Ongoing foreign military assistance efforts support the primary foreign policy goals of safeguarding American security, building American prosperity, and promoting American values. By enhancing the capabilities of U.S. friends and allies to address conflicts, humanitarian crises, and natural disasters, it is less likely that American forces will be called upon to respond to regional problems. Strengthening deterrence, encouraging defense responsibility sharing among allies and friends, supporting U.S. readiness, and increasing interoperability between potential coalition partners through the transfer of defense equipment and training help security partners defend against aggression and strengthen their ability to fight alongside U.S. forces in coalition efforts. Therefore, when American involvement becomes necessary, these programs help to ensure that foreign militaries can work more efficiently and effectively with ours rather than be hobbled by mismatched equipment, communications, and doctrine.
Foreign military assistance, particularly the IMET program, helps to promote the principles of democracy, respect for human rights, and the rule of law. In addition to making the world a safer place, the spread of democratic principles contributes to a political environment more conducive to the global economic development so critical to the nation's well-being. Thus, there is a genuine linkage between foreign military assistance programs and the day-to-day lives of Americans.
A. PROGRAMS FUNDED BY FOREIGN NATIONAL FUNDS
Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
FMS are the government-to-government sales of U.S. defense equipment, services, and training. Responsible arms sales further national security and foreign policy objectives by strengthening bilateral defense relations, supporting coalition building, and enhancing interoperability between U.S. forces and militaries of friends and allies. These sales also contribute to American prosperity by improving the U.S. balance of trade position, sustaining highly skilled jobs in the defense industrial base, and extending production lines and lowering unit costs for such key weapon systems as the M1A2 tank, F-16 aircraft, AH-64 helicopter, and F/A-18 aircraft.
Total FMS sales in FY 1999 (equipment and training) were approximately $12.2 billion. However, military education and training, to include professional military education as well as technical training related to equipment purchases is also sold to foreign countries via FMS. Total military education and training sold to foreign countries through the FMS program in FY 2000 was over $356.5 million.
B. FOREIGN MILITARY ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS FUNDED BY DEPARTMENT OF STATE (DOS)
1. FOREIGN MILITARY FINANCING (FMF)
The principal means of ensuring America's security is through the deterrence of potential aggressors who would threaten the United States or its allies. Foreign Military Financing, U.S. appropriations for financing the acquisition of U.S. defense articles, services, and training through grants or loans, supports U.S. regional stability goals and enables allies and friendly foreign countries to improve their defense capabilities. Congress appropriates FMF funds in the International Affairs budget; the Department of State allocates the funds for eligible allies and friends; and the Department of Defense executes the program. As FMF helps countries meet their legitimate defense needs, it also promotes U.S. national security interests by strengthening coalitions with allies and friendly foreign countries , cementing cooperative bilateral military relationships, and enhancing interoperability with U.S. forces. Because FMF monies are used to purchase U.S. defense articles, services and training, FMF contributes to a strong U.S. defense industrial base, which benefits both America's armed forces and American workers.
FMF grants in FY 2000 totalled $3.43 billion, with the vast majority of funds earmarked to support the Middle East Peace Process. FMF is also being used to facilitate integration of Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic into NATO and to continue support of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program. Specifically, PfP participating countries receive Warsaw Initiative funding to help them enhance their interoperability with NATO, improve their compatibility with and understanding of NATO practices and terminology, and participate in PfP exercises. FMF is also being used to sustain small defense and maritime forces promoting peace and security in the Caribbean island nations, to support worldwide demining, and to bolster the capabilities of African nations to respond to limited peace and humanitarian missions on the continent.
2. INTERNATIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND TRAINING (IMET)
The International Military Education and Training (IMET) program is a low-cost, highly effective component of U.S. security assistance that provides training on a grant basis to students from over 125 allied and friendly nations.
