge that his or her participation will contribute to the
achievement of the above-described criminal aim;
(b) Organizing, directing, aiding, abetting, facilitating or counselling
the commission of serious crime involving an organized criminal group.
2. The knowledge, intent, aim, purpose or agreement referred to in
paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective factual
circumstances.
3. States Parties whose domestic law requires involvement of an
organized criminal group for purposes of the offences established in
accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article shall ensure that their
domestic law covers all serious crimes involving organized criminal groups.
Such States Parties, as well as States Parties whose domestic law requires an
act in furtherance of the agreement for purposes of the offences established in
accordance with paragraph 1 (a) (i) of this article, shall so inform the
Secretary-General of the United Nations at the time of their signature or of
deposit of their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or
accession to this Convention.
Article 6
Criminalization of the laundering of
proceeds of crime
1. Each State Party shall adopt, in accordance with fundamental
principles of its domestic law, such legislative and other measures as may be
necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
—3—
(a) (i) The conversion or transfer of property, knowing that such
property is the proceeds of crime, for the purpose of concealing or
disguising the illicit origin of the property or of helping any person who
is involved in the commission of the predicate offence to evade the legal
consequences of his or her action;
(ii) The concealment or disguise of the true nature, source, location,
disposition, movement or ownership of or rights with respect to
property, knowing that such property is the proceeds of crime;
(b) Subject to the basic concepts of its legal system:
(i) The acquisition, possession or use of property, knowing, at the
time of receipt, that such property is the proceeds of crime;
(ii) Participation in, association with or conspiracy to commit,
attempts to commit and aiding, abetting, facilitating and counselling the
commission of any of the offences established in accordance with this
article.
2. For purposes of implementing or applying paragraph 1 of this
article:
(a) Each State Party shall seek to apply paragraph 1 of this article to
the widest range of predicate offences;
(b) Each. State Party shall include as predicate offences all serious
crime as defined in article 2 of this Convention and the offences established in
accordance with articles 5, 8 and 23 of this Convention. In the case of States
Parties whose legislation sets out a list of specific predicate offences, they
shall, at a minimum, include in such list a comprehensive range of offences
associated with organized criminal groups;
(c) For the purposes of subparagraph (b), predicate offences shall
include offences committed both within and outside the jurisdiction of the
State Party in question. However, offences committed outside the jurisdiction
of a State Party shall constitute predicate offences only when the relevant
conduct is a criminal offence under the domestic law of the State where it is
committed and would be a criminal offence under the domestic law of the
State Party implementing or applying this article had it been committed there;
(d) Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws that give effect to
this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws or a description thereof
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations;
(e) If required by fundamental principles of the domestic law of a
State Party, it may be provided that the offences set forth in paragraph 1 of this
article do not apply to the persons who committed the predicate offence;
(f) Knowledge, intent or purpose required as an element of an
offence set forth in paragraph 1 of this article may be inferred from objective
factual circumstances.
—4—
Article 7
Measures to combat money-laundering
1. Each State Party:
(a) Shall institute a comprehensive domestic regulatory and
supervisory regime for banks and non-bank financial institutions and, where
appropriate, other bodies particularly susceptible to money-laundering, within
its competence, in order to deter and detect all forms of money-laundering,
which regime shall emphasize requirements for customer identification,
record-keeping and the reporting of suspicious transactions;
(b) Shall, without prejudice to articles 18 and 27 of this Convention,
ensure that administrative, regulatory, law enforcement and other authorities
dedicated to combating money-laundering (including, where appropriate under
domestic law, judicial authorities) have the ability to cooperate and exchange
information at the national and international levels within the conditions
prescribed by its domestic law and, to that end, shall consider the
establishment of a financial intelligence unit to serve as a national centre for
the collection, analysis and dissemination of information regarding potential
money-laundering.
2. States Parties shall consider implementing feasible measures to
detect and monitor the movement of cash and appropriate negotiable
instruments across their borders, subject to safeguards to ensure proper use of
information and without impeding in any way the movement of legitimate
capital. Such measures may include a requirement that individuals and
businesses report the cross-border transfer of substantial quantities of cash and
appropriate negotiable instruments.
3. In establishing a domestic regulatory and supervisory regime
under the terms of this article, and without prejudice to any other article of this
Convention, States Parties are called upon to use as a guideline the relevant
initiatives of regional, interregional and multilateral organizations against
money-laundering.
4. States Parties shall endeavour to develop and promote global,
regional, subregional and bilateral cooperation among judicial, law
enforcement and financial regulatory authorities in order to combat money-
laundering.
Article 8
Criminalization of corruption
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures
as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed
intentionally:
(a) The promise, offering or giving to a public official, directly or
indirectly, of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another
person or entity, in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the
exercise of his or her official duties;
—5—
(b) The solicitation or acceptance by a public official, directly or
indirectly, of an undue advantage, for the official himself or herself or another
person or entity, in order that the official act or refrain from acting in the
exercise of his or her official duties.
2. Each State Party shall consider adopting such legislative and
other measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences conduct
referred to in paragraph 1 of this article involving a foreign public official or
international civil servant. Likewise, each State Party shall consider
establishing as criminal offences other forms of corruption.
3. Each State Party shall also adopt such measures as may be
necessary to establish as a criminal offence participation as an accomplice in
an offence established in accordance with this article.
4. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this article and article 9 of this
Convention, "public official" shall mean a public official or a person who
provides a public service as defined in the domestic law and as applied in the
criminal law of the State Party in which the person in question performs that
function.
Article 9
Measures against corruption
1. In addition to the measures set forth in article 8 of this
Convention, each State Party shall, to the extent appropriate and consistent
with its legal system, adopt legislative, administrative or other effective
measures to promote integrity and to prevent, detect and punish the corruption
of public officials.
2. Each State Party shall take measures to ensure effective action by
its authorities in the prevention, detection and punishment of the corruption of
public officials, including providing such authorities with adequate
independence to deter the exertion of inappropriate influence on their actions.
Article 10
Liability of legal persons
1. Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary,
consistent with its legal principles, to establish the liability of legal persons for
participation in serious crimes involving an organized criminal group and for
the offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this
Convention.
2. Subject to the legal principles of the State Party, the liability of
legal persons may be criminal, civil or administrative.
3. Such liability shall be without prejudice to the criminal liability
of the natural persons who have committed the offences.
4. Each State Party shall, in particular, ensure that legal persons held
liable in accordance with this article are subject to effective, proportionate and
dissuasive criminal or non-criminal sanctions, including monetary sanctions.
—6—
Article 11
Prosecution, adjudication and sanctions
1. Each State Party shall make the commission of an offence
established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention liable
to sanctions that take into account the gravity of that offence.
2. Each State Party shall endeavour to ensure that any discretionary
legal powers under its domestic law relating to the prosecution of persons for
offences covered by this Convention are exercised to maximize the
effectiveness of law enforcement measures in respect of those offences and
with due regard to the need to deter the commission of such offences.
3. In the case of offences established in accordance with articles 5,
6, 8 and 23 of this Convention, each State Party shall take appropriate
measures, in accordance with its domestic law and with due regard to the
rights of the defence, to seek to ensure that conditions imposed in connection
with decisions on release pending trial or appeal take into consideration the
need to ensure the presence of the defendant at subsequent criminal
proceedings.
4. Each State Party shall ensure that its courts or other competent
authorities bear in mind the grave nature of the offences covered by this
Convention when considering the eventuality of early release or parole of
persons convicted of such offences.
5. Each State Party shall, where appropriate, establish under its
domestic law a long statute of limitations period in which to commence
proceedings for any offence covered by this Convention and a longer period
where the alleged offender has evaded the administration of justice.
6. Nothing contained in this Convention shall affect the principle
that the description of the offences established in accordance with this
Convention and of the applicable legal defences or other legal principles
controlling the lawfulness of conduct is reserved to the domestic law of a State
Party and that such offences shall be prosecuted and punished in accordance
with that law.
Article 12
Confiscation and seizure
1. States Parties shall adopt, to the greatest extent possible within
their domestic legal systems, such measures as may be necessary to enable
confiscation of:
(a) Proceeds of crime derived from offences covered by this
Convention or property the value of which corresponds to that of such
proceeds;
(b) Property, equipment or other instrumentalities used in or destined
for use in offences covered by this Convention.
2. States Parties shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to
enable the identification, tracing, freezing or seizure of any item referred to in
paragraph 1 of this article for the purpose of eventual confiscation.
—7—
3. If proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted, in part
or in full, into other property, such property shall be liable to the measures
referred to in this article instead of the proceeds.
4. If proceeds of crime have been intermingled with property
acquired from legitimate sources, such property shall, without prejudice to any
powers relating to freezing or seizure, be liable to confiscation up to the
assessed value of the intermingled proceeds.
5. Income or other benefits derived from proceeds of crime, from
property into which proceeds of crime have been transformed or converted or
from property with which proceeds of crime have been intermingled shall also
be liable to the measures referred to in this article, in the same manner and to
the same extent as proceeds of crime.
6. For the purposes of this article and article 13 of this Convention,
each State Party shall empower its courts or other competent authorities to
order that bank, financial or commercial records be made available or be
seized. States Parties shall not decline to act under the provisions of this
paragraph on the ground of bank secrecy.
7. States Parties may consider the possibility of requiring that an
offender demonstrate the lawful origin of alleged proceeds of crime or other
property liable to confiscation, to the extent that such a requirement is
consistent with the principles of their domestic law and with the nature of the
judicial and other proceedings.
8. The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice
the rights of bona fide third parties.
9. Nothing contained in this article shall affect the principle that the
measures to which it refers shall be defined and implemented in accordance
with and subject to the provisions of the domestic law of a State Party.
Article 13
International cooperation for purposes of confiscation
1. A State Party that has received a request from another State Party
having jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention for
confiscation of proceeds of crime, property, equipment or other
instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1, of this Convention
situated in its territory shall, to the greatest extent possible within its domestic
legal system:
(a) Submit the request to its competent authorities for the purpose of
obtaining an order of confiscation and, if such an order is granted, give effect
to it; or
(b) Submit to its competent authorities, with a view to giving effect
to it to the extent requested, an order of confiscation issued by a court in the
territory of the requesting State Party in accordance with article 12, paragraph
1, of this Convention insofar as it relates to proceeds of crime, property,
—8—
equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12, paragraph 1,
situated in the territory of the requested State Party.
2. Following a request made by another State Party having
jurisdiction over an offence covered by this Convention, the requested State
Party shall take measures to identify, trace and freeze or seize proceeds of
crime, property, equipment or other instrumentalities referred to in article 12,
paragraph 1, of this Convention for the purpose of eventual confiscation to be
ordered either by the requesting State Party or, pursuant to a request under
paragraph 1 of this article, by the requested State Party.
3. The provisions of article 18 of this Convention are applicable,
mutatis mutandis, to this article. In addition to the information specified in
article 18, paragraph 15, requests made pursuant to this article shall contain:
(a) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (a) of this
article, a description of the property to be confiscated and a statement of the
facts relied upon by the requesting State Party sufficient to enable the
requested State Party to seek the order under its domestic law;
(b) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 1 (b) of this
article, a legally admissible copy of an order of confiscation upon which the
request is based issued by the requesting State Party, a statement of the facts
and information as to the extent to which execution of the order is requested;
(c) In the case of a request pertaining to paragraph 2 of this article, a
statement of the facts relied upon by the requesting State Party and a
description of the actions requested.
