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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Africa (A-L)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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ANGOLA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

TOTAL

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

United States' goals in Angola focus on ending the long-running civil war and laying the foundations for a transition to peace, while at the same time encouraging democracy, social justice, economic growth and addressing the pressing humanitarian repercussions of the country's conflict. Modest military training and engagement activities are a part of this program.

DoD funding in FY 2000 enabled four Angolan armed forces members to participate in conferences sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. The Center was established to foster in Africa exchanges on military thinking similar to those carried on for years in Europe by the Marshall Center. The Angolans found this experience valuable and it was important in allowing them to hear disparate views and break out of an isolated mentality borne of years of war. Interaction with U.S. personnel involved in these conferences not only strengthened military-to-military ties but also allowed for Angolan exposure to U.S. notions of civil-military relations. 

BENIN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

7

$14,422

12

$20,376

ACRI

245

$750,000

630

$600,000

FMS

30

$628,237

0

$0

IMET

64

$356,000

69

$370,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

60

$64,000

0

$0

TOTAL

406

$1,812,659

711

$990,376

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime in 1990, Benin has shown itself to be a model of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections have led to the peaceful hand-over of government and the country has a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninese military has returned to a lesser role in Beninese society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the Armed Forces have increasingly looked to international peacekeeping as a potential future mission.

The Beninese have been enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training. However, to date, Benin's Armed Forces (BAF) have played only a limited role in regional peacekeeping. We continue to encourage the Beninese to be more engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief. Programs such as IMET, ACSS, and ACRI will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Our Joint Military Commission, entered its fifth and final year, helping to keep key regional security issues and bilateral military relations to the forefront. Benin's robust IMET program has played a key role in keeping the Beninese military in the barracks.

BOTSWANA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

7

$14,422

7

$16,610

IMET

57

$479,000

59

$500,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

60

$96,000

0

$0

TOTAL

124

$589,422

66

$516,610

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well-received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through IMET program and other regional initiatives, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The IMET program trained approximately 57 Botswana Defense Force (BDF) personnel in FY 2000. These personnel will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), financial management, combat and combat support arms, medical specialties and military justice. These courses not only support individual professional development but prepare the BDF to better execute PKO and humanitarian support operations on the continent. At the same time, modest counternarcotics training assistance will help combat use of Botswana as a transit point for drug trafficking.

BURKINA FASO

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

3

$14,422

8

$20,376

TOTAL

3

$14,422

8

$20,376

 In response to the Burkinabe government's support of destabilizing activities in Sierra Leone and other parts of Africa, we have halted almost all forms of military engagement. The DOD is allowing Burkina Faso to participate in ACSS events in FY2001. The DOD's policy is to include all African nations, except those under UN or USG sanction, in ACSS engagement activities. The Department has determined that it is in the DOD's best interest to include Burkina Faso in ACSS seminars in order to promote peace and stability across the African continent. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors by addressing the very problems that get many DOS-sanctioned countries in trouble in the first place. The ACSS program also fosters critical partnerships with African nations. It keeps open lines of communication at the right military and defense levels, laying the foundation for future military-to-military relations when conditions improve in the country. The Africa Center is a DOD-funded program that is separate from DOS security assistance programs.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

BURUNDI

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

3

$7,462

3

$7,577

TOTAL

3

$7,462

3

$7,577

 While the country remains mired in its civil war, we have suspended almost all forms of mil-to-mil engagement, however, the DOD is allowing Burundi to participate in ACSS events in FY2001. The DOD's policy is to include all African nations, except those under UN or USG sanction, in ACSS engagement activities. The Department has determined that it is in the DOD's best interest to include Burundi in ACSS seminars in order to promote peace and stability across the African continent. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors by addressing the very problems that get many DOS-sanctioned countries in trouble in the first place. The ACSS program also fosters critical partnerships with African nations. It keeps open lines of communication at the right military and defense levels, laying the foundation for future military-to-military relations when conditions improve in the country. The Africa Center is a DOD-funded program that is separate from DOS security assistance programs.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

CAMEROON

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

6

$14,422

6

$16,610

IMET

12

$189,000

10

$160,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

100

$59,000

0

$0

Service Academy

8

$543,140

0

$0

TOTAL

126

$805,562

16

$176,610

 U.S. goals in Cameroon include the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, law-based, non-corrupt, pluralistic community, functioning on market principles and integrated into the world economy. As a relatively peaceful island of stability in central Africa, Cameroon is being encouraged to use its role as the leading sub-regional economic power to promote regional stability and reduce environmental degradation.