The overall objectives of the program are to:
Training provided under the IMET program is professional and non-political, exposing foreign students to U.S. professional military organizations and procedures and the manner in which military organizations function under civilian control. IMET's mandatory English language proficiency requirement establishes an essential baseline of communication skills necessary for students to attend courses. It also facilitates the development of important professional and personal relationships that have provided U.S. access and influence in a critical sector of society that often plays a pivotal role in supporting, or transitioning to, democratic governments. A less formal, but still significant, part of IMET is the Information Program, which exposes students to the American way of life, including regard for democratic values, respect for individual civil and human rights, and belief in the rule of law. These are the key elements of the E-IMET program, which fosters greater respect for and understanding of the principle of civilian control of the military, exposes students to military justice systems and procedures, and promotes the development of strong civil-military relations by showing key military and civilian leaders how to overcome barriers that can exist between armed forces, civilian officials, and legislators. Finally, the IMET program introduces military and civilian participants to elements of American democracy: the U.S. judicial system, legislative oversight, free speech, equality issues, and U.S. commitment to the basic principles of internationally recognized human rights.
IMET objectives are achieved through a variety of military education and training activities conducted by the DoD for foreign military and civilian officials. These include formal instruction that involves over 4100 courses taught at approximately 275 military schools and installations for roughly 9000 foreign students annually.
The IMET program assists U.S. friends and allies in the professionalization of their militaries through participation in U.S. military educational programs. U.S. friends and allies have long recognized such training as essential for the progression of their own military leaders. IMET also strengthens regional friendships and enhances self-defense capabilities. Finally, IMET and E-IMET effect institutional changes intended to culminate in professional, apolitical militaries under civilian control.
The resulting military competence and self-sufficiency provides a wide range of benefits to the U.S. in terms of collective security, stability and peace. As foreign militaries improve their knowledge of U.S. military principles, military cooperation is strengthened. Similarly, opportunities for military-to-military interaction, information sharing, joint planning, and combined force exercises, as well as essential requirements for access to foreign military bases and facilities, are notably expanded. IMET fosters important military linkages essential to advancing global security interests of the United States and improving the capabilities of U.S. friends and allies.
3. INTERNATIONAL NARCOTICS AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (INL)
The International Narcotics and Law Enforcement (INL) program wages one of the most aggressive and effective attacks ever by the U.S. against the foreign crime and drug threat. It delivers one of the largest returns of any Federal anti-drug program against the overall problem of international crime, including drug trafficking, which poses serious threats to the security of Americans. INL has two strategic goals: minimize the impact of international crime on the U.S. and its citizens, and significantly reduce the entry of illegal drugs into the U.S. These two goals include supporting policies and programs to stimulate more effective foreign political will and financial commitment, to strengthen foreign criminal justice sectors, and to promote concrete international cooperation.
4. AFRICAN CRISIS RESPONSE INITIATIVE (ACRI)
The African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) is a Department of State training and equipping initiative intended to enhance the capacity of various African states to create highly effective, readily deployable peacekeeping units, which can operate with common equipment and training in the event of humanitarian crises or a traditional peacekeeping operation. To date, more than 6,500 African troops have completed initial training at battalion and brigade levels of instruction. U.S. European Command is the coordinating agent for the unified commands. ACRI training is conducted by soldiers deployed from the Third and Fifth Special Forces Groups of the Army Special Forces Command, other appropriate military resources, and contractors from MPRI and LOGICON.
5. ENHANCED INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPING CAPABILITIES (EIPC)
The United States has an interest in encouraging other countries to develop greater willingness and capability to contribute to international peace operations. By enhancing international peacekeeping capabilities we can increase burden sharing, promote operational efficiency, strengthen regional conflict prevention and resolution initiatives, and reduce the costs of international peace operations.
The primary objective of the EIPC initiative is to assist selected foreign countries in developing their institutional capacities to field more efficient and well-led peacekeeping units, capable of taking on the toughest assignments. EIPC aims to enhance military interoperability, leadership performance, use of common peacekeeping doctrine, and English language proficiency -- at the institutional level -- to help promote effective combined peacekeeping operations (PKOs) when battalion-level or larger units from diverse countries deploy together. In doing so, EIPC seeks not only to promote burdensharing, but also to enhance national and regional capability to support peace.