4. The decisions or actions provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2 of
this article shall be taken by the requested State Party in accordance with and
subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its procedural rules or any
bilateral or multilateral treaty, agreement or arrangement to which it may be
bound in relation to the requesting State Party.
5. Each State Party shall furnish copies of its laws and regulations
that give effect to this article and of any subsequent changes to such laws and
regulations or a description thereof to the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.
6. If a State Party elects to make the taking of the measures referred
to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article conditional on the existence of a
relevant treaty, that State Party shall consider this Convention the necessary
and sufficient treaty basis.
7. Cooperation under this article may be refused by a State Party if
the offence to which the request relates is not an offence covered by this
Convention.
8. The provisions of this article shall not be construed to prejudice
the rights of bona fide third parties.
—9—
9. States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral
treaties, agreements or arrangements to enhance the effectiveness of
international cooperation undertaken pursuant to this article.
Article 14
Disposal of confiscated proceeds of crime or property
1. Proceeds of crime or property confiscated by a State Party
pursuant to articles 12 or 13, paragraph 1, of this Convention shall be disposed
of by that State Party in accordance with its domestic law and administrative
procedures.
2. When acting on the request made by another State Party in
accordance with article 13 of this Convention, States Parties shall, to the
extent permitted by domestic law and if so requested, give priority
consideration to returning the confiscated proceeds of crime or property to the
requesting State Party so that it can give compensation to the victims of the
crime or return such proceeds of crime or property to their legitimate owners.
3. When acting on the request made by another State Party in
accordance with articles 12 and 13 of this Convention, a State Party may give
special consideration to concluding agreements or arrangements on:
(a) Contributing the value of such proceeds of crime or property or
funds derived from the sale of such proceeds of crime or property or a part
thereof to the account designated in accordance with article 30, paragraph 2
(c), of this Convention and to intergovernmental bodies specializing in the
fight against organized crime;
(b) Sharing with other States Parties, on a regular or case-by-case
basis, such proceeds of crime or property, or funds derived from the sale of
such proceeds of crime or property, in accordance with its domestic law or
administrative procedures.
Article 15
Jurisdiction
1. Each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary
to establish its jurisdiction over the offences established in accordance with
articles 5, 6, 8 and 23 of this Convention when:
(a) The offence is committed in the territory of that State Party; or
(b) The offence is committed on board a vessel that is flying the flag
of that State Party or an aircraft that is registered under the laws of that State
Party at the time that the offence is committed.
2. Subject to article 4 of this Convention, a State Party may also
establish its jurisdiction over any such offence when:
(a) The offence is committed against a national of that State Party;
(b) The offence is committed by a national of that State Party or a
stateless person who has his or her habitual residence in its territory; or
— 10—
(c) The offence is:
(i) One of those established in accordance with article 5, paragraph
1, of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a view
to the commission of a serious crime within its territory;
(ii) One of those established in accordance with article 6, paragraph 1
(b) (ii), of this Convention and is committed outside its territory with a
view to the commission of an offence established in accordance with
article 6, paragraph 1 (a) (i) or (ii) or (b) (i), of this Convention within
its territory.
3. For the purposes of article 16, paragraph 10, of this Convention,
each State Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish its
jurisdiction over the offences covered by this Convention when the alleged
offender is present in its territory and it does not extradite such person solely
on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals.
4. Each State Party may also adopt such measures as may be
necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences covered by this
Convention when the alleged offender is present in its territory and it does not
extradite him or her.
5. If a State Party exercising its jurisdiction under paragraph 1 or 2
of this article has been notified, or has otherwise learned, that one or more
other States Parties are conducting an investigation, prosecution or judicial
proceeding in respect of the same conduct, the competent authorities of those
States Parties shall, as appropriate, consult one another with a view to
coordinating their actions.
6. Without prejudice to norms of general international law, this
Convention does not exclude the exercise of any criminal jurisdiction
established by a State Party in accordance with its domestic law.
Article 16
Extradition
1. This article shall apply to the offences covered by this
Convention or in cases where an offence referred to in article 3, paragraph 1
(a) or (b), involves an organized criminal group and the person who is the
subject of the request for extradition is located in the territory of the requested
State Party, provided that the offence for which extradition is sought is
punishable under the domestic law of both the requesting State Party and the
requested State Party.
2. If the request for extradition includes several separate serious
crimes, some of which are not covered by this article, the requested State Party
may apply this article also in respect of the latter offences.
3. Each of the offences to which this article applies shall be deemed
to be included as an extraditable offence in any extradition treaty existing
between States Parties. States Parties undertake to include such offences as
extraditable offences in every extradition treaty to be concluded between them.
— 11 —
4. If a State Party that makes extradition conditional on the
existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State Party
with which it has no extradition treaty, it may consider this Convention the
legal basis for extradition in respect of any offence to which this article
applies.
5. States Parties that make extradition conditional on the existence
of a treaty shall:
(a) At the time of deposit of their instrument of ratification,
acceptance, approval of or accession to this Convention, inform the Secretary-
General of the United Nations whether they will take this Convention as the
legal basis for cooperation on extradition with other States Parties to this
Convention; and
(b) If they do not take this Convention as the legal basis for
cooperation on extradition, seek, where appropriate, to conclude treaties on
extradition with other States Parties to this Convention in order to implement
this article.
6. States Parties that do not make extradition conditional on the
existence of a treaty shall recognize offences to which this article applies as
extraditable offences between themselves.
7. Extradition shall be subject to the conditions provided for by the
domestic law of the requested State Party or by applicable extradition treaties,
including, inter alia, conditions in relation to the minimum penalty
requirement for extradition and the grounds upon which the requested State
Party may refuse extradition.
8. States Parties shall, subject to their domestic law, endeavour to
expedite extradition procedures and to simplify evidentiary requirements
relating thereto in respect of any offence to which this article applies.
9. Subject to the provisions of its domestic law and its extradition
treaties, the requested State Party may, upon being satisfied that the
circumstances so warrant and are urgent and at the request of the requesting
State Party, take a person whose extradition is sought and who is present in its
territory into custody or take other appropriate measures to ensure his or her
presence at extradition proceedings.
10. A State Party in whose territory an alleged offender is found, if it
does not extradite such person in respect of an offence to which this article
applies solely on the ground that he or she is one of its nationals, shall, at the
request of the State Party seeking extradition, be obliged to submit the case
without undue delay to its competent authorities for the purpose of
prosecution. Those authorities shall take their decision and conduct their
proceedings in the same manner as in the case of any other offence of a grave
nature under the domestic law of that State Party. The States Parties concerned
shall cooperate with each other, in particular on procedural and evidentiary
aspects, to ensure the efficiency of such prosecution.
11. Whenever a State Party is permitted under its domestic law to
extradite or otherwise surrender one of its nationals only upon the condition
— 12 —
that the person will be returned to that State Party to serve the sentence
imposed as a result of the trial or proceedings for which the extradition or
surrender of the person was sought and that State Party and the State Party
seeking the extradition of the person agree with this option and other terms
that they may deem appropriate, such conditional extradition or surrender shall
be sufficient to discharge the obligation set forth in paragraph 10 of this
article.
12. If extradition, sought for purposes of enforcing a sentence, is
refused because the person sought is a national of the requested State Party,
the requested Party shall, if its domestic law so permits and in conformity with
the requirements of such law, upon application of the requesting Party,
consider the enforcement of the sentence that has been imposed under the
domestic law of the requesting Party or the remainder thereof.
13. Any person regarding whom proceedings are being carried out in
connection with any of the offences to which this article applies shall be
guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings, including enjoyment
of all the rights and guarantees provided by the domestic law of the State Party
in the territory of which that person is present.
14. Nothing in this Convention shall be interpreted as imposing an
obligation to extradite if the requested State Party has substantial grounds for
believing that the request has been made for the purpose of prosecuting or
punishing a person on account of that person's sex, race, religion, nationality,
ethnic origin or political opinions or that compliance with the request would
cause prejudice to that person's position for any one of these reasons.
15. States Parties may not refuse a request for extradition on the sole
ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
16. Before refusing extradition, the requested State Party shall, where
appropriate, consult with the requesting State Party to provide it with ample
opportunity to present its opinions and to provide information relevant to its
allegation.
17. States Parties shall seek to conclude bilateral and multilateral
agreements or arrangements to carry out or to enhance the effectiveness of
extradition.
Article 17
Transfer of sentenced persons
States Parties may consider entering into bilateral or multilateral
agreements or arrangements on the transfer to their territory of persons
sentenced to imprisonment or other forms of deprivation of liberty for offences
covered by this Convention, in order that they may complete their sentences
there.
Article 18
Mutual legal assistance
1. States Parties shall afford one another the widest measure of
mutual legal assistance in investigations, prosecutions and judicial
— 13 —
proceedings in relation to the offences covered by this Convention as provided
for in article 3 and shall reciprocally extend to one another similar assistance
where the requesting State Party has reasonable grounds to suspect that the
offence referred to in article 3, paragraph 1 (a) or (b), is transnational in
nature, including that victims, witnesses, proceeds, instrumentalities or
evidence of such offences are located in the requested State Party and that the
offence involves an organized criminal group.
2. Mutual legal assistance shall be afforded to the fullest extent
possible under relevant laws, treaties, agreements and arrangements of the
requested State Party with respect to investigations, prosecutions and judicial
proceedings in relation to the offences for which a legal person may be held
liable in accordance with article 10 of this Convention in the requesting State
Party.
3. Mutual legal assistance to be afforded in accordance with this
article may be requested for any of the following purposes:
(a) Taking evidence or statements from persons;
(b) Effecting service of judicial documents;
(c) Executing searches and seizures, and freezing;
(d) Examining objects and sites;
(e) Providing information, evidentiary items and expert evaluations;
(f) Providing originals or certified copies of relevant documents and
records, including government, bank, financial, corporate or business records;
(g) Identifying or tracing proceeds of crime, property,
instrumentalities or other things for evidentiary purposes;
(h) Facilitating the voluntary appearance of persons in the requesting
State Party;
(i) Any other type of assistance that is not contrary to the domestic
law of the requested State Party.
4. Without prejudice to domestic law, the competent authorities of a
State Party may, without prior request, transmit information relating to
criminal matters to a competent authority in another State Party where they
believe that such information could assist the authority in undertaking or
successfully concluding inquiries and criminal proceedings or could result in a
request formulated by the latter State Party pursuant to this Convention.
5. The transmission of information pursuant to paragraph 4 of this
article shall be without prejudice to inquiries and criminal proceedings in the
State of the competent authorities providing the information. The competent
authorities receiving the information shall comply with a request that said
information remain confidential, even temporarily, or with restrictions on its
use. However, this shall not prevent the receiving State Party from disclosing
in its proceedings information that is exculpatory to an accused person. In
such a case, the receiving State Party shall notify the transmitting State Party
prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the transmitting State
Party. If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the receiving
— 14 —
State Party shall inform the transmitting State Party of the disclosure without
delay.
