The United States imposes sanctions under various legal authorities against foreign individuals, private entities, and governments that engage in proliferation activities.
The Bureau of Verification, Compliance and Implementation leads an interagency determination of sanctions pursuant to the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (INKSNA), which provides for penalties on entities and individuals for the transfer to or acquisition from Iran since January 1, 1999, the transfer to or the acquisition from Syria since January 1, 2005, or the transfer to or acquisition from North Korea since January 1, 2006, of equipment and technology controlled under multilateral control lists (Missile Technology Control Regime, Australia Group, Chemical Weapons Convention, Nuclear Suppliers Group, Wassenaar Arrangement). INKSNA also provides for sanctions for the transfer of equipment or technology having the potential to make a material contribution to the development of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or cruise or ballistic missile systems. This category includes:
(a) Items of the same kind as those on multilateral lists but falling below the control list parameters, when it is determined that such items have the potential of making a material contribution to WMD or cruise or ballistic missile systems,
(b) other items with potential of making such a material contribution, when added through case-by-case decisions, and
(c) items on U.S. national control lists for WMD/missile reasons that are not on multilateral lists.Announcements of such sanctions determinations are printed in the Federal Register and can be accessed through the Government Printing Office web page. Copies of relevant statutes can also be accessed via the same site as well as via the Library of Congress's Congressional Service. The Federal Register notices are the official notifications for all nonproliferation sanctions determinations. Links to those notices found on this page are updated as appropriate, but the Federal Register is the only official and complete listing of nonproliferation sanctions determinations.