Since its inception, EIPC funds have been allocated to: Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Chile, Czech Republic, Fiji, Hungary, Jordan, Lithuania, Mongolia, Nepal, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Ukraine and Uruguay.
All of the countries that have received EIPC funds have taken decisive steps to increase their international PKO role. To cite a few examples: Nepal has volunteered to participate in operations in both East Timor and Sierra Leone, significantly increasing this country's international participation in peacekeeping; Argentina has developed the pre-eminent PKO training center in Latin America; and Mongolia, a new PKO participant, has engaged with U.S. Pacific Command to participate in combined peacekeeping exercises and is actively developing PKO training capabilities for its military.
EIPC funds are used to develop core curriculum for PKO education and training, and to procure non-lethal defense-related training equipment. EIPC funds events with an emphasis on "train-the-trainer" in order to maximize the benefits of the expenditures. It also funds educational seminars tailored to a country's peacekeeping training needs. The program provides for visits to U.S. peacekeeping training centers and installations for senior-level officers and trainers that are directly involved in national PKO training programs. Additionally, EIPC funds help to procure peacekeeping training and doctrine-related manuals and other library resources, and for limited construction of facilities dedicated to PKO training. Finally, EIPC enables countries to obtain and employ peacekeeping software training simulations rather than relying on more costly field exercises. The EIPC program is complemented by non-FMF resources, including IMET, Excess Defense Articles programs, and Unified Command peacekeeping exercises.
C. PROGRAMS FUNDED BY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (DOD)
1. DOD REGIONAL CENTERS FOR SECURITY STUDIES
The Department of Defense's Regional Centers for Security Studies serve as essential institutions for bilateral and multilateral exchanges among military and civilian officials within a region. The centers use professional military education, civilian defense education, and related academic and other activities to achieve their goals. They avoid offering a "school-house" solution for regional security issues based on U.S. policy, in order to foster genuine dialogue among the U.S. and foreign participants. This process of communications and relationship-building lowers regional tensions, strengthens civil-military relations in developing nations, and addresses critical regional challenges. Regional Centers exist for each of the major regions - Africa, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Europe, and most recently the Near East-South Asia region.
Each Center, in coordination with the Geographic Combatant Command, develops its program based on the unique needs and characteristics of the region. The Centers explore non-warfighting aspects of regional security focused at the national policy level with members of the Defense community from the region, focusing on executive-level education in programs extending up to 15 weeks in length. Consequently, the Centers' effectiveness is that their programs facilitate dialogue on regional issues in a multinational forum by individuals who have direct responsibility for Defense in their region. Participants are generally selected because their countries regard them as current or future leaders, and hence their participation help shape national and regional strategies of the future. The relationships built in this environment among peers across each region are further cemented by the atmosphere of trust engendered at each Center through the rigorously enforced values of non-attribution, transparency, and mutual respect. This impact underscores the value of having all countries within a region represented.
a. Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS)
ACSS provides both current and future African leaders a unique form of interaction that complements other existing DoD peacetime engagement programs. It supports democratic governance in Africa by offering those leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in democratic civil-military relations, national / regional security strategy, and defense economics. The ACSS works with policy makers and unified commands to ensure ACSS events are policy relevant and that senior officers and the CINCs benefit from what is learned at the seminars. Although opening in FY00, ACSS first two seminars had over 200 participants representing 45 African and 7 European nations, as well as DoD and State Department personnel. Seminar participants also included personnel from international and both African regional and sub-regional organizations. In an effort to expand the Center's impact, ACSS personnel assisted USCINCCENT in the conduct of the East African ministerial-level symposium "Golden Spear 2000." During FY01, and within existing resources, the Center will develop additional academic events; conduct basic alumni and outreach programs; and provide support to selected U.S. and African governments and institutions.
b. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies (Asia-Pacific Center)
The Asia-Pacific Center is a key confidence-building tool, designed to enhance regional cooperation and build relationships among the 43 nations in the Asia-Pacific region. The Center serves as a vehicle for lowering regional tension through the mutual understanding and study of comprehensive security issues impacting the region's nations. The Center brings together both civilian defense professionals and military officers for its programs. Activities focus on preserving stability in the Asia-Pacific region by addressing human rights, economic development, free trade and other issues of U.S. and regional concern.
c. Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies (CHDS)
The CHDS is designed to promote expertise in defense and military matters and to enhance civil-military relations. CHDS is supporting the democratic trend in the Latin American region by strengthening civilian and military capacity to manage the defense sector. These activities center on our interest to strengthen democratic institutions and democracy throughout the region.
d. George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies (Marshall
The Marshall Center is dedicated to the creation of a more stable security environment by advancing democratic defense institutions and relationships; promoting active, peaceful engagement; and enhancing enduring partnerships between the nations of America, Europe, and Eurasia. The Center has a highly qualified faculty and staff from more than eight countries, including Poland and Russia. The Marshall Center offers post-graduate studies, conferences, research programs, foreign area studies, and language courses to civilian and military professionals from more than 45 countries.
e. Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies (NESA Center)
The fifth and newest DOD regional center is the NESA Center. The NESA Center supports Secretary of Defense and Unified Commanders in Chief efforts to enhance stability in the Near East and in South Asia by providing an academic environment where strategic issues can be addressed, understanding deepened, partnerships fostered, defense-related decision-making improved, and cooperation strengthened among military and civilian leaders from the region and the United States. DoD hosted an Inaugural Seminar in October 2000 to formally open the NESA Center. Thirty participants from twenty countries attended. They repeatedly expressed their interest in the program, actively engaged in the discussions and were enthusiastic about the contribution they felt the Center could make to the development of more positive security relationships throughout the region. The Center plans to hold its first full session in mid-2001.
2. SECTION 1004 -- DRUG INTERDICTION AND COUNTER-DRUG
ACTIVITIES: COUNTER-DRUG TRAINING SUPPORT (CDTS)
Counter Drug Training Support includes deployments for training of foreign forces at the request of an appropriate law enforcement agency official as defined in Section 1004 of the National Defense Authorization Act for FY 1991. The purpose of the CDTS is to conduct counternarcotics related training of foreign military and law enforcement personnel. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and Service forces conduct this counter-drug training of light infantry, aviation, coastal, riverine, rotary wing operations, and staffs associated with counter-drug operations.
3. HUMANITARIAN DEMINING PROGRAMS
The U.S. Government provides humanitarian demining (HD) assistance to many countries throughout the world to relieve human suffering from the dangers of landmines, to promote regional peace and stability and to promote U.S. foreign policy and national security goals. A collateral benefit to the program is the enhancement of operational readiness skills of participating U.S. forces. Within the overall U.S. Government HD Program, DoD provides training to foreign nations in mine clearance operations, mine awareness education and information campaigns, assistance in the establishment of mine action centers, emergency medical care, and leadership and management skills needed to successfully conduct a national level mine action program. When called upon for mine-action training, the ultimate goal of DOD participation is to develop a self-sustaining, indigenous demining capability within each recipient country.
Special Operation Forces (SOF) normally conduct HD training, using the "train-the-trainer" concept, with augmentation from explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and engineer personnel, as needed. The Geographic Combatant Commands execute the HD Program, providing them an excellent mil-to-mil engagement opportunity. DOD participation in Humanitarian Demining Programs allow the Unified Commanders to work closely with Country Teams to show mine-affected countries how military forces can support the civilian population. By participating in these activities, the Unified Commands and the Country Teams demonstrate the U.S. commitment to provide direct, bilateral humanitarian assistance, relieve suffering, improve the socio-economic environment, promote regional stability and support democratic ideas.
4. DISASTER RESPONSE (HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE)
Humanitarian Assistance, including training in disaster response and/or disaster preparedness, is authorized by 10 U.S.C. 2551. Normally, humanitarian assistance and training conducted under 10 U.S.C. 2551 is not provided to foreign militaries. However, selected military members of the host nation occasionally are included in the training so that the military understands its role in supporting the civilian government during emergencies. In some instances, disaster response training is provided directly to the host nation military when the military is the only government institution capable of responding to the natural disaster. Disaster response training provides the necessary skills for civilian leaders of foreign governments and institutions to organize emergency workers, hospital and military members to respond to natural disasters. Disaster response programs contribute to regional stability, and support both ambassadorial and Unified Commander peacetime engagement strategies. The ultimate goal of disaster response training is an improved host nation capability to effectively respond to disasters, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for a U.S. military response.
