The Government of the United States of America and The Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil (hereafter referred to as "'the Participants"),
Determined to enhance their partnership and friendly and mutually beneficial relations on all levels;
Recognizing the importance of a sound partnership between state and local governments of the United States and Brazil (also referred to as 'subnational entities') as an instrument to assist in the achievement of shared objectives and enhancement of mutual benefits;
Affirming that increased subnational cooperation contributes to the strengthening of U.S.-Brazil bilateral relations and the fostering of friendship and understanding between both countries;
Equally recogmzmg this form of cooperation as complementary to the ongoing bilateral dialogues and undertakings between the United States and Brazil;
Bcaring in mind that the Goverrunent of the United States and the Government of Brazil possess exclusive authority over all matters related to their respective relations with foreign countries and international organizations;
Desiring to offer subnational entities frames of reference for their own initiatives, within the boundaries of their legal jurisdiction, with the objective of ensuring that those initiatives are consistent with and complementary to the policies of their respective federal governments;
Invoking the principles of reciprocity, mutual respect, and mutual benefit that guide their own relations, which should conduct the relationship between their subnational entities;
Have reached the following understandings:
l. The Participants intend to encourage subnational cooperation, both directly between subnational entities andlor through their national or regional associations, with the aim of reinforcing the ties between the two countries consistent with the foreign and domestic policies of the Participants.
2. The Participants affirm their dctennination to increase and assist when appropriate cooperation between their respective subnational entities in all sectors of common interest and assert their readiness to consider new mechanisms to encourage such collaboration.
3. The Participants intend to provide their support, where appropriate, to the efforts of their respective state and local governments to engage with their counterparts in cooperative activities pertaining to areas of mutual interest, such as education, cultural and technical
exchange, economic growth, sustainable development, democracy, and social inclusion.
4. The Participants intend to assess the need for further conunitments on decentralized and subnational cooperation to support the cooperative activities of their subnational governments and their associations.
5. In order to assess the implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding, the Participants propose to meet at least once a year in Brazil or in the United States alternately or as otherwise requested by either Participant.
1. Cooperation between subnational entities may occur directly bctween such entities and/or their associations or, when deemed appropriate by the Participants, through participation in the bilateral cooperation activities of the Participants.
2. Activities and initiatives consistent with this Memorandum of Understanding may include, but are not limited to:
a. Promoting state-to-state, city-to-city, or other local entity consultations, as well as consultations between state and local government associations on issues of mutual concern.
b. Encouraging state and local government associations of the two countries to engage their counterparts in consultations and teclmical exchanges in areas of mutual concern, such as institution building, outreach and member support.
c. Promoting direct technical exchange and sharing of best practices in areas pertaining to their administrative and managerial responsibilities, such as public services, infrastructure, transportation, social inclusion, police and law enforcement, environmental sustainability, waste management, public parks, and tourism promotion.
d. Encouraging and facilitating closer relationships between subnational entIties in order to enhance and expand cooperative efforts in education as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding on Education (the U.S.-Brazil 'Partnership on Education') signed in Washington on March 30, 2007.
e. Encouraging state and local officials to sharc best practices and knowledge in preparation for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games and Paraiympic Games and other future global events, as outlined in the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation to Support the Organization of Major Global Sporting Events, signed in Brasilia on March 19,2011.
f. Promoting state and local participation in efTorts related to the U.S. - Brazil Joint Action Plan to Eliminate Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and Promote Equality signed in Brasilia on March 13, 2008 and the Memorandum of Understanding for the Advancement of Women signed in Brasilia on March 3, 2010.
1. Sharing of information between the Participants is to be in accordance with their respective national laws and regulations.
2. This Memorandum of Understanding does not create rights or obligations under international or domestic law.
3. Implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding is to be coordinated by the United States Department of State, on behalf of the United States, and the Ministry of External Relations on behalf of Brazil.
4. The Participants intend to implement this Memorandum of Understanding upon signature. Either Participant may, at any time, notify the other of its decision to discontinue implementation of this Memorandum of Understanding, by means ofa three-month notice of such discontinuation, via diplomatic channels.
5. This Memorandum of Understanding may be modified by the Participants in writing.
6. The Participants intend to address through direct consultations any difference of VIews regarding the implementation or interpretation of this Memorandum of Understanding.
Signed in Washington this 9th day of April, 2012 in duplicate, in the English and Portuguese languages.