6. The provisions of this article shall not affect the obligations under
any other treaty, bilateral or multilateral, that governs or will govern, in whole
or in part, mutual legal assistance.
7. Paragraphs 9 to 29 of this article shall apply to requests made
pursuant to this article if the States Parties in question are not bound by a
treaty of mutual legal assistance. If those States Parties are bound by such a
treaty, the corresponding provisions of that treaty shall apply unless the States
Parties agree to apply paragraphs 9 to 29 of this article in lieu thereof. States
Parties are strongly encouraged to apply these paragraphs if they facilitate
cooperation.
8. States Parties shall not decline to render mutual legal assistance
pursuant to this article on the ground of bank secrecy.
9. States Parties may decline to render mutual legal assistance
pursuant to this article on the ground of absence of dual criminality. However,
the requested State Party may, when it deems appropriate, provide assistance,
to the extent it decides at its discretion, irrespective of whether the conduct
would constitute an offence under the domestic law of the requested State
Party.
10. A person who is being detained or is serving a sentence in the
territory of one State Party whose presence in another State Party is requested
for purposes of identification, testimony or otherwise providing assistance in
obtaining evidence for investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings in
relation to offences covered by this Convention may be transferred if the
following conditions are met:
(a) The person freely gives his or her informed consent;
(b) The competent authorities of both States Parties agree, subject to
such conditions as those States Parties may deem appropriate.
11. For the purposes of paragraph 10 of this article:
(a) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall have the
authority and obligation to keep the person transferred in custody, unless
otherwise requested or authorized by the State Party from which the person
was transferred;
(b) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall without
delay implement its obligation to return the person to the custody of the State
Party from which the person was transferred as agreed beforehand, or as
otherwise agreed, by the competent authorities of both States Parties;
(c) The State Party to which the person is transferred shall not
require the State Party from which the person was transferred to initiate
extradition proceedings for the return of the person;
— 15 —
(d) The person transferred shall receive credit for service of the
sentence being served in the State from which he or she was transferred for
time spent in the custody of the State Party to which he or she was transferred.
12. Unless the State Party from which a person is to be transferred in
accordance with paragraphs 10 and 11 of this article so agrees, that person,
whatever his or her nationality, shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or
subjected to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in the territory
of the State to which that person is transferred in respect of acts, omissions or
convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory of the State from
which he or she was transferred.
13. Each State Party shall designate a central authority that shall have
the responsibility and power to receive requests for mutual legal assistance
and either to execute them or to transmit them to the competent authorities for
execution. Where a State Party has a special region or territory with a separate
system of mutual legal assistance, it may designate a distinct central authority
that shall have the same function for that region or territory. Central authorities
shall ensure the speedy and proper execution or transmission of the requests
received. Where the central authority transmits the request to a competent
authority for execution, it shall encourage the speedy and proper execution of
the request by the competent authority. The Secretary-General of the United
Nations shall be notified of the central authority designated for this purpose at
the time each State Party deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or
approval of or accession to this Convention. Requests for mutual legal
assistance and any communication related thereto shall be transmitted to the
central authorities designated by the States Parties. This requirement shall be
without prejudice to the right of a State Party to require that such requests and
communications be addressed to it through diplomatic channels and, in urgent
circumstances, where the States Parties agree, through the International
Criminal Police Organization, if possible.
14. Requests shall be made in writing or, where possible, by any
means capable of producing a written record, in a language acceptable to the
requested State Party, under conditions allowing that State Party to establish
authenticity. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be notified of
the language or languages acceptable to each State Party at the time it deposits
its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this
Convention. In urgent circumstances and where agreed by the States Parties,
requests may be made orally, but shall be confirmed in writing forthwith.
15. A request for mutual legal assistance shall contain:
(a) The identity of the authority making the request;
(b) The subject matter and nature of the investigation, prosecution or
judicial proceeding to which the request relates and the name and functions of
the authority conducting the investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding;
(c) A summary of the relevant facts, except in relation to requests for
the purpose of service of judicial documents;
— 16 —
(d) A description of the assistance sought and details of any
particular procedure that the requesting State Party wishes to be followed;
(e) Where possible, the identity, location and nationality of any
person concerned; and
(f) The purpose for which the evidence, information or action is
sought.
16. The requested State Party may request additional information
when it appears necessary for the execution of the request in accordance with
its domestic law or when it can facilitate such execution.
17. A request shall be executed in accordance with the domestic law
of the requested State Party and, to the extent not contrary to the domestic law
of the requested State Party and where possible, in accordance with the
procedures specified in the request.
18. Wherever possible and consistent with fundamental principles of
domestic law, when an individual is in the territory of a State Party and has to
be heard as a witness or expert by the judicial authorities of another State
Party, the first State Party may, at the request of the other, permit the hearing
to take place by video conference if it is not possible or desirable for the
individual in question to appear in person in the territory of the requesting
State Party. States Parties may agree that the hearing shall be conducted by a
judicial authority of the requesting State Party and attended by a judicial
authority of the requested State Party.
19. The requesting State Party shall not transmit or use information
or evidence furnished by the requested State Party for investigations,
prosecutions or judicial proceedings other than those stated in the request
without the prior consent of the requested State Party. Nothing in this
paragraph shall prevent the requesting State Party from disclosing in its
proceedings information or evidence that is exculpatory to an accused person.
In the latter case, the requesting State Party shall notify the requested State
Party prior to the disclosure and, if so requested, consult with the requested
State Party. If, in an exceptional case, advance notice is not possible, the
requesting State Party shall inform the requested State Party of the disclosure
without delay.
20. The requesting State Party may require that the requested State
Party keep confidential the fact and substance of the request, except to the
extent necessary to execute the request. If the requested State Party cannot
comply with the requirement of confidentiality, it shall promptly inform the
requesting State Party.
21. Mutual legal assistance may be refused:
(a) If the request is not made in conformity with the provisions of
this article;
(b) If the requested State Party considers that execution of the request
is likely to prejudice its sovereignty, security, ordre public or other essential
interests;
—17—
(c) If the authorities of the requested State Party would be prohibited
by its domestic law from carrying out the action requested with regard to any
similar offence, had it been subject to investigation, prosecution or judicial
proceedings under their own jurisdiction;
(d) If it would be contrary to the legal system of the requested State
Party relating to mutual legal assistance for the request to be granted.
22. States Parties may not refuse a request for mutual legal assistance
on the sole ground that the offence is also considered to involve fiscal matters.
23. Reasons shall be given for any refusal of mutual legal assistance.
24. The requested State Party shall execute the request for mutual
legal assistance as soon as possible and shall take as full account as possible of
any deadlines suggested by the requesting State Party and for which reasons
are given, preferably in the request. The requested State Party shall respond to
reasonable requests by the requesting State Party on progress of its handling of
the request. The requesting State Party shall promptly inform the requested
State Party when the assistance sought is no longer required.
25. Mutual legal assistance may be postponed by the requested State
Party on the ground that it interferes with an ongoing investigation,
prosecution or judicial proceeding.
26. Before refusing a request pursuant to paragraph 21 of this article
or postponing its execution pursuant to paragraph 25 of this article, the
requested State Party shall consult with the requesting State Party to consider
whether assistance may be granted subject to such terms and conditions as it
deems necessary. If the requesting State Party accepts assistance subject to
those conditions, it shall comply with the conditions.
27. Without prejudice to the application of paragraph 12 of this
article, a witness, expert or other person who, at the request of the requesting
State Party, consents to give evidence in a proceeding or to assist in an
investigation, prosecution or judicial proceeding in the territory of the
requesting State Party shall not be prosecuted, detained, punished or subjected
to any other restriction of his or her personal liberty in that territory in respect
of acts, omissions or convictions prior to his or her departure from the territory
of the requested State Party. Such safe conduct shall cease when the witness,
expert or other person having had, for a period of fifteen consecutive days or
for any period agreed upon by the States Parties from the date on which he or
she has been officially informed that his or her presence is no longer required
by the judicial authorities, an opportunity of leaving, has nevertheless
remained voluntarily in the territory of the requesting State Party or, having
left it, has returned of his or her own free will.
28. The ordinary costs of executing a request shall be borne by the
requested State Party, unless otherwise agreed by the States Parties concerned.
If expenses of a substantial or extraordinary nature are or will be required to
fulfil the request, the States Parties shall consult to determine the terms and
conditions under which the request will be executed, as well as the manner in
which the costs shall be borne.
— 18 —
29. The requested State Party:
(a) Shall provide to the requesting State Party copies of government
records, documents or information in its possession that under its domestic law
are available to the general public;
(b) May, at its discretion, provide to the requesting State Party in
whole, in part or subject to such conditions as it deems appropriate, copies of
any government records, documents or information in its possession that under
its domestic law are not available to the general public.
30. States Parties shall consider, as may be necessary, the possibility
of concluding bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements that would
serve the purposes of, give practical effect to or enhance the provisions of this
article.
Article 19
Joint investigations
States Parties shall consider concluding bilateral or multilateral
agreements or arrangements whereby, in relation to matters that are the subject
of investigations, prosecutions or judicial proceedings in one or more States,
the competent authorities concerned may establish joint investigative bodies.
In the absence of such agreements or arrangements, joint investigations may
be undertaken by agreement on a case-by-case basis. The States Parties
involved shall ensure that the sovereignty of the State Party in whose territory
such investigation is to take place is fully respected.
Article 20
Special investigative techniques
1. If permitted by the basic principles of its domestic legal system,
each State Party shall, within its possibilities and under the conditions
prescribed by its domestic law, take the necessary measures to allow for the
appropriate use of controlled delivery and, where it deems appropriate, for the
use of other special investigative techniques, such as electronic or other forms
of surveillance and undercover operations, by its competent authorities in its
territory for the purpose of effectively combating organized crime.
2. For the purpose of investigating the offences covered by this
Convention, States Parties are encouraged to conclude, when necessary,
appropriate bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements for using such
special investigative techniques in the context of cooperation at the
international level. Such agreements or arrangements shall be concluded and
implemented in full compliance with the principle of sovereign equality of
States and shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the terms of those
agreements or arrangements.
3. In the absence of an agreement or arrangement as set forth in
paragraph 2 of this article, decisions to use such special investigative
techniques at the international level shall be made on a case-by-case basis and
may, when necessary, take into consideration financial arrangements and
understandings with respect to the exercise of jurisdiction by the States Parties
concerned.
-19 -
4. Decisions to use controlled delivery at the international level
may, with the consent of the States Parties concerned, include methods such as
intercepting and allowing the goods to continue intact or be removed or
replaced in whole or in part.
Article 21
Transfer of criminal proceedings
States Parties shall consider the possibility of transferring to one another
proceedings for the prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention in
cases where such transfer is considered to be in the interests of the proper
administration of justice, in particular in cases where several jurisdictions are
involved, with a view to concentrating the prosecution.
Article 22
Establishment of criminal record
Each State Party may adopt such legislative or other measures as may
be necessary to take into consideration, under such terms as and for the
purpose that it deems appropriate, any previous conviction in another State of
an alleged offender for the purpose of using such information in criminal
proceedings relating to an offence covered by this Convention.