Cameroon's military has an important role to play in terms of supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and the Equatoguinean/Nigerian maritime border. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation in enforcing international covenants on refugees and war criminals, and to have the support of the armed forces as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Most of the military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. IMET seminars on the subject of civilian control of defense resources have been equally helpful.

Other IMET funds target building professionalism within the Cameroonian armed forces through English language and technical training for junior- to mid-level military officers. As part of this training, U.S.-Cameroonian military-to-military contacts increase, and the U.S. is assured greater access to Cameroonian air and port facilities. Cameroon's political stability, strategic location and excellent airport facilities make it ideal as a staging area for humanitarian interventions in the region.

CAPE VERDE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

5

$123,000

4

$100,000

TOTAL

9

$137,422

13

$120,376

In its twenty-six years of independence, Cape Verde has been free of internal and external conflict, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. In view of these limitations, the country's small IMET program is focused on providing complementary training to the Cape Verdean military to enhance English language capabilities, necessary for effective international cooperation on maritime patrols and other military activities. In addition, IMET officer training and participation in the ACSS provide a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

Through greater English-language proficiency, the Cape Verdean military could make use of other training opportunities in the future to increase its capabilities to patrol territorial waters, which would allow them to reduce unauthorized fishing and thereby combat the twin environmental threats of overfishing and reduced biodiversity. In addition, effective coastal patrols would improve the country's ability to interdict drug transshipments.

CENTRAL AFRICA REPUBLIC

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$6,960

2

$9,033

IMET

2

$103,000

2

$100,000

TOTAL

4

$109,960

4

$109,033

The Central African Republic (CAR) has suffered great upheaval in the last few years, caused largely by government mismanagement and serious arrears in military and civil service salaries. These salary arrears, as well as inequities in treatment among the various parts of the armed forces, provoked a series of mutinies in CAR in 1996 and 1997. International peacekeepers guaranteed security in the CAR from 1997 to February 2000, at which time local military and police forces took on their security responsibilities. The principal U.S. interests in the CAR are to support international efforts to maintain peace in the CAR, and hence the region, while encouraging the implementation of economic, political and military reforms that will prevent a recurrence of the military mutinies and civil strife of 1996 and 1997. Restructuring and demobilization of some of the CAR armed forces are crucial to these efforts. The ability of armed forces personnel to accept and understand the military's role under a civilian government and to promote respect for human rights and democratic principles will be key to the success of the post-peacekeeping transition.

IMET funds for English language training, mobile education team programs focusing on managing defense resources and civil-military relations, and mid-level professional development for CAR military personnel laid the groundwork for further exposure of CAR military officers to the U.S. system for civilian control of the military. The importance of democratic values, rule of law, and respect for individuals' civil and human rights are reinforced in these courses, while U.S. and CAR military personnel develop important professional and personal relationships. An added benefit of IMET training is the chance for U.S. officials to encourage the CAR military to promote regional stability by maintaining CAR neutrality with regard to conflicts in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, also a key element of CAR participation in the ACSS. These results constitute substantial returns on a modest investment.