5. SERVICE-SPONSORED ACTIVITIES
a. Academy Exchanges/Service Academy Foreign Student Program.
DOD's three Service Academies have conducted traditional academic exchange programs of varying length and content. As with civilian exchanges, cadets and/or midshipmen may spend a portion of the academic year or summer training period at a comparable foreign institution while counterpart students participate in the U.S. program. In addition, up to 40 foreign students may attend each Service Academy at any one time as actual members of an Academy class (i.e., as full-time, four-year degree candidates). The foreign and security policy justification for these activities centers on the inestimable value of exposing future foreign leaders, at the beginning of their careers, to their U.S. peers in an environment that is designed to promote military professionalization in every respect. The presence of foreign students in U.S. institutions also serves our foreign and security policy interests by exposing future U.S. military leaders to individuals from the many parts of the globe to which they may deploy. The cost reflected in the report represents the cost to the DoD. Some countries reimburse all or a portion of the cost of the program to the service academies.
b. Aviation Leadership Program
The Aviation Leadership Program (ALP) provides Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT) to a small number (15-20 per year) of select international students from friendly, less-developed countries. ALP is an USAF-funded program authorized under 10 U.S.C. 9381-9383. ALP consists of English language training, UPT and necessary related training, as well as programs to promote better awareness and understanding of the democratic institutions and social framework of the United States. The duration of the ALP program is 1-2 years, depending on the amount of English language training required to bring the student up to entry level and the student's progression through the UPT program. The cost of the ALP program is approximately $370K per student. Nineteen international officers entered the program in FY 1998. Countries participating in the program for FY 1998 are: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Colombia, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Mali, Paraguay, Peru, Romania, South Africa, Suriname, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The ALP program was suspended for FY 1999, FY 2000, and FY 2001 due to a shortfall of UPT quotas for overall Air Force requirements. Students reflected in this report are FY 1998 entries completing the UPT program. USAF plans to restart the program in FY 2002.
Reciprocal professional military education (PME) exchanges are authorized by Section 544 (Exchange Training) of the Foreign Assistance Act. This section authorizes the President to provide for the attendance of foreign military personnel at PME institutions in the United States (other than Service Academies) without charge, if such attendance is part of an international agreement. These international agreements provide for the exchange of students on a one-for-one reciprocal basis each fiscal year between the two military Services participating in the exchange.
The Arms Export Control Act (Section 30A - Exchange of Training and Related Support) authorizes the President to provide training and related support to military and civilian defense personnel of a friendly foreign country or international organization. Such training and related support are provided through the Military Services (as opposed to the Unified Commands). Unit exchanges conducted under this authority are arranged under international agreements negotiated for such purposes, and are integrated into the theater engagement strategies of the relevant Unified Commander. Recipient countries provide, on a reciprocal basis, comparable training and related support.
6. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE ACT (FAA) -- FAA DRAWDOWN
Under section 506(a)(1) of the FAA, the President may direct the drawdown of defense articles, services or military education and training from the DoD if he determines and reports to the Congress that an unforeseen emergency exists which requires immediate military assistance to a foreign country or international organization; and that such emergency requirement cannot be met under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) or any other law except this section.
Under section 506(a)(2) of the FAA, the President need [only] determine and report to the Congress in accordance with Section 652 of the FAA that it is in the national interest of the U.S. to drawdown articles and services from the inventory of any agency of the U.S. Government and military education and training from the DoD. If he so determines, the President may direct the drawdown of such articles, services and military education and training for the purposes and under the authorities of Chapter 8 of Part I [of the FAA] relating to international narcotics control assistance; Chapter 9 of part I [of the FAA] relating to international disaster assistance; or the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962; or for the purpose of providing such articles, services and military education and training to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos as the President determines are necessary to (1) support cooperative efforts to locate and repatriate members of the United States Armed Forces and civilians employed directly or indirectly by the United States Government who remain unaccounted for from the Vietnam War; and (2) to ensure the safety of USG personnel engaged in such cooperative efforts and to support DoD-sponsored humanitarian projects associated with such efforts.
