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Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (and Protocols Thereto)


Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance
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Signed at Denpasar, Indonesia, October 7, 2013
Entered into force October 7, 2013

1987 NRRC Agreement
Agreement Text

Protocols

 

Agreement Text

Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (and Protocols Thereto) of September 15, 1987


The United States of America and the Russian Federation, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,

In order to improve the viability and effectiveness of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987 (hereinafter referred to as the 1987 Agreement), as amended by provisional application of the Protocol between the United States of America and the Russian Federation Amending the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987, signed at Moscow on January 31, 2000 (hereinafter referred to as the 2000 Protocol),

Recognizing the importance of a new strategic relationship between the Parties that is based on mutual trust, openness, predictability, and cooperation,

Considering the fact that the scope and number of notifications exchanged by the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of the Parties, in accordance with Article 2 of the 1987 Agreement, have increased significantly,

Mindful of the new responsibilities of the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers since the entry into force of the 1987 Agreement, most notably regarding the notifications referred to in Article VII of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms of April 8, 2010,

In order to provide for further technical development of the communications links between the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of the Parties in an environment of rapid technological advances,

Have agreed as follows:

Article I

This Agreement supersedes the 2000 Protocol.

Article II

In Article 3 of the 1987 Agreement, the term “a special facsimile communications link” shall be replaced with the term “an encrypted communications link.”

Article III

Articles 1 through 9 of Protocol II to the 1987 Agreement shall be replaced with the following Articles 1 through 7, and Article 10 of Protocol II to the 1987 Agreement shall be renumbered as Article 8:

Article 1

For the purpose of the transmission in secure mode of text and graphics files between the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers (hereinafter referred to as the National Centers), established in accordance with Article 1 of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987 (hereinafter referred to as the Agreement), each Party shall establish and maintain, as mutually agreed, one independently routed data transmission circuit. In this regard:

(a) The Parties shall install compatible computer terminals for the establishment of communication between the National Centers;

(b) Each Party shall support communications circuits providing the possibility of simultaneous transmission and reception at agreed-upon speeds that correspond to the technical capabilities of the equipment utilized;

(c) The international communications channel of the United States of America and the international communications channel of the Russian Federation shall use commercial communications channels between the respective earth stations of each Party, or other mutually agreed means, while each Party shall be responsible for the terrestrial circuit segments to its National Center.

Article 2

The competent technical organizations responsible for implementing technical requirements and information exchanges, as well as oversight and operations, shall be as follows:

- For the United States of America, the United States Department of State;

- For the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.

Article 3

Agreed-upon information security devices shall be used in order to ensure encrypted transmission of information. In this regard:

(a) The information security devices shall be technical devices connected to a computer or components of a computer into which messages shall be uploaded from electronic information media;

(b) Each Party shall provide to the other Party, through its Embassy or by electronic means, appropriate cryptographic access material;

(c) The computers, software, and electronic information media of each Party shall meet its national requirements for information security.

Article 4

As the final component of information processing, computer terminals shall be used that correspond to the functional requirements of the encrypted communications link and that meet international communications standards. In this regard:

(a) Each Party shall be responsible for the purchase, installation, operation, and maintenance of its own terminals, relevant information security devices, and communications links necessary for the implementation of this Protocol;

(b) Each Party shall ensure that its terminal provides for the capability of exchanging three types of messages: test messages, service messages, and messages transmitted pursuant to Protocol I of the Agreement;

(c) Messages via the encrypted communications link shall be transmitted from the National Center of the Russian Federation to the National Center of the United States of America in the Russian language, and from the National Center of the United States of America to the National Center of the Russian Federation in the English language.

Article 5

Each Party shall establish and maintain private orderwire communications capability in order to coordinate the exchange of information. In this regard:

(a) The encryption terminals used with the information security devices shall incorporate standard Russian Federation Cyrillic and U.S. Latin keyboards and displays to support the exchange of messages between operators. The layout of the Cyrillic keyboard shall be determined by the Russian Party;

(b) To support the work of operators, the orderwire shall be configured so as to permit, prior to the transmission and reception of messages, the exchange of all information pertinent to the coordination of such messages;

(c) Orderwire messages shall be encrypted using the same information security devices specified in paragraph (a) of Article 3 of this Protocol;

(d) The orderwire shall use the same communications links as used for text-file message transmission;

(e) A printer shall be used to provide a record copy of all information exchanged on the orderwire. Each Party shall independently determine the configuration of its printer in accordance with the requirements of this Protocol.

Article 6

For the encrypted communications link between the National Centers, the Parties, unless otherwise agreed, shall continue to use the same type of equipment and the same maintenance procedures as are currently in use for the Direct Communications Link, established in accordance with the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation on the Establishment of a Direct Secure Communications System between the United States of America and the Russian Federation of October 30, 2008. In this regard:

(a) If it is necessary, the equipment list for the National Centers may be updated and maintenance and operations procedures may be refined by mutual agreement of the Parties;

(b) The replacement of information security devices and associated software for use on the communication terminals shall be determined by mutual agreement of the Parties.

Article 7

"The modernization of the encrypted communications systems shall be carried out as necessary by mutual agreement of the Parties.”

Article IV

This Agreement shall enter into force on the date of its signature.

Done at Denpasar, Indonesia, this 7th day of October, 2013, in two copies, each in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.


FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
John Kerry

FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION:
Sergey Lavrov



Protocol I to the Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers

Pursuant to the provisions and in implementation of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers, the Parties have agreed as follows:

Article 1

The Parties shall transmit the following types of notifications through the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers:

(a) notifications of ballistic missile launches under Article 4 of the Agreement on Measures to Reduce the Risk of Outbreak of Nuclear War between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of September 30, 1971;

(b) notifications of ballistic missile launches under paragraph 1 of Article VI of the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Prevention of Incidents on and over the High Seas of May 25, 1972.

Article 2

The scope and format of the information to be transmitted through the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers shall be agreed upon.

Article 3

Each Party also may, at its own discretion as a display of good will and with a view to building confidence, transmit through the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers communications other than those provided for under Article 1 of this Protocol.

Article 4

Unless the Parties agree otherwise, all communications transmitted through and communications procedures of the Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers' communication link will be confidential.

Article 5

This Protocol shall enter into force on the date of its signature and shall remain in force as long as the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987, remains in force.

DONE at Washington on September 15, 1987, in two copies, each in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.

FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
George P. Shultz

FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET AMERICA SOCIALIST REPUBLICS:
Eduard A. Shevardnadze

Protocol II to the Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers


Pursuant to the provisions and in implementation of the Agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers, the Parties have agreed as follows:

Article 1

To establish and maintain for the purpose of providing direct facsimile communications between their national Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers, established in accordance with Article 1 of this Agreement, hereinafter referred to as the national Centers, an INTELSAT satellite circuit and a STATSIONAR satellite circuit, each with a secure orderwire communications capability for operational monitoring. In this regard:

(b) Each Party shall provide communications circuits capable of simultaneously transmitting and receiving 4800 bits per second;

(c) Communication shall begin with test operation of the INTELSAT satellite circuit, as soon as purchase, delivery and installation of the necessary equipment by the Parties are completed. Thereafter, taking into account the results of test operations, the Parties shall agree on the transition to a fully operational status;

(d) To the extent practicable, test operation of the STATSIONAR satellite circuit shall begin simultaneously with test operation of the INTELSAT satellite circuit. Taking into account the results of test operations, the Parties shall agree on the transition to a fully operational status.

    (a) There shall be terminals equipped for communication between the national Centers;
Article 2

To employ agreed-upon information security devices to assure secure transmission of facsimile messages. In this regard:

(b) Each Party shall provide, through its Embassy, necessary keying material to the other.

    (a) The information security devices shall consist of microprocessors that will combine the digital message output with buffered random data read from standard 5 1/4 inch floppy disks;
Article 3

To establish and maintain at each operating end of the two circuits, facsimile terminals of the same make and model. In this regard:

(b) A Group III facsimile unit which meets CCITT Recommendations T.4 and T.30 and operates at 4800 bits per second shall be used;

(c) Direct facsimile messages from the USSR national Center to the U.S. national Center shall be transmitted and received in the Russian language, and from the U.S. national Center to the USSR national Center in the English language;

(d) Transmission and operating procedures shall be in conformity with procedures employed on the Direct Communications Link and adapted as necessary for the purpose of communications between the national Centers.

    (a) Each Party shall be responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of its own terminals, the related information security devices, and local transmission circuits appropriate to the implementation of this Protocol;
Article 4

To establish and maintain a secure orderwire communications capability necessary to coordinate facsimile operation. In this regard:

(b) To coordinate the work of operators, the orderwire shall be configured so as to permit, prior to the transmission and reception of messages, the exchange of all information pertinent to the coordination of such messages;

(c) Orderwire messages concerning transmissions shall be encoded using the same information security devices specified in paragraph (a) of Article 2;

(d) The orderwire shall use the same modem and communications link as used for facsimile message transmission;

(e) A printer shall be included to provide a record copy of all information exchanged on the orderwire.

    (a) The orderwire terminals used with the information security devices described in paragraph (a) of Article 2 shall incorporate standard USSR Cyrillic and United States Latin keyboards and cathode ray tube displays to permit the exchange of messages between operators. The specific layout of the Cyrillic keyboard shall be as specified by the Soviet side;
Article 5

To use the same type of equipment and the same maintenance procedures as currently in use for the Direct Communications Link for the establishment of direct facsimile communications between the national Centers. The equipment, security devices, and spare parts necessary for telecommunications links and the orderwire shall be provided by the United States side to the Soviet side in return for payment of costs thereof by the Soviet side.

Article 6

To ensure the exchange of information necessary for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunication system and equipment configuration.

Article 7

To take all possible measures to assure the continuous, secure and reliable operation of the equipment and communications link, including the orderwire, for which each Party is responsible in accordance with this Protocol.

Article 8

To determine, by mutual agreement between technical experts of the Parties, the distribution and calculation of expenses for putting into operation the communication link, its maintenance and further development.

Article 9

To convene meetings of technical experts of the Parties in order to consider initially questions pertaining to the practical implementation of the activities provided for in this Protocol and, thereafter, by mutual agreement and as necessary for the purpose of improving telecommunications and information technology in order to achieve the mutually agreed functions of the national Centers.

Article 10

This Protocol shall enter into force on the date of its signature and shall remain in force as long as the Agreement Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers of September 15, 1987, remains in force.

DONE at Washington on September 15, 1987, in two copies, each in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.

FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
George P. Shultz

FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS:
Eduard A. Shevardnadze



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