CHAD

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

3

$14,422

2

$16,610

FMF

37

$101,401

69

$207,696

IMET

7

$100,000

7

$100,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

78

$181,244

0

$0

TOTAL

125

$397,067

78

$324,306

Occupying a strategic position at a historic crossroads, Chad is particularly vulnerable to neighbors like Libya and Sudan. U.S. assistance provides a counter-balance by promoting a stable and democratic society able to constructively contribute to regional conflict resolution and full participation within the global economy. Restructured within the last five years, the Chadian armed forces have a key role to play in resolving armed conflicts within Chad as well as in the region, where they have participated in several peacekeeping operations. Their support for democratic rule and civilian control and direction of the armed forces is crucial to Chad's (and the region's) future stability.

U.S. IMET training on rule of law and human rights not only addresses key objectives of promoting democracy and appropriate civilian management of the armed forces, but also enables U.S. trainers to build important military-to-military contacts that help combat anti-U.S. influence in Chad and serve as a basis for future international peacekeeping efforts in the region. Specifically, FY 2000 IMET funds paid for training in peacekeeping operations, as well as professional mid-level training to improve the Chadian military's non-lethal technical capacity. FMF funds were used to support the Chadians' capacity to maintain and properly operate a previously-provided aircraft now supporting humanitarian demining operations, among other missions. U.S. humanitarian demining training assistance has also significantly strengthened the Chadians' abilities to resolve the serious problem of mines throughout Chad; injuries, deaths and the inability to use large areas of land have a direct impact on the country's economic development. U.S. training, equipment and services permitted the Chadians to continue demining operations this year, opening up the possibility of significant improvement in the humanitarian situation and chances for economic development in previously mined areas.

COMOROS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

1

$7,462

1

$7,577

TOTAL

1

$7,462

1

$7,577

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Comoros has a history of military involvement in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward and bilateral relations with the Comorian government. In addition, increased professionalism on the part of the Comorian Defense Forces has improved their ability to protect coastal waters against overfishing and ecological degradation -- another important U.S. goal.

In April 1999, however, the Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Comoros has been suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently discontinued. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and most other military-to-military contact. These sanctions will remain in place until the President certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office. Participation in the ACSS seminar supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE)

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

IMET

0

$0

3

$85,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

0

$75,000

TOTAL

4

$14,442

7

$176,610

Emerging from a three year civil war, the Republic of Congo has made significant progress in consolidating peace throughout its territory, disarming and demobilizing militia forces, and creating a dialogue on national transition. Elections are scheduled for sometime in 2001, and efforts are being made to restore the infrastructure destroyed during the war. The U.S. supports the peace and reconciliation process, particularly as it contributes to regional stability and strengthens efforts to return the country to a more democratic path. During this period, there were no U.S. military training activities with Congo's armed forces, with the exception of ACSS participation.

During FY 2001, Congo-Brazzaville's fledgling English language IMET programming is designed to provide the basis for future mid-level professional training and instruction in civilian control of the restructured Congolese armed forces. Participation in ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. Both IMET and ACSS activities provide the U.S. military with the opportunity to develop effective mil-to-mil relationships with their Congolese counterparts, instilling greater understanding for the need for the military to play a productive role in the country's recovery from civil war.

COTE D'IVOIRE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACRI

740

$1,700,000

0

$0

ACSS

7

$14,422

12

$20,376

FMS

30

$1,440,833

0

$0

IMET

1

$22,000

0

$0

TOTAL

778

$3,177,255

12

$20,376

With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, Cote d'Ivoire plays an influential role in West Africa. The country had deservedly obtained a reputation for political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. The Ivorian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire has been a key center for regional peacekeeping training.

However, on December 24, 1999, a military coup ousted the duly elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie. Former General Robert Guei assumed the Presidency. Subsequent Presidential elections were flawed and still did not produce a fully democratic government. Under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire has been suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently suspended. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and any other military-to-military contact. These sanctions will remain in place until the President certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

DJIBOUTI

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

3

$14,422

3

$16,610

IMET

3

$163,000

2

$125,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$51,000

35

$677,000

TOTAL

6

$228,422

40

$818,610

 Djibouti is strategically located between Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, and borders the critical strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the past, the government of Djibouti has assisted the deployment of U.S. forces in the region by allowing military units to stage from the country. This fact was demonstrated when U.S. military aircraft utilized the Djibouti international airport from January 25 to February 23, 1999, to support a potential non-combatant evacuation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Most recently, Djibouti served as an interim medical support base for victims of the USS COLE attack. U.S. service members were treated at the French hospital in Djibouti before continuing on to Germany. Additionally, the capital city possesses port and fuel storage facilities capable of receiving various U.S. naval vessels. Both facilities, air and sea, have proven their value to U.S. military force projections and operations in and around the region.