Article 23
Criminalization of obstruction of justice
Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures as may
be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed intentionally:
(a) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation or the promise,
offering or giving of an undue advantage to induce false testimony or to
interfere in the giving of testimony or the production of evidence in a
proceeding in relation to the commission of offences covered by this
Convention;
(b) The use of physical force, threats or intimidation to interfere with
the exercise of official duties by a justice or law enforcement official in
relation to the commission of offences covered by this Convention. Nothing in
this subparagraph shall prejudice the right of States Parties to have legislation
that protects other categories of public officials.
Article 24
Protection of witnesses
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means
to provide effective protection from potential retaliation or intimidation for
witnesses in criminal proceedings who give testimony concerning offences
covered by this Convention and, as appropriate, for their relatives and other
persons close to them.
2. The measures envisaged in paragraph 1 of this article may
include, inter alia, without prejudice to the rights of the defendant, including
the right to due process:
— 20 —
(a) Establishing procedures for the physical protection of such
persons, such as, to the extent necessary and feasible, relocating them and
permitting, where appropriate, non-disclosure or limitations on the disclosure
of information concerning the identity and whereabouts of such persons;
(b) Providing evidentiary rules to permit witness testimony to be
given in a manner that ensures the safety of the witness, such as permitting
testimony to be given through the use of communications technology such as
video links or other adequate means.
3. States Parties shall consider entering into agreements or
arrangements with other States for the relocation of persons referred to in
paragraph 1 of this article.
4. The provisions of this article shall also apply to victims insofar as
they are witnesses.
Article 25
Assistance to and protection of victims
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures within its means
to provide assistance and protection to victims of offences covered by this
Convention, in particular in cases of threat of retaliation or intimidation.
2. Each State Party shall establish appropriate procedures to provide
access to compensation and restitution for victims of offences covered by this
Convention.
3. Each State Party shall, subject to its domestic law, enable views
and concerns of victims to be presented and considered at appropriate stages
of criminal proceedings against offenders in a manner not prejudicial to the
rights of the defence.
Article 26
Measures to enhance cooperation with
law enforcement authorities
1. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to encourage
persons who participate or who have participated in organized criminal
groups:
(a) To supply information useful to competent authorities for
investigative and evidentiary purposes on such matters as:
(i) The identity, nature, composition, structure, location or activities
of organized criminal groups;
(ii) Links, including international links, with other organized criminal
groups;
(iii) Offences that organized criminal groups have committed or may
commit;
(b) To provide factual, concrete help to competent authorities that
may contribute to depriving organized criminal groups of their resources or of
the proceeds of crime.
—21—
2. Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in
appropriate cases, of mitigating punishment of an accused person who
provides substantial cooperation in the investigation or prosecution of an
offence covered by this Convention.
3. Each State Party shall consider providing for the possibility, in
accordance with fundamental principles of its domestic law, of granting
immunity from prosecution to a person who provides substantial cooperation
in the investigation or prosecution of an offence covered by this Convention.
4. Protection of such persons shall be as provided for in article 24 of
this Convention.
5. Where a person referred to in paragraph 1 of this article located
in one State Party can provide substantial cooperation to the competent
authorities of another State Party, the States Parties concerned may consider
entering into agreements or arrangements, in accordance with their domestic
law, concerning the potential provision by the other State Party of the
treatment set forth in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this article.
Article 27
Law enforcement cooperation
1. States Parties shall cooperate closely with one another, consistent
with their respective domestic legal and administrative systems, to enhance the
effectiveness of law enforcement action to combat the offences covered by this
Convention. Each State Party shall, in particular, adopt effective measures:
(a) To enhance and, where necessary, to establish channels of
communication between their competent authorities, agencies and services in
order to facilitate the secure and rapid exchange of information concerning all
aspects of the offences covered by this Convention, including, if the States
Parties concerned deem it appropriate, links with other criminal activities;
(b) To cooperate with other States Parties in conducting inquiries
with respect to offences covered by this Convention concerning:
(i) The identity, whereabouts and activities of persons suspected of
involvement in such offences or the location of other persons
concerned;
(ii) The movement of proceeds of crime or property derived from the
commission of such offences;
(iii) The movement of property, equipment or other instrumentalities
used or intended for use in the commission of such offences;
(c) To provide, when appropriate, necessary items or quantities of
substances for analytical or investigative purposes;
(d) To facilitate effective coordination between their competent
authorities, agencies and services and to promote the exchange of personnel
and other experts, including, subject to bilateral agreements or arrangements
between the States Parties concerned, the posting of liaison officers;
— 22 —
(e) To exchange information with other States Parties on specific
means and methods used by organized criminal groups, including, where
applicable, routes and conveyances and the use of false identities, altered or
false documents or other means of concealing their activities;
(f) To exchange information and coordinate administrative and other
measures taken as appropriate for the purpose of early identification of the
offences covered by this Convention.
2. With a view to giving effect to this Convention, States Parties
shall consider entering into bilateral or multilateral agreements or
arrangements on direct cooperation between their law enforcement agencies
and, where such agreements or arrangements already exist, amending them. In
the absence of such agreements or arrangements between the States Parties
concerned, the Parties may consider this Convention as the basis for mutual
law enforcement cooperation in respect of the offences covered by this
Convention. Whenever appropriate, States Parties shall make full use of
agreements or arrangements, including international or regional organizations,
to enhance the cooperation between their law enforcement agencies.
3. States Parties shall endeavour to cooperate within their means to
respond to transnational organized crime committed through the use of modern
technology.
Article 28
Collection, exchange and analysis of information
on the nature of organized crime
1. Each State Party shall consider analysing, in consultation with the
scientific and academic communities, trends in organized crime in its territory,
the circumstances in which organized crime operates, as well as the
professional groups and technologies involved.
2. States Parties shall consider developing and sharing analytical
expertise concerning organized criminal activities with each other and through
international and regional organizations. For that purpose, common
definitions, standards and methodologies should be developed and applied as
appropriate.
3. Each State Party shall consider monitoring its policies and actual
measures to combat organized crime and making assessments of their
effectiveness and efficiency.
Article 29
Training and technical assistance
1. Each State Party shall, to the extent necessary, initiate, develop or
improve specific training programmes for its law enforcement personnel,
including prosecutors, investigating magistrates and customs personnel, and
other personnel charged with the prevention, detection and control of the
offences covered by this Convention. Such programmes may include
secondments and exchanges of staff. Such programmes shall deal, in particular
and to the extent permitted by domestic law, with the following:
— 23 —
(a) Methods used in the prevention, detection and control of the
offences covered by this Convention;
(b) Routes and techniques used by persons suspected of involvement
in offences covered by this Convention, including in transit States, and
appropriate countermeasures;
(c) Monitoring of the movement of contraband;
(d) Detection and monitoring of the movements of proceeds of crime,
property, equipment or other instrumentalities and methods used for the
transfer, concealment or disguise of such proceeds, property, equipment or
other instrumentalities, as well as methods used in combating money-
laundering and other financial crimes;
(e) Collection of evidence;
(f) Control techniques in free trade zones and free ports;
(g) Modern law enforcement equipment and techniques, including
electronic surveillance, controlled deliveries and undercover operations;
(h) Methods used in combating transnational organized crime
committed through the use of computers, telecommunications networks or
other forms of modern technology; and
(i) Methods used in the protection of victims and witnesses.
2. States Parties shall assist one another in planning and
implementing research and training programmes designed to share expertise in
the areas referred to in paragraph 1 of this article and to that end shall also,
when appropriate, use regional and international conferences and seminars to
promote cooperation and to stimulate discussion on problems of mutual
concern, including the special problems and needs of transit States.
3. States Parties shall promote training and technical assistance that
will facilitate extradition and mutual legal assistance. Such training and
technical assistance may include language training, secondments and
exchanges between personnel in central authorities or agencies with relevant
responsibilities.
4. In the case of existing bilateral and multilateral agreements or
arrangements, States Parties shall strengthen, to the extent necessary, efforts to
maximize operational and training activities within international and regional
organizations and within other relevant bilateral and multilateral agreements or
arrangements.
Article 30
Other measures: implementation of the Convention through
economic development and technical assistance
1. States Parties shall take measures conducive to the optimal
implementation of this Convention to the extent possible, through international
cooperation, taking into account the negative effects of organized crime on
society in general, in particular on sustainable development.
— 24 —
2. States Parties shall make concrete efforts to the extent possible
and in coordination with each other, as well as with international and regional
organizations:
(a) To enhance their cooperation at various levels with developing
countries, with a view to strengthening the capacity of the latter to prevent and
combat transnational organized crime;
(b) To enhance financial and material assistance to support the efforts
of developing countries to fight transnational organized crime effectively and
to help them implement this Convention successfully;
(c) To provide technical assistance to developing countries and
countries with economies in transition to assist them in meeting their needs for
the implementation of this Convention. To that end, States Parties shall
endeavour to make adequate and regular voluntary contributions to an account
specifically designated for that purpose in a United Nations funding
mechanism. States Parties may also give special consideration, in accordance
with their domestic law and the provisions of this Convention, to contributing
to the aforementioned account a percentage of the money or of the
corresponding value of proceeds of crime or property confiscated in
accordance with the provisions of this Convention;
(d) To encourage and persuade other States and financial institutions
as appropriate to join them in efforts in accordance with this article, in
particular by providing more training programmes and modern equipment to
developing countries in order to assist them in achieving the objectives of this
Convention.
3. To the extent possible, these measures shall be without prejudice
to existing foreign assistance commitments or to other financial cooperation
arrangements at the bilateral, regional or international level.
4. States Parties may conclude bilateral or multilateral agreements
or arrangements on material and logistical assistance, taking into consideration
the financial arrangements necessary for the means of international
cooperation provided for by this Convention to be effective and for the
prevention, detection and control of transnational organized crime.
Article 31
Prevention
1. States Parties shall endeavour to develop and evaluate national
projects and to establish and promote best practices and policies aimed at the
prevention of transnational organized crime.
2. States Parties shall endeavour, in accordance with fundamental
principles of their domestic law, to reduce existing or future opportunities for
organized criminal groups to participate in lawful markets with proceeds of
crime, through appropriate legislative, administrative or other measures. These
measures should focus on:
(a) The strengthening of cooperation between law enforcement
agencies or prosecutors and relevant private entities, including industry;
— 25 —
(b) The promotion of the development of standards and procedures
designed to safeguard the integrity of public and relevant private entities, as
well as codes of conduct for relevant professions, in particular lawyers,
notaries public, tax consultants and accountants;
(c) The prevention of the misuse by organized criminal groups of
tender procedures conducted by public authorities and of subsidies and
licences granted by public authorities for commercial activity;
(d) The prevention of the misuse of legal persons by organized
criminal groups; such measures could include:
(i) The establishment of public records on legal and natural persons
involved in the establishment, management and funding of legal
persons;
(ii) The introduction of the possibility of disqualifying by court order
or any appropriate means for a reasonable period of time persons
convicted of offences covered by this Convention from acting as
directors of legal persons incorporated within their jurisdiction;
(iii) The establishment of national records of persons disqualified
from acting as directors of legal persons; and
(iv) The exchange of information contained in the records referred to
in subparagraphs (d) (i) and (iii) of this paragraph with the competent
authorities of other States Parties.