If the President determines that, as the result of an unforeseen emergency, the provision of assistance for Peacekeeping Operations under Chapter 6 of the FAA in amounts in excess of funds otherwise available for such assistance is important to the national interest of the United States, then section 552 of the FAA provides for drawdown of commodities and services from the inventory and resources of any agency of the United States Government of an aggregate value not to exceed $25M in any fiscal year if the President determines that such an unforeseen emergency requires immediate provision of assistance under Chapter 6.
D. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE - JOINT COMBINED EXCHANGE TRAINING (JCET) ACTIVITIES
The JCET program, authorized under 10 U.S.C. 2011, permits U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) to train through interaction with foreign military forces. The particular value of this training is that it enhances those SOF skills, such as instructor skills, language proficiency, and cultural immersion, critical to required missions generated by either existing plans or unforeseen contingencies. The primary purpose of JCET activities is always the training of U.S. SOF personnel, although incidental-training benefits may accrue to the foreign friendly forces.
E. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION/U.S. COAST GUARD ACTIVITIES
DoS and DoD as well as other federal agencies frequently request the Coast Guard to provide training in maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, marine environmental protection, as well as the operational assets and personnel resources to support those missions through programs such as the Expanded Threat Reduction Initiative (ETRI); Non-Proliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining and Related Activities (NADR); Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR); U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID and other DoS programs. Coast Guard training is also provided under other categories including IMET, INL, Drawdown, country funds, and Foreign Military Sales (FMS).
1. Coast Guard Academy Foreign Cadet Program
14 U.S.C. 195 authorizes a limited number of foreign national appointments (maximum of 36) to the U.S. Coast Guard Academy. Cadets can earn a bachelor of science degree in one of the following majors: marine engineering and naval architecture; electrical engineering; civil engineering; mechanical engineering; marine and environmental sciences; management; or government. As in the DoD service academies, the foreign and security policy justification for these activities centers on the inestimable value of exposing future foreign leaders, at the beginning of their careers, to their U.S. peers in an environment that is designed to promote military professionalization in every respect. The presence of foreign students in U.S. institutions also serves our foreign and security policy interests by exposing future U.S. military leaders to individuals from the many parts of the globe to which they may deploy. The cost reflected in the report represents the cost to the U.S. Coast Guard. The sponsoring government must agree in advance to reimburse the Coast Guard for all costs incurred for a cadet's training at the Coast Guard Academy except where a waiver has been granted by the Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard. Countries also must agree that, upon graduation, the cadet will serve in the comparable maritime service of his or her respective country, for an appropriate period of time, as determined by the sponsoring government.
2. Caribbean Support Tender (CST)
The Caribbean Support Tender (CST) is a U.S. Coast Guard 180' ex-buoy tender with 120,000 pounds of cargo carrying capacity, with berthing for 58 personnel, and with an onboard training capability and shop/repair capability. The concept for the CST was developed in response to the President's commitments in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1997, was authorized under P.L. 105-277, Chapter 4, and subsequently commissioned in September 1999. The Commanding Officer, the Executive Officer and the Engineering Officer are U.S. Coast Guard officers. The remaining multi-national crew includes U.S. Coast Guard and Caribbean partners, consisting of experienced trainers, maintenance experts, and bilingual members, with broad, multi-mission talents in maritime law enforcement, search and rescue, marine safety, environmental protection, and disaster relief. The CST provides a platform for leading U.S. engagement efforts in the Caribbean by drawing together many programs and fostering international cooperation. It offers the opportunity for a diverse, international and joint/interagency crew to work together and creates a sense of ownership, fosters teamwork and encourages information sharing by using the sea to link countries.