The Arms Trade Treaty is a multilateral treaty regulating the international trade in conventional arms. The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Treaty on April 2, 2013. It was opened for signature on June 3, 2013, and it entered into force on Dec. 24, 2014. To date, 61 states have ratified and 130 have signed the Treaty. The United States signed the Treaty on Sept. 25, 2013, the 91st country to do so.
During the Treaty’s negotiation, the United States worked closely with our international partners to secure a treaty that advances global security and respects national sovereignty and the legitimate arms trade. The Treaty does not infringe on constitutional rights secured by the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. In fact, the Treaty “reaffirm[s] the sovereign right of any State to regulate and control conventional arms exclusively within its territory, pursuant to its own legal or constitutional system.”
The United States is a depository nation for the Biological Weapons and Toxin Convention that bans the development, production and stockpiling of an entire category of weapons of mass destruction. Treaty efforts at the annual Meeting of Experts and Meetings of States Parties, as well as pentannual review conferences have increasingly focused on disease surveillance capacity-building, assistance in the event of a suspicious outbreak or alleged use of biological weapons, biosafety, pathogen security, national implementation measures (including penal legislation), and issues related to "dual use" and the responsible conduct of the life sciences. More»
The Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) Program is the United States Government's premier initiative to promote harmonization of national strategic trade control practices with international standards. The EXBS Program accomplishes this goal by engaging on bilateral, regional and multilateral levels with foreign governments to aid in the establishment of independent capabilities to regulate transfers of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), WMD-related items, conventional arms, and related dual-use items, and to detect, interdict, investigate, and prosecute illicit transfers of such items. The EXBS Program organizes a number of international events to bring national policymakers and technical experts together, including the International Conference on Export Controls, the Global Transshipment Seminar and the Proliferation Financing Conference.
Fighting Nuclear Terrorism
Fighting nuclear terrorism is a continuing national security priority. As President Obama said at the National Defense University on December 3, 2012: “There’s still much too much material—nuclear, chemical, biological—being stored without enough protection. There are still terrorists and criminal gangs doing everything they can to get their hands on it. And make no mistake, if they get it, they will use it; potentially killing hundreds of thousands of innocent people, perhaps triggering a global crisis. That’s why I continue to believe that nuclear terrorism remains one of the greatest threats to global security. That’s why working to prevent nuclear terrorism is going to remain one of my top national security priorities as long as I have the privilege of being President of the United States.” To learn about our programs go to the Office of Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism and the Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction. More information about our counter nuclear smuggling unit is also available on the WMDT office page.
On June 14, 2013, the United States and the Russian Federation signed a bilateral framework on threat reduction that reinforces our longstanding partnership on nonproliferation. This new legal framework builds upon the success of the 1992 Agreement between the United States of America and the Russian Federation Concerning the Safe and Secure Transportation, Storage and Destruction of Weapons and the Prevention of Weapons Proliferation, commonly known as the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Umbrella Agreement, which expired on June 17, 2013. More» Treaty Text»
The United States imposes sanctions under various legal authorities against foreign individuals, private entities, and governments that engage in proliferation activities, including Iran, Syria, and North Korea.
The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons comprises legally binding nonproliferation commitments and is the basis for international cooperation on stopping the spread of nuclear weapons. The President in Prague on April 5 said that the basic bargain at the core of the Treaty is sound: “Countries with nuclear weapons will move towards disarmament; countries without nuclear weapons will not acquire them; and all countries can access peaceful nuclear energy.”
Announced by President Obama in 2009, the Nuclear Security Summit was designed to raise to the highest level of international attention the global threat of nuclear terrorism and reinforce the need for global efforts to combat nuclear terrorism and smuggling. The Summit goal is to energize, enhance, empower, and elevate the many existing multilateral, cooperative institutions and structures aimed at securing nuclear materials and preventing nuclear smuggling. The next Summit will take place in the United States in 2016. More»
Launched in Krakow, Poland in May 2003, the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) is a global framework of states that commit to disrupt transfers of weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related items to and from states and non-state actors of proliferation concern. Not a formal organization, PSI states cooperate to prevent proliferation and strengthen national capacities for action. As of April 1, 2013, 102 states from all regions have endorsed these principles and now participate in PSI. PSI celebrated its 10th anniversary in May 2013.
The Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation has worked closely with other U.S. agencies and the international community to support the United Nations and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to eliminate chemical weapons from Syria. The removal of the highest priority chemicals from Syria began Jan. 7, 2014. As of June 21, 2014, all declared chemical weapons agents, precursors, and materials, including production, mixing, and filling equipment, have been destroyed or removed from Syria. We congratulate the OPCW-UN Joint Mission and the entire international coalition for the level of coordination and effort involved with removing more than 1,000 tons of chemicals from Syria. We thank Joint Mission Special Coordinator Sigrid Kaag, OPCW Director General Ahmet Uzumcu, and their teams for their vital work under extremely dangerous and challenging circumstances. We also thank our allies and partners, Denmark, Norway, Italy, Finland, and the United Kingdom, who played an essential role in removing these chemical weapons materials.
The highest priority materials were neutralized aboard a U.S. vessel, the M/V Cape Ray, in international waters. The OPCW reported on Aug. 29, 2014, that 100 percent of all chemicals had been safely neutralized via hydrolysis. You can see an in-depth video demonstration of how this hydrolysis procedure neutralized these chemicals, which are now being disposed of at a commercial facility.
To date, ISN Bureau financial assistance to Syrian chemical weapons elimination efforts totals nearly $6 million from the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund for financial and in-kind contributions to the UN and OPCW. This assistance includes a $2 million financial contribution to the OPCW trust fund to support the inspection and verification of Syria’s chemical weapons stockpile and production equipment; as well as another $2 million contribution to the trust fund to implement UN Security Council Resolution 2118. In-kind assistance includes $1.55 million for 10 armored vehicles provided to the UN, and $300,000 for equipment to the OPCW, such as protective gear and medication to counteract exposure to chemical weapons, as well as training to aid OPCW work.