IMET training assistance makes up the single largest military engagement program for Djibouti. The program has been successful. The Djiboutian junior and mid-grade officers who have attended U.S. officer development courses such as Command and General Staff College (CGSC) or officer advance courses have risen to key positions in the Djiboutian military. By allowing officers to attend courses that promote civilian/military relations and human rights training, we further Djibouti's democratic process while maintaining good military-to-military relations.

In order to maintain continued access to this vital location on the Horn of Africa, it is imperative we maintain or increase IMET spending. The benefit received from Djibouti's access far exceeds the small price we pay through IMET spending. As the Horn of Africa continues to be in turmoil, a stable, more democratic Djibouti will remain a vital recipient of U.S. military training assistance programs.

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

1

$7,462

1

$7,577

TOTAL

1

$7,462

1

$7,577

Due to concerns about the Government's poor human rights record, serious governance problems and the lack of significant progress on democratic reform, we continue to suspend almost all forms of official mil-to-mil engagement in Equatorial Guinea.

Because the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable, we have continued to suspend almost all forms of official mil-to-mil engagement.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

ERITREA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

IMET

0

$27,000

12

$305,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

90

$1,100,000

TOTAL

4

$41,422

106

$1,421,610

Eritrea only became a sovereign nation in 1993, following an internationally monitored referendum on independence from Ethiopia. The referendum was organized after the 1991 victory by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) over the previous Ethiopian Government (the Derg). The thirty-year independence struggle waged by the EPLF was primarily a guerrilla war. After winning independence, the Eritrean Government demobilized most freedom fighters. However, the border war with Ethiopia that broke out in mid-2000 has brought about nation-wide mobilization.

Eritrea is still setting up its democratic institutions, including a professional armed force. This effort was slowed down by the border conflict last year. U.S. assistance will be critical to building a professional Eritrean military sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority. A United Nations Security Resolution passed last year bars us from providing military equipment and training. This embargo will automatically end in May of this year.

The primary U.S. national interest in Eritrea is its national security. The U.S. and Eritrea enjoy an expanding bilateral relationship that is critical to maintaining access to the Red Sea, via the longest sea coast on the Horn, and to protecting U.S. power projection capability into the Arabian peninsula. Eritrea is also a key player in maintaining regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly in our efforts to stem the influence of terrorism supported by Sudan and anarchy in Somalia. A modern, well-trained Eritrean armed force will assist us in accomplishing our national security goals in the region.

U.S. IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its force, downsize military personnel, and ensure it remains under civilian control. Prior to the outbreak of conflict with Ethiopia, Eritrea had demobilized most of its force, downsizing the military to under 48,000 troops.

UN Security Council Resolution 1298 of May 18, 2000, imposed an embargo on transfers of arms and some forms of training. We will ensure that any training provided is compatible with this restriction. We expected the embargo to be lifted since the border conflict is now over with the 12 December 2000 signed peace treaty and the arrival of UNMEE. However, due to reservations of the Dutch and others, UNSC Resolution 1298 remains in place until it expires May 18, 2001. It is very important that we reengage with both Eritrea and Ethiopia to ensure stability in the "Horn."

ETHIOPIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$7,462

2

$7,577

IMET

2

$152,000

5

$385,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

90

$1,190,000

TOTAL

4

$159,462

97

$1,582,577

Ethiopia is key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism supported by Sudan and terrorism thriving in the anarchy of Somalia. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a salient regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important. Following the cessation of the border conflict, and signing of the December 2000 peace agreement in Algiers by