3. States Parties shall endeavour to promote the reintegration into
society of persons convicted of offences covered by this Convention.
4. States Parties shall endeavour to evaluate periodically existing
relevant legal instruments and administrative practices with a view to
detecting their vulnerability to misuse by organized criminal groups.
5. States Parties shall endeavour to promote public awareness
regarding the existence, causes and gravity of and the threat posed by
transnational organized crime. Information may be disseminated where
appropriate through the mass media and shall include measures to promote
public participation in preventing and combating such crime.
6. Each State Party shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations of the name and address of the authority or authorities that can assist
other States Parties in developing measures to prevent transnational organized
crime.
7. States Parties shall, as appropriate, collaborate with each other
and relevant international and regional organizations in promoting and
developing the measures referred to in this article. This includes participation
in international projects aimed at the prevention of transnational organized
crime, for example by alleviating the circumstances that render socially
marginalized groups vulnerable to the action of transnational organized crime.
— 26 —
Article 32
Conference of the Parties to the Convention
1. A Conference of the Parties to the Convention is hereby
established to improve the capacity of States Parties to combat transnational
organized crime and to promote and review the implementation of this
Convention.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the
Conference of the Parties not later than one year following the entry into force
of this Convention. The Conference of the Parties shall adopt rules of
procedure and rules governing the activities set forth in paragraphs 3 and 4 of
this article (including rules concerning payment of expenses incurred in
carrying out those activities).
3. The Conference of the Parties shall agree upon mechanisms for
achieving the objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article, including:
(a) Facilitating activities by States Parties under articles 29, 30 and
31 of this Convention, including by encouraging the mobilization of voluntary
contributions;
(b) Facilitating the exchange of information among States Parties on
patterns and trends in transnational organized crime and on successful
practices for combating it;
(c) Cooperating with relevant international and regional
organizations and non-governmental organizations;
(d) Reviewing periodically the implementation of this Convention;
(e) Making recommendations to improve this Convention and its
implementation.
4. For the purpose of paragraphs 3 (d) and (e) of this article, the
Conference of the Parties shall acquire the necessary knowledge of the
measures taken by States Parties in implementing this Convention and the
difficulties encountered by them in doing so through information provided by
them and through such supplemental review mechanisms as may be
established by the Conference of the Parties.
5. Each State Party shall provide the Conference of the Parties with
information on its programmes, plans and practices, as well as legislative and
administrative measures to implement this Convention, as required by the
Conference of the Parties.
Article 33
Secretariat
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the
necessary secretariat services to the Conference of the Parties to the
Convention.
2. The secretariat shall:
—27—
(a) Assist the Conference of the Parties in carrying out the activities
set forth in article 32 of this Convention and make arrangements and provide
the necessary services for the sessions of the Conference of the Parties;
(b) Upon request, assist States Parties in providing information to the
Conference of the Parties as envisaged in article 32, paragraph 5, of this
Convention; and
(c) Ensure the necessary coordination with the secretariats of
relevant international and regional organizations.
Article 34
Implementation of the Convention
1 Each State Party shall take the necessary measures, including
legislative and administrative measures, in accordance with fundamental
principles of its domestic law, to ensure the implementation of its obligations
under this Convention.
2. The offences established in accordance with articles 5, 6, 8 and
23 of this Convention shall be established in the domestic law of each State
Party independently of the transnational nature or the involvement of an
organized criminal group as described in article 3, paragraph 1, of this
Convention, except to the extent that article 5 of this Convention would
require the involvement of an organized criminal group.
3. Each State Party may adopt more strict or severe measures than
those provided for by this Convention for preventing and combating
transnational organized crime.
Article 35
Settlement of disputes
1. States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the
interpretation or application of this Convention through negotiation.
2. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of this Convention that cannot be settled through
negotiation within a reasonable time shall, at the request of one of those States
Parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request
for arbitration, those State's Parties are unable to agree on the organization of
the arbitration, any one of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the
Court.
3. Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification,
acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention, declare that it does
not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article. The other States
Parties shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any
State Party that has made such a reservation.
4. Any State Party that has made a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
— 28 —
Article 36
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval
and accession
1. This Convention shall be open to all States for signature from 12
to 15 December 2000 in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations
Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
2. This Convention shall also be open for signature by regional
economic integration organizations provided that at least one member State of
such organization has signed this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1
of this article.
3. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. A regional economic integration
organization may deposit its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval
if at least one of its member States has done likewise. In that instrument of
ratification, acceptance or approval, such organization shall declare the extent
of its competence with respect to the matters governed by this Convention.
Such organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant
modification in the extent of its competence.
4. This Convention is open for accession by any State or any
regional economic integration organization of which at least one member State
is a Party to this Convention. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with
the Secretary-General of the United Nations. At the time of its accession, a
regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its
competence with respect to matters governed by this Convention. Such
organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in
the extent of its competence.
Article 37
Relation with protocols
1. This Convention may be supplemented by one or more protocols.
2. In order to become a Party to a protocol, a State or a regional
economic integration organization must also be a Party to this Convention.
3. A State Party to this Convention is not bound by a protocol unless
it becomes a Party to the protocol in accordance with the provisions thereof.
4. Any protocol to this Convention shall be interpreted together with
this Convention, taking into account the purpose of that protocol.
Article 38
Entry into force
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after
the date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance,
approval or accession. For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument
deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted
as additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
— 29 —
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization
ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Convention after the deposit
of the fortieth instrument of such action, this Convention shall enter into force
on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of
the relevant instrument.
Article 39
Amendment
1. After the expiry of five years from the entry into force of this
Convention, a State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall thereupon communicate
the proposed amendment to the States Parties and to the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention for the purpose of considering and deciding on the
proposal. The Conference of the Parties shall make every effort to achieve
consensus on each amendment. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted
and no agreement has been reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort,
require for its adoption a two-thirds majority vote of the States Parties present
and voting at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within
their competence, shall exercise their right to vote under this article with a
number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to
this Convention. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if
their member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
3. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States Parties.
4. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article shall enter into force in respect of a State Party ninety days after the
date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of an
instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such amendment.
5. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on
those States Parties which have expressed their consent to be bound by it.
Other States Parties shall still be bound by the provisions of this Convention
and any earlier amendments that they have ratified, accepted or approved.
Article 40
Denunciation
1. A State Party may denounce this Convention by written
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such denunciation
shall become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by
the Secretary-General.
2. A regional economic integration organization shall cease to be a
Party to this Convention when all of its member States have denounced it.
3. Denunciation of this Convention in accordance with paragraph 1
of this article shall entail the denunciation of any protocols thereto.
— 30 —
Article 41
Depositary and languages
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated
depositary of this Convention.
2. The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese,
English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly
authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this
Convention.
— 31 —
NOTE: Only English text of Convention will be printed in this publication.
I hereby certify that the
foregoing text is a true copy of
the United Nations Convention
against Transnational Organized
Crime, adopted by the General
Assembly of the United Nations
on 15 November 2000, the original
of which is deposited with the
Secretary-General of the
United Nations.
Je certifie que le texte qui precede
est une copie conforme de la
Convention des Nations Unies contre
la criminalité transnationale
organisée, adoptée par l'Assemblée
generale des Nations Unies le
15 novembre 2000, dont l'original se
trouve depose auprès du Secrétaire
general de l'Organisation des
Nations Unies.
For the Secretary-General,
The Legal Counsel
(Under-Secretary-General
for Legal Affairs)
Pour le Secrétaire general,
Le Conseiller juridique
(Secrétaire general adjoint
aux affaires juridiques)
Hans Corell
United Nations, New York Organisation des Nations Unies
27 November 2000 New York, le 27 novembre 2000

PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN
AND CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED
NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL
ORGANIZED CRIME
UNITED NATIONS
2000
PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING
IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN,
SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST
TRANSNATIONALORGANIZED CRIME
Preamble
The States Parties to this Protocol,
Declaring that effective action to prevent and combat trafficking in
persons, especially women and children, requires a comprehensive
international approach in the countries of origin, transit and destination that
includes measures to prevent such trafficking, to punish the traffickers and to
protect the victims of such trafficking, including by protecting their
internationally recognized human rights,
Taking into account the fact that, despite the existence of a variety of
international instruments containing rules and practical measures to combat
the exploitation of persons, especially women and children, there is no
universal instrument that addresses all aspects of trafficking in persons,
Concerned that, in the absence of such an instrument, persons who are
vulnerable to trafficking will not be sufficiently protected,
Recalling General Assembly resolution 53/111 of 9 December 1998, in
which the Assembly decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad
hoc committee for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive international
convention against transnational organized crime and of discussing the
elaboration of, inter alia, an international instrument addressing trafficking in
women and children,
Convinced that supplementing the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime with an international instrument for the
prevention, suppression and punishment of trafficking in persons, especially
women and children, will be useful in preventing and combating that crime,
Have agreed as follows:
I. General provisions
Article 1
Relation with the United Nations Convention
against Transnational Organized Crime
1. This Protocol supplements the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime. It shall be interpreted together with the
Convention.
2. The provisions of the Convention shall apply, mutatis mutandis,
to this Protocol unless otherwise provided herein.
3. The offences established in accordance with article 5 of this
Protocol shall be regarded as offences established in accordance with the
Convention.
Article 2
Statement of purpose
The purposes of this Protocol are:
(a) To prevent and combat trafficking in persons, paying particular
attention to women and children;
(b) To protect and assist the victims of such trafficking, with full
respect for their human rights; and
(c) To promote cooperation among States Parties in order to meet
those objectives.
Article 3
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) "Trafficking in persons" shall mean the recruitment,
transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the
threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of
deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the
giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person
having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of
others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery
or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;
(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended
exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant
where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used;
(c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of
a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered "trafficking in
persons" even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in
subparagraph (a) of this article;
(d) "Child" shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.
Article 4
Scope of application
This Protocol shall apply, except as otherwise stated herein, to the
prevention, investigation and prosecution of the offences established in
accordance with article 5 of this Protocol, where those offences are
transnational in nature and involve an organized criminal group, as well as to
the protection of victims of such offences.
Article 5
Criminalization
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures
as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences the conduct set forth in
article 3 of this Protocol, when committed intentionally.
—2—
2. Each State Party shall also adopt such legislative and other
measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences:
(a) Subject to the basic concepts of its legal system, attempting to
commit an offence established in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article;
(b) Participating as an accomplice in an offence established in
accordance with paragraph 1 of this article; and
(c) Organizing or directing other persons to commit an offence
established in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article.
II. Protection of victims of trafficking in persons
Article 6
Assistance to and protection of victims of
trafficking in persons
1. In appropriate cases and to the extent possible under its domestic
law, each State Party shall protect the privacy and identity of victims of
trafficking in persons, including, inter alia, by making legal proceedings
relating to such trafficking confidential.
2. Each State Party shall ensure that its domestic legal or
administrative system contains measures that provide to victims of trafficking
in persons, in appropriate cases:
(a) Information on relevant court and administrative proceedings;
(b) Assistance to enable their views and concerns to be presented and
considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against offenders, in a
manner not prejudicial to the rights of the defence.
3. Each State Party shall consider implementing measures to provide
for the physical, psychological and social recovery of victims of trafficking in
persons, including, in appropriate cases, in cooperation with non-governmental
organizations, other relevant organizations and other elements of civil society,
and, in particular, the provision of:
(a) Appropriate housing;
(b) Counselling and information, in particular as regards their legal
rights, in a language that the victims of trafficking in persons can understand;
(c) Medical, psychological and material assistance; and
(d) Employment, educational and training opportunities.
4. Each State Party shall take into account, in applying the
provisions of this article, the age, gender and special needs of victims of
trafficking in persons, in particular the special needs of children, including
appropriate housing, education and care.
5. Each State Party shall endeavour to provide for the physical
safety of victims of trafficking in persons while they are within its territory.
—3—
6. Each State Party shall ensure that its domestic legal system
contains measures that offer victims of trafficking in persons the possibility of
obtaining compensation for damage suffered.
Article 7
Status of victims of trafficking in persons
in receiving States
1. In addition to taking measures pursuant to article 6 of this
Protocol, each State Party shall consider adopting legislative or other
appropriate measures that permit victims of trafficking in persons to remain in
its territory, temporarily or permanently, in appropriate cases.
2. In implementing the provision contained in paragraph 1 of this
article, each State Party shall give appropriate consideration to humanitarian
and compassionate factors.
Article 8
Repatriation of victims of trafficking in persons
1. The State Party of which a victim of trafficking in persons is a
national or in which the person had the right of permanent residence at the
time of entry into the territory of the receiving State Party shall facilitate and
accept, with due regard for the safety of that person, the return of that person
without undue or unreasonable delay.
2. When a State Party returns a victim of trafficking in persons to a
State Party of which that person is a national or in which he or she had, at the
time of entry into the territory of the receiving State Party, the right of
permanent residence, such return shall be with due regard for the safety of that
person and for the status of any legal proceedings related to the fact that the
person is a victim of trafficking and shall preferably be voluntary.
3. At the request of a receiving State Party, a requested State Party
shall, without undue or unreasonable delay, verify whether a person who is a
victim of trafficking in persons is its national or had the right of permanent
residence in its territory at the time of entry into the territory of the receiving
State Party.
4. In order to facilitate the return of a victim of trafficking in
persons who is without proper documentation, the State Party of which that
person is a national or in which he or she had the right of permanent residence
at the time of entry into the territory of the receiving State Party shall agree to
issue, at the request of the receiving State Party, such travel documents or
other authorization as may be necessary to enable the person to travel to and
re-enter its territory.
5. This article shall be without prejudice to any right afforded to
victims of trafficking in persons by any domestic law of the receiving State
Party.
6. This article shall be without prejudice to any applicable bilateral
or multilateral agreement or arrangement that governs, in whole or in part, the
return of victims of trafficking in persons.
—4—
III. Prevention, cooperation and other measures
Article 9
Prevention of trafficking in persons
1 States Parties shall establish comprehensive policies, programmes
and other measures:
(a) To prevent and combat trafficking in persons; and
(b) To protect victims of trafficking in persons, especially women
and children, from revictimization.
2. States Parties shall endeavour to undertake measures such as
research, information and mass media campaigns and social and economic
initiatives to prevent and combat trafficking in persons.
3. Policies, programmes and other measures established in
accordance with this article shall, as appropriate, include cooperation with
non-governmental organizations, other relevant organizations and other
elements of civil society.
4. States Parties shall take or strengthen measures, including
through bilateral or multilateral cooperation, to alleviate the factors that make
persons, especially women and children, vulnerable to trafficking, such as
poverty, underdevelopment and lack of equal opportunity.
5. States Parties shall adopt or strengthen legislative or other
measures, such as educational, social or cultural measures, including through
bilateral and multilateral cooperation, to discourage the demand that fosters all
forms of exploitation of persons, especially women and children, that leads to
trafficking.
Article 10
Information exchange and training
1. Law enforcement, immigration or other relevant authorities of
States Parties shall, as appropriate, cooperate with one another by exchanging
information, in accordance with their domestic law, to enable them to
determine:
(a) Whether individuals crossing or attempting to cross an
international border with travel documents belonging to other persons or
without travel documents are perpetrators or victims of trafficking in persons;
(b) The types of travel document that individuals have used or
attempted to use to cross an international border for the purpose of trafficking
in persons; and
(c) The means and methods used by organized criminal groups for
the purpose of trafficking in persons, including the recruitment and
transportation of victims, routes and links between and among individuals and
groups engaged in such trafficking, and possible measures for detecting them.
2. States Parties shall provide or strengthen training for law
enforcement, immigration and other relevant officials in the prevention of
trafficking in persons. The training should focus on methods used in
—5—
preventing such trafficking, prosecuting the traffickers and protecting the
rights of the victims, including protecting the victims from the traffickers. The
training should also take into account the need to consider human rights and
child- and gender-sensitive issues and it should encourage cooperation with
non-governmental organizations, other relevant organizations and other
elements of civil society.
3. A State Party that receives information shall comply with any
request by the State Party that transmitted the information that places
restrictions on its use.
Article 11
Border measures
1. Without prejudice to international commitments in relation to the
free movement of people, States Parties shall strengthen, to the extent
possible, such border controls as may be necessary to prevent and detect
trafficking in persons.
2. Each State Party shall adopt legislative or other appropriate
measures to prevent, to the extent possible, means of transport operated by
commercial carriers from being used in the commission of offences
established in accordance with article 5 of this Protocol.
3. Where appropriate, and without prejudice to applicable
international conventions, such measures shall include establishing the
obligation of commercial carriers, including any transportation company or the
owner or operator of any means of transport, to ascertain that all passengers
are in possession of the travel documents required for entry into the receiving
State.
4. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures, in accordance
with its domestic law, to provide for sanctions in cases of violation of the
obligation set forth in paragraph 3 of this article.
5. Each State Party shall consider taking measures that permit, in
accordance with its domestic law, the denial of entry or revocation of visas of
persons implicated in the commission of offences established in accordance
with this Protocol.
6. Without prejudice to article 27 of the Convention, States Parties
shall consider strengthening cooperation among border control agencies by,
inter alia, establishing and maintaining direct channels of communication.
Article 12
Security and control of documents
Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary, within
available means:
(a) To ensure that travel or identity documents issued by it are of
such quality that they cannot easily be misused and cannot readily be falsified
or unlawfully altered, replicated or issued; and
—6—
(b) To ensure the integrity and security of travel or identity
documents issued by or on behalf of the State Party and to prevent their
unlawful creation, issuance and use.
Article 13
Legitimacy and validity of documents
At the request of another State Party, a State Party shall, in accordance
with its domestic law, verify within a reasonable time the legitimacy and
validity of travel or identity documents issued or purported to have been
issued in its name and suspected of being used for trafficking in persons.
IV. Final provisions
Article 14
Saving clause
1. Nothing in this Protocol shall affect the rights, obligations and
responsibilities of States and individuals under international law, including
international humanitarian law and international human rights law and, in
particular, where applicable, the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol
relating to the Status of Refugees and the principle of non-refoulement as
contained therein.
2. The measures set forth in this Protocol shall be interpreted and
applied in a way that is not discriminatory to persons on the ground that they
are victims of trafficking in persons. The interpretation and application of
those measures shall be consistent with internationally recognized principles
of non-discrimination.
Article 15
Settlement of disputes
1. States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the
interpretation or application of this Protocol through negotiation.
2. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of this Protocol that cannot be settled through
negotiation within a reasonable time shall, at the request of one of those States
Parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request
for arbitration, those States Parties are unable to agree on the organization of
the arbitration, any one of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the
Court.
3. Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification,
acceptance or approval of or accession to this Protocol, declare that it does not
consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article. The other States Parties
shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any State Party
that has made such a reservation.
4. Any State Party that has made a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
—7—
Article 16
Signature, ratification, acceptance,
approval and accession
1. This Protocol shall be open to all States for signature from 12 to
15 December 2000 in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations
Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
2. This Protocol shall also be open for signature by regional
economic integration organizations provided that at least one member State of
such organization has signed this Protocol in accordance with paragraph 1 of
this article.
3. This Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. A regional economic integration
organization may deposit its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval
if at least one of its member States has done likewise. In that instrument of
ratification, acceptance or approval, such organization shall declare the extent
of its competence with respect to the matters governed by this Protocol. Such
organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in
the extent of its competence.
4. This Protocol is open for accession by any State or any regional
economic integration organization of which at least one member State is a
Party to this Protocol. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. At the time of its accession, a
regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its
competence with respect to matters governed by this Protocol. Such
organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in
the extent of its competence.
Article 17
Entry into force
1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the
date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval
or accession, except that it shall not enter into force before the entry into force
of the Convention. For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument deposited
by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as
additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization
ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Protocol after the deposit of
the fortieth instrument of such action, this Protocol shall enter into force on
the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of the
relevant instrument or on the date this Protocol enters into force pursuant to
paragraph 1 of this article, whichever is the later.
—8—
Article 18
Amendment
1. After the expiry of five years from the entry into force of this
Protocol, a State Party to the Protocol may propose an amendment and file it
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall thereupon
communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties and to the
Conference of the Parties to the Convention for the purpose of considering and
deciding on the proposal. The States Parties to this Protocol meeting at the
Conference of the Parties shall make every effort to achieve consensus on each
amendment. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement
has been reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, require for its adoption
a two-thirds majority vote of the States Parties to this Protocol present and
voting at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within
their competence, shall exercise their right to vote under this article with a
number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to
this Protocol. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their
member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
3. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States Parties.
4. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article shall enter into force in respect of a State Party ninety days after the
date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of an
instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such amendment.
5. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on
those States Parties which have expressed their consent to be bound by it.
Other States Parties shall still be bound by the provisions of this Protocol and
any earlier amendments that they have ratified, accepted or approved.
Article 19
Denunciation
1. A State Party may denounce this Protocol by written notification
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such denunciation shall
become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the
Secretary-General.
2. A regional economic integration organization shall cease to be a
Party to this Protocol when all of its member States have denounced it.
Article 20
Depositary and languages
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated
depositary of this Protocol.
—9—
2. The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese.
English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly
authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol.
— 10—
NOTE: Only English text of Protocol will be printed in this publication.
I hereby certify that the
foregoing text is a true copy of
the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress
and Punish Trafficking in Persons,
Especially Women and Children,
supplementing the United Nations
Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime, adopted by the
General Assembly of the United
Nations on 15 November 2000, the
original of which is deposited with
the Secretary-General of the
United Nations.
Je certifie que le texte qui precede
est une copie conforme du Protocole
additionnel a la Convention des
Nations Unies contre la criminalité
transnationale organisée visant a
prévenir, réprimer et punir la
traite des personnel, en particulier
des femmes et des enfants, adopté
par l'Assemblée générale des Nations
Unies le 15 novembre 2000, dont
l'original se trouve depose auprès
du Secretaire general de
l'Organisation des Nations Unies.
For the Secretary-General,
The Legal Counsel
(Under-Secretary-General
for Legal Affairs)
Pour le Secrétaire general,
Le Conseiller juridique
(Secrétaire general adjoint
aux affaires juridiques)
Hans Corell
United Nations, New York Organisation des Nations Unies
27 November 2000 New York, le 27 novembre 2000

PROTOCOL AGAINST THE SMUGGLING OF
MIGRANTS BY LAND, SEA AND AIR,
SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS
CONVENTION AGAINST
TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
UNITED NATIONS
2000
PROTOCOL AGAINST THE SMUGGLING OF MIGRANTS BY LAND,
SEA AND AIR, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS
CONVENTION AGAINST
TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
Preamble
The States Parties to this Protocol,
Declaring that effective action to prevent and combat the smuggling of
migrants by land, sea and air requires a comprehensive international approach,
including cooperation, the exchange of information and other appropriate
measures, including socio-economic measures, at the national, regional and
international levels,
Recalling General Assembly resolution 54/212 of 22 December 1999, in
which the Assembly urged Member States and the United Nations system to
strengthen international cooperation in the area of international migration and
development in order to address the root causes of migration, especially those
related to poverty, and to maximize the benefits of international migration to
those concerned, and encouraged, where relevant, interregional, regional and
subregional mechanisms to continue to address the question of migration and
development,
Convinced of the need to provide migrants with humane treatment and
full protection of their rights,
Taking into account the fact that, despite work undertaken in other
international forums, there is no universal instrument that addresses all aspects
of smuggling of migrants and other related issues,
Concerned at the significant increase in the activities of organized
criminal groups in smuggling of migrants and other related criminal activities
set forth in this Protocol, which bring great harm to the States concerned,
Also concerned that the smuggling of migrants can endanger the lives or
security of the migrants involved,
Recalling General Assembly resolution 53/111 of 9 December 1998, in
which the Assembly decided to establish an open-ended intergovernmental ad
hoc committee for the purpose of elaborating a comprehensive international
convention against transnational organized crime and of discussing the
elaboration of, inter alia, an international instrument addressing illegal
trafficking in and transporting of migrants, including by sea,
Convinced that supplementing the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime with an international instrument against the
smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air will be useful in preventing and
combating that crime,
Have agreed as follows:
I. General provisions
Article 1
Relation with the United Nations Convention
against Transnational Organized Crime
1. This Protocol supplements the United Nations Convention against
Transnational Organized Crime. It shall be interpreted together with the
Convention.
2. The provisions of the Convention shall apply, mutatis mutandis,
to this Protocol unless otherwise provided herein.
3. The offences established in accordance with article 6 of this
Protocol shall be regarded as offences established in accordance with the
Convention.
Article 2
Statement of purpose
The purpose of this Protocol is to prevent and combat the smuggling of
migrants, as well as to promote cooperation among States Parties to that end,
while protecting the rights of smuggled migrants.
Article 3
Use of terms
For the purposes of this Protocol:
(a) "Smuggling of migrants" shall mean the procurement, in order to
obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal
entry of a person into a State Party of which the person is not a national or a
permanent resident;
(b) "Illegal entry" shall mean crossing borders without complying
with the necessary requirements for legal entry into the receiving State;
(c) "Fraudulent travel or identity document" shall mean any travel or
identity document:
(i) That has been falsely made or altered in some material way by
anyone other than a person or agency lawfully authorized to make or
issue the travel or identity document on behalf of a State; or
(ii) That has been improperly issued or obtained through
misrepresentation, corruption or duress or in any other unlawful
manner; or
(iii) That is being used by a person other than the rightful holder;
(d) "Vessel" shall mean any type of water craft, including non-
displacement craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of
transportation on water, except a warship, naval auxiliary or other vessel
owned or operated by a Government and used, for the time being, only on
government non-commercial service.
—2—
Article 4
Scope of application
This Protocol shall apply, except as otherwise stated herein, to the
prevention, investigation and prosecution of the offences established in
accordance with article 6 of this Protocol, where the offences are transnational
in nature and involve an organized criminal group, as well as to the protection
of the rights of persons who have been the object of such offences.
Article 5
Criminal liability of migrants
Migrants shall not become liable to criminal prosecution under this
Protocol for the fact of having been the object of conduct set forth in article 6
of this Protocol.
Article 6
Criminalization
1. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures
as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences, when committed
intentionally and in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other
material benefit:
(a) The smuggling of migrants;
(b) When committed for the purpose of enabling the smuggling of
migrants:
(i) Producing a fraudulent travel or identity document;
(ii) Procuring, providing or possessing such a document;
(c) Enabling a person who is not a national or a permanent resident
to remain in the State concerned without complying with the necessary
requirements for legally remaining in the State by the means mentioned in
subparagraph (b) of this paragraph or any other illegal means.
2. Each State Party shall also adopt such legislative and other
measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences:
(a) Subject to the basic concepts of its legal system, attempting to
commit an offence established in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article;
(b) Participating as an accomplice in an offence established in
accordance with paragraph I (a), (b) (i) or (c) of this article and, subject to the
basic concepts of its legal system, participating as an accomplice in an offence
established in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) (ii) of this article;
(c) Organizing or directing other persons to commit an offence
established in accordance with paragraph 1 of this article.
3. Each State Party shall adopt such legislative and other measures
as may be necessary to establish as aggravating circumstances to the offences
established in accordance with paragraph 1 (a), (b) (i) and (c) of this article
—3—
and, subject to the basic concepts of its legal system, to the offences
established in accordance with paragraph 2 (b) and (c) of this article,
circumstances:
(a) That endanger, or are likely to endanger, the lives or safety of the
migrants concerned; or
(b) That entail inhuman or degrading treatment, including for
exploitation, of such migrants.
4. Nothing in this Protocol shall prevent a State Party from taking
measures against a person whose conduct constitutes an offence under its
domestic law.
II. Smuggling of migrants by sea
Article 7
Cooperation
States Parties shall cooperate to the fullest extent possible to prevent
and suppress the smuggling of migrants by sea, in accordance with the
international law of the sea.
Article 8
Measures against the smuggling of migrants by sea
1. A State Party that has reasonable grounds to suspect that a vessel
that is flying its flag or claiming its registry, that is without nationality or that,
though flying a foreign flag or refusing to show a flag, is in reality of the
nationality of the State Party concerned is engaged in the smuggling of
migrants by sea may request the assistance of other States Parties in
suppressing the use of the vessel for that purpose. The States Parties so
requested shall render such assistance to the extent possible within their
means.
2. A State Party that has reasonable grounds to suspect that a vessel
exercising freedom of navigation in accordance with international law and
flying the flag or displaying the marks of registry of another State Party is
engaged in the smuggling of migrants by sea may so notify the flag State,
request confirmation of registry and, if confirmed, request authorization from
the flag State to take appropriate measures with regard to that vessel. The flag
State may authorize the requesting State, inter alia:
(a) To board the vessel;
(b) To search the vessel; and
(c) If evidence is found that the vessel is engaged in the smuggling
of migrants by sea, to take appropriate measures with respect to the vessel and
persons and cargo on board, as authorized by the flag State.
3. A State Party that has taken any measure in accordance with
paragraph 2 of this article shall promptly inform the flag State concerned of
the results of that measure.
—4—
4. A State Party shall respond expeditiously to a request from
another State Party to determine whether a vessel that is claiming its registry
or flying its flag is entitled to do so and to a request for authorization made in
accordance with paragraph 2 of this article.
5. A flag State may, consistent with article 7 of this Protocol, subject
its authorization to conditions to be agreed by it and the requesting State,
including conditions relating to responsibility and the extent of effective
measures to be taken. A State Party shall take no additional measures without
the express authorization of the flag State, except those necessary to relieve
imminent danger to the lives of persons or those which derive from relevant
bilateral or multilateral agreements.
6. Each State Party shall designate an authority or, where necessary,
authorities to receive and respond to requests for assistance, for confirmation
of registry or of the right of a vessel to fly its flag and for authorization to take
appropriate measures. Such designation shall be notified through the
Secretary-General to all other States Parties within one month of the
designation.
7. A State Party that has reasonable grounds to suspect that a vessel
is engaged in the smuggling of migrants by sea and is without nationality or
may be assimilated to a vessel without nationality may board and search the
vessel. If evidence confirming the suspicion is found, that State Party shall
take appropriate measures in accordance with relevant domestic and
international law.
Article 9
Safeguard clauses
1. Where a State Party takes measures against a vessel in
accordance with article 8 of this Protocol, it shall:
(a) Ensure the safety and humane treatment of the persons on board;
(b) Take due account of the need not to endanger the security of the
vessel or its cargo;
(c) Take due account of the need not to prejudice the commercial or
legal interests of the flag State or any other interested State;
(d) Ensure, within available means, that any measure taken with
regard to the vessel is environmentally sound.
2. Where the grounds for measures taken pursuant to article 8 of this
Protocol prove to be unfounded, the vessel shall be compensated for any loss
or damage that may have been sustained, provided that the vessel has not
committed any act justifying the measures taken.
3. Any measure taken, adopted or implemented in accordance with
this chapter shall take due account of the need not to interfere with or to affect:
(a) The rights and obligations and the exercise of jurisdiction of
coastal States in accordance with the international law of the sea; or
—5—
(b) The authority of the flag State to exercise jurisdiction and control
in administrative, technical and social matters involving the vessel.
4. Any measure taken at sea pursuant to this chapter shall be carried
out only by warships or military aircraft, or by other ships or aircraft clearly
marked and identifiable as being on government service and authorized to that
effect.
III. Prevention, cooperation and other measures
Article 10
Information
1. Without prejudice to articles 27 and 28 of the Convention, States
Parties, in particular those with common borders or located on routes along
which migrants are smuggled, shall, for the purpose of achieving the
objectives of this Protocol, exchange among themselves, consistent with their
respective domestic legal and administrative systems, relevant information on
matters such as:
(a) Embarkation and destination points, as well as routes, carriers
and means of transportation, known to be or suspected of being used by an
organized criminal group engaged in conduct set forth in article 6 of this
Protocol;
(b) The identity and methods of organizations or organized criminal
groups known to be or suspected of being engaged in conduct set forth in
article 6 of this Protocol;
(c) The authenticity and proper form of travel documents issued by a
State Party and the theft or related misuse of blank travel or identity
documents;
(d) Means and methods of concealment and transportation of
persons, the unlawful alteration, reproduction or acquisition or other misuse of
travel or identity documents used in conduct set forth in article 6 of this
Protocol and ways of detecting them;
(e) Legislative experiences and practices and measures to prevent
and combat the conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol; and
(f) Scientific and technological information useful to law
enforcement, so as to enhance each other's ability to prevent, detect and
investigate the conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol and to prosecute
those involved.
2. A State Party that receives information shall comply with any
request by the State Party that transmitted the information that places
restrictions on its use.
Article 11
Border measures
1. Without prejudice to international commitments in relation to the
free movement of people, States Parties shall strengthen, to the extent
—6—
possible, such border controls as may be necessary to prevent and detect the
smuggling of migrants.
2. Each State Party shall adopt legislative or other appropriate
measures to prevent, to the extent possible, means of transport operated by
commercial carriers from being used in the commission of the offence
established in accordance with article 6, paragraph 1 (a), of this Protocol.
