On September 10, 2014, President Obama announced the formation of a broad international coalition to defeat The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) emphasizing, “Our objective is clear: We will degrade, and ultimately destroy, ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy.”
The ISIL Threat: A Global Challenge
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has dramatically undermined stability in Iraq, Syria and the broader Middle East and poses a threat to international peace and security. ISIL continues to commit gross, systematic abuses of human rights and violations of international law, including indiscriminate killing and deliberate targeting of civilians, mass executions and extrajudicial killings, persecution of individuals and entire communities on the basis of their identity, kidnapping of civilians, forced displacement of Shia communities and minority groups, killing and maiming of children, rape and other forms of sexual violence, along with numerous other atrocities. ISIL presents a global terrorist threat which has recruited thousands of foreign fighters to Iraq and Syria from across the globe and leveraged technology to spread its violent extremist ideology and to incite terrorist acts. As noted in UN Security Council Resolution 2170, “terrorism can only be defeated by a sustained and comprehensive approach involving the active participation and collaboration of all States… which is why our first priority is to encourage others to join in this important endeavor.”
The Global Coalition to Degrade and Defeat ISIL
Secretary Kerry Presides Over the Counter-ISIL Coalition Ministerial in Brussels, December 3, 2014
Sixty-six coalition partners have committed themselves to the goals of eliminating the threat posed by ISIL and have already contributed in various capacities to the effort to combat ISIL in Iraq, the region and beyond. The breadth and diversity of partners supporting the coalition demonstrate the global and unified nature of this endeavor.
Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL
Brett McGurk is the Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL. The President appointed Brett McGurk as Deputy Envoy on September 13, 2014 and he acceded to the position of Special Presidential Envoy on November 13, 2015.
From September 2014 until November 12, 2015, General John Allen served in the role of Special Presidential Envoy and played a critical and central role in building the 65 member strong Global Coalition that remains committed to degrading and defeating ISIL.
The Five Lines of Effort
Secretary Kerry and Secretary Hagel set forth five mutually reinforcing lines of effort to degrade and defeat ISIL at an early September 2014 meeting with NATO counterparts.
These lines of effort include:
As Secretary Kerry has said, “there is a role for every country to play” in degrading and defeating ISIL. Some partners are contributing to the military effort, by providing arms, equipment, training, or advice. These partners include countries in Europe and in the Middle East region that are contributing to the air campaign against ISIL targets. International contributions, however, are not solely or even primarily military contributions. The effort to degrade and ultimately defeat ISIL will require reinforcing multiple lines of effort, including preventing the flow of funds and fighters to ISIL, and exposing its true nature.
Humanitarian assistance to those affected by the conflict is equally important to meeting urgent needs and maintaining regional stability, and contributions to humanitarian assistance, including a critical contribution of $500 million by Saudi Arabia to the humanitarian response in Iraq, have been essential. With the needs of vulnerable civilians continuing to grow, additional contributions from the international community are necessary in order to address the greatest needs—including shelter, food and water, medicine and education.