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Diplomacy in Action

2011 Annual Report on Implementation of the Moscow Treaty


Report
Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance
June 2, 2011

   
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[Prepared by the U.S. Department of State in response to Section 2(2) of the Resolution of Advice and Consent To Ratification of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions of May 24, 2002]

MOSCOW TREATY ANNUAL IMPLEMENTATION REPORT

This Report is the last report submitted in response to Condition (2) of the March 6, 2003, Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (Moscow Treaty). The Moscow Treaty was signed at Moscow on May 24, 2002, and entered into force on June 1, 2003, upon exchange of the instruments of ratification. The Moscow Treaty was superseded by the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (New START Treaty) on February 5, 2011. Beginning in 2012, the President will report annually on implementation of the New START Treaty, as required by the Senate Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty.

Condition (2) of the Moscow Treaty Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification states in part: “Annual Implementation Report. - Not later than 60 days after exchange of instruments of ratification of the Treaty, and annually thereafter on April 15, the President shall submit to the Committee on Foreign Relations and the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate a report on implementation of the Treaty by the United States and the Russian Federation.” On July 31, 2003, pursuant to Executive Order 13313, the President delegated to the Secretary of State the authority to submit this report to the Senate.

Condition (2) requires that the implementation report include the following:

(A) a listing of strategic nuclear weapons force levels of the United States, and a best estimate of the strategic nuclear weapons force levels of the Russian Federation, as of December 31 of the preceding calendar year

(B) a detailed description, to the extent possible, of strategic offensive reductions planned by each party for the current calendar year;

(C) to the extent possible, the plans of each party for achieving by December 31, 2012, the strategic offensive reductions required by Article I of the Treaty;

(D) measures, including any verification or transparency measures, that have been taken or have been proposed by a party to assure each party of the other party's continued intent and ability to achieve by December 31, 2012, the strategic offensive reductions required by Article I of the Treaty;

(E) information relevant to implementation of this Treaty that has been learned as a result of Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) verification measures, and the status of consideration of extending the START verification regime beyond December 2009;

(F) any information, insufficiency of information, or other situation that may call into question the intent or the ability of either party to achieve by December 31, 2012, the strategic offensive reductions required by Article I of the Treaty; and

(G) any actions that have been taken or have been proposed by a party to address concerns listed pursuant to subparagraph (F) or to improve the implementation and effectiveness of the Treaty.

Much of the information requested in the Senate condition is classified for national security reasons. A classified version of this Report contains the complete information required by Conditions 2(A) through (G).

This report is submitted for the periods of January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, and January 1, 2011, to February 5, 2011. This is the final annual report on the Implementation of the Moscow Treaty.

The Moscow Treaty reflected and significantly contributed to the emergence of the new strategic relationship between the United States and Russia. The Treaty placed upon the United States a legal obligation to implement fully its publicly announced plans to reduce to a level of 1,700-2,200 strategic nuclear warheads by December 31, 2012.

A. Listing of Strategic Nuclear Weapons Force Levels of the United States, and a Best Estimate of the Strategic Nuclear Weapons Force Levels of the Russian Federation, as of December 31 of the Preceding Calendar Year

The aggregate number of United States operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads (ODSNW) was 1,941 as of December 31, 2010. The aggregate number of U.S. ODSNW was 1,944 as of February 5, 2011, the final day that the Moscow Treaty was in force. The classified version of this Report contains the numbers of U.S. ODSNW by category of system, and estimated numbers of Russian Federation strategic nuclear warheads as of December 31, 2010, and February 5, 2011.

As noted in the Moscow Treaty Article-by-Article Analysis, in using the term “operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads,” the United States meant reentry vehicles on intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) in their launchers, reentry vehicles on submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) in their launchers on board submarines, and nuclear armaments loaded on heavy bombers or stored in weapons storage areas of heavy bomber bases. A small number of spare strategic nuclear warheads (including spare ICBM warheads) are located at heavy bomber bases and the United States did not consider these warheads to be operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads.

The Treaty made clear that the Parties need not implement their reductions in an identical manner. Russia, like the United States, could have reduced its strategic nuclear warheads by any method it chose. Russia could have used the U.S. definition of “operationally deployed strategic nuclear warheads” or some other counting method to quantify its reductions. Moscow Treaty numbers were not comparable to START Treaty data due to the different counting approaches of the two treaties.

B. Detailed Description, To the Extent Possible, of Strategic Offensive Reductions Planned by Each Party for the Current Calendar Year

As indicated in the Senate’s Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty, the President will submit an annual report to the Committees on Foreign Relations and Armed Services of the Senate, which will provide, in relevant part, “details on each Party’s reductions in strategic offensive arms between the date the New START Treaty entered into force and December 31, 2011, or, in subsequent reports, during the previous year.” Reductions in strategic offensive arms by both the United States and the Russian Federation will be addressed in those reports.

C. To the Extent Possible, the Plans of Each Party for Achieving by December 31, 2012, the Strategic Offensive Reductions Required by Article I of the Treaty

As the Moscow Treaty is no longer in force, there is no obligation for either Party to achieve the reductions required by that Treaty. Beginning in 2012, the President will report annually on implementation of the New START Treaty, as required by the Senate Resolution of Advice and Consent to Ratification of the New START Treaty.

D. Measures, Including Any Verification or Transparency Measures, That Have Been Taken or Have Been Proposed by a Party to Assure Each Party of the Other Party's Continued Intent and Ability to Achieve by December 31, 2012, the Strategic Offensive Reductions Required by Article I of the Treaty

Facing the expiration of the START Treaty, the United States and the Russian Federation agreed to pursue a legally binding agreement to replace START that would include verification procedures, as well as confidence building and transparency measures, that would be simplified and less costly in comparison to the START Treaty. U.S. and Russian negotiators first met in April 2009 and an agreement, the New START Treaty, was signed by the Presidents of the United States and the Russian Federation on April 8, 2010, in Prague. The New START Treaty entered into force on February 5, 2011, and superseded the Moscow Treaty.

Bilateral Implementation Commission

Article III of the Moscow Treaty established the Bilateral Implementation Commission (BIC) for purposes of implementing the Treaty. The BIC was the forum in which the United States and Russia discussed and exchanged information on their respective Treaty implementation efforts.

E. Information Relevant to Implementation of this Treaty That Has Been Learned as a Result of Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) Verification Measures, and the Status of Consideration of Extending the START Verification Regime Beyond December 2009

With the expiration of the START Treaty and its associated verification measures in December 2009, no START verification activities occurred during this reporting period from which to gather information on Moscow Treaty implementation.

The START Treaty verification regime was not extended beyond December 2009. Rather, in April 2009, the United States and the Russian Federation agreed to pursue a new, comprehensive legally binding agreement on reducing and limiting strategic offensive arms to replace the START Treaty. The New START Treaty was signed by Presidents Obama and Medvedev on April 8, 2010, in Prague. Following ratification processes in the United States and the Russian Federation, the New START Treaty entered into force on February 5, 2011.

F. Statement as to Whether Any Information, Insufficiency of Information, or Other Situation Exists That May Call Into Question the Intent or the Ability of Either Party to Achieve by December 31, 2012, the Strategic Offensive Reductions Required by Article I of the Treaty

The United States and the Russian Federation are no longer bound by the Moscow Treaty. However, up until the Moscow Treaty was superseded on February 5, 2011 by the New START Treaty, there was no information that called into question the intent or the ability of either Party to achieve the reductions required by Article I of the Treaty.

G. Any Actions That Have Been Taken or Have Been Proposed by a Party to Address Concerns Listed Pursuant to Subparagraph (F) or to Improve the Implementation and Effectiveness of the Treaty

None.



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