3. Where appropriate, and without prejudice to applicable
international conventions, such measures shall include establishing the
obligation of commercial carriers, including any transportation company or the
owner or operator of any means of transport, to ascertain that all passengers
are in possession of the travel documents required for entry into the receiving
State.
4. Each State Party shall take the necessary measures, in accordance
with its domestic law, to provide for sanctions in cases of violation of the
obligation set forth in paragraph 3 of this article.
5. Each State Party shall consider taking measures that permit, in
accordance with its domestic law, the denial of entry or revocation of visas of
persons implicated in the commission of offences established in accordance
with this Protocol.
6. Without prejudice to article 27 of the Convention, States Parties
shall consider strengthening cooperation among border control agencies by,
inter alia, establishing and maintaining direct channels of communication.
Article 12
Security and control of documents
Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary, within
available means:
(a) To ensure that travel or identity documents issued by it are of
such quality that they cannot easily be misused and cannot readily be falsified
or unlawfully altered, replicated or issued; and
(b) To ensure the integrity and security of travel or identity
documents issued by or on behalf of the State Party and to prevent their
unlawful creation, issuance and use.
Article 13
Legitimacy and validity of documents
At the request of another State Party, a State Party shall, in accordance
with its domestic law, verify within a reasonable time the legitimacy and
validity of travel or identity documents issued or purported to have been
issued in its name and suspected of being used for purposes of conduct set
forth in article 6 of this Protocol.
—7—
Article 14
Training and technical cooperation
1. States Parties shall provide or strengthen specialized training for
immigration and other relevant officials in preventing the conduct set forth in
article 6 of this Protocol and in the humane treatment of migrants who have
been the object of such conduct, while respecting their rights as set forth in
this Protocol.
2. States Parties shall cooperate with each other and with competent
international organizations, non-governmental organizations, other relevant
organizations and other elements of civil society as appropriate to ensure that
there is adequate personnel training in their territories to prevent, combat and
eradicate the conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol and to protect the
rights of migrants who have been the object of such conduct. Such training
shall include:
(a) Improving the security and quality of travel documents;
(b) Recognizing and detecting fraudulent travel or identity
documents;
(c) Gathering criminal intelligence, relating in particular to the
identification of organized criminal groups known to be or suspected of being
engaged in conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol, the methods used to
transport smuggled migrants, the misuse of travel or identity documents for
purposes of conduct set forth in article 6 and the means of concealment used in
the smuggling of migrants;
(d) Improving procedures for detecting smuggled persons at
conventional and non-conventional points of entry and exit; and
(e) The humane treatment of migrants and the protection of their
rights as set forth in this Protocol.
3. States Parties with relevant expertise shall consider providing
technical assistance to States that are frequently countries of origin or transit
for persons who have been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this
Protocol. States Parties shall make every effort to provide the necessary
resources, such as vehicles, computer systems and document readers, to
combat the conduct set forth in article 6.
Article 15
Other prevention measures
1. Each State Party shall take measures to ensure that it provides or
strengthens information programmes to increase public awareness of the fact
that the conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol is a criminal activity
frequently perpetrated by organized criminal groups for profit and that it poses
serious risks to the migrants concerned.
2. In accordance with article 31 of the Convention, States Parties
shall cooperate in the field of public information for the purpose of preventing
potential migrants from falling victim to organized criminal groups.
—8—
3. Each State Party shall promote or strengthen, as appropriate,
development programmes and cooperation at the national, regional and
international levels, taking into account the socio-economic realities of
migration and paying special attention to economically and socially depressed
areas, in order to combat the root socio-economic causes of the smuggling of
migrants, such as poverty and underdevelopment.
Article 16
Protection and assistance measures
1. In implementing this Protocol, each State Party shall take,
consistent with its obligations under international law, all appropriate
measures, including legislation if necessary, to preserve and protect the rights
of persons who have been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this
Protocol as accorded under applicable international law, in particular the right
to life and the right not to be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
2. Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to afford
migrants appropriate protection against violence that may be inflicted upon
them, whether by individuals or groups, by reason of being the object of
conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol.
3. Each State Party shall afford appropriate assistance to migrants
whose lives or safety are endangered by reason of being the object of conduct
set forth in article 6 of this Protocol.
4. In applying the provisions of this article, States Parties shall take
into account the special needs of women and children.
5. In the case of the detention of a person who has been the object of
conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol, each State Party shall comply
with its obligations under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations,
where applicable, including that of informing the person concerned without
delay about the provisions concerning notification to and communication with
consular officers.
Article 17
Agreements and arrangements
States Parties shall consider the conclusion of bilateral or regional
agreements or operational arrangements or understandings aimed at:
(a) Establishing the most appropriate and effective measures to
prevent and combat the conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol; or
(b) Enhancing the provisions of this Protocol among themselves.
Article 18
Return of smuggled migrants
1. Each State Party agrees to facilitate and accept, without undue or
unreasonable delay, the return of a person who has been the object of conduct
—9—
set forth in article 6 of this Protocol and who is its national or who has the
right of permanent residence in its territory at the time of return.
2. Each State Party shall consider the possibility of facilitating and
accepting the return of a person who has been the object of conduct set forth in
article 6 of this Protocol and who had the right of permanent residence in its
territory at the time of entry into the receiving State in accordance with its
domestic law.
3. At the request of the receiving State Party, a requested State Party
shall, without undue or unreasonable delay, verify whether a person who has
been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol is its national
or has the right of permanent residence in its territory.
4. In order to facilitate the return of a person who has been the
object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol and is without proper
documentation, the State Party of which that person is a national or in which
he or she has the right of permanent residence shall agree to issue, at the
request of the receiving State Party, such travel documents or other
authorization as may be necessary to enable the person to travel to and re-enter
its territory.
5. Each State Party involved with the return of a person who has
been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol shall take all
appropriate measures to carry out the return in an orderly manner and with due
regard for the safety and dignity of the person.
6. States Parties may cooperate with relevant international
organizations in the implementation of this article.
7. This article shall be without prejudice to any right afforded to
persons who have been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this
Protocol by any domestic law of the receiving State Party.
8. This article shall not affect the obligations entered into under any
other applicable treaty, bilateral or multilateral, or any other applicable
operational agreement or arrangement that governs, in whole or in part, the
return of persons who have been the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of
this Protocol.
IV. Final provisions
Article 19
Saving clause
1. Nothing in this Protocol shall affect the other rights, obligations
and responsibilities of States and individuals under international law, including
international humanitarian law and international human rights law and, in
particular, where applicable, the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol
relating to the Status of Refugees and the principle of non-refoulement as
contained therein.
2. The measures set forth in this Protocol shall be interpreted and
applied in a way that is not discriminatory to persons on the ground that they
— 10 —
are the object of conduct set forth in article 6 of this Protocol. The
interpretation and application of those measures shall be consistent with
internationally recognized principles of non-discrimination.
Article 20
Settlement of disputes
1. States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the
interpretation or application of this Protocol through negotiation.
2. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the
interpretation or application of this Protocol that cannot be settled through
negotiation within a reasonable time shall, at the request of one of those States
Parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request
for arbitration, those States Parties are unable to agree on the organization of
the arbitration, any one of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the
International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the
Court.
3. Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification,
acceptance or approval of or accession to this Protocol, declare that it does not
consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article. The other States Parties
shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any State Party
that has made such a reservation.
4. Any State Party that has made a reservation in accordance with
paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that reservation by
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 21
Signature, ratification, acceptance, approval
and accession
1. This Protocol shall be open to all States for signature from 12 to
15 December 2000 in Palermo, Italy, and thereafter at United Nations
Headquarters in New York until 12 December 2002.
2. This Protocol shall also be open for signature by regional
economic integration organizations provided that at least one member State of
such organization has signed this Protocol in accordance with paragraph 1 of
this article.
3. This Protocol is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.
Instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. A regional economic integration
organization may deposit its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval
if at least one of its member States has done likewise. In that instrument of
ratification, acceptance or approval, such organization shall declare the extent
of its competence with respect to the matters governed by this Protocol. Such
organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in
the extent of its competence.
— 11 —
4. This Protocol is open for accession by any State or any regional
economic integration organization of which at least one member State is a
Party to this Protocol. Instruments of accession shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations. At the time of its accession, a
regional economic integration organization shall declare the extent of its
competence with respect to matters governed by this Protocol. Such
organization shall also inform the depositary of any relevant modification in
the extent of its competence.
Article 22
Entry into force
1. This Protocol shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the
date of deposit of the fortieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval
or accession, except that it shall not enter into force before the entry into force
of the Convention. For the purpose of this paragraph, any instrument deposited
by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as
additional to those deposited by member States of such organization.
2. For each State or regional economic integration organization
ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to this Protocol after the deposit of
the fortieth instrument of such action, this Protocol shall enter into force on
the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or organization of the
relevant instrument or on the date this Protocol enters into force pursuant to
paragraph 1 of this article, whichever is the later.
Article 23
Amendment
1. After the expiry of five years from the entry into force of this
Protocol, a State Party to the Protocol may propose an amendment and file it
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall thereupon
communicate the proposed amendment to the States Parties and to the
Conference of the Parties to the Convention for the purpose of considering and
deciding on the proposal. The States Parties to this Protocol meeting at the
Conference of the Parties shall make every effort to achieve consensus on each
amendment. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement
has been reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, require for its adoption
a two-thirds majority vote of the States Parties to this Protocol present and
voting at the meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within
their competence, shall exercise their right to vote under this article with a
number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to
this Protocol. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if their
member States exercise theirs and vice versa.
3. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States Parties.
4. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of this
article shall enter into force in respect of a State Party ninety days after the
— 12 —
date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of an
instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of such amendment.
5. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on
those States Parties which have expressed their consent to be bound by it.
Other States Parties shall still be bound by the provisions of this Protocol and
any earlier amendments that they have ratified, accepted or approved.
Article 24
Denunciation
1. A State Party may denounce this Protocol by written notification
to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such denunciation shall
become effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the
Secretary-General.
2. A regional economic integration organization shall cease to be a
Party to this Protocol when all of its member States have denounced it.
Article 25
Depositary and languages
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated
depositary of this Protocol.
2. The original of this Protocol, of which the Arabic, Chinese,
English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly
authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Protocol.
— 13 —
NOTE: Only English text of Protocol will be printed in this publication.
I hereby certify that the
foregoing text is a true copy of
the Protocol against the Smuggling
of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air,
supplementing the United Nations
Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime, adopted by the
General Assembly of the United
Nations on 15 November 2000, the
original of which is deposited with
the Secretary-General of the
United Nations.
Je certifie que le texte qui precede
est une copie conforme du Protocole
contre le trafic illicite de
migrants par terre, air et mer,
additionnel A la Convention des
Nations Unies contre la criminalité
transnationale organisée, adopté par
l'Assemblée generale des Nations
Unies le 15 novembre 2000, dont
l'original se trouve déposé auprès
du Secretaire general de
l'Organisation des Nations Unies.
For the Secretary-General, Pour le Secrétaire general,
The Legal Counsel Le Conseiller juridique
(Under-Secretary-General (Secrétaire general adjoint
for Legal Affairs) aux affaires juridiques)
Hans Corell
United Nations, New York Organisation des Nations Unies
27 November 2000 New York, le 27 novembre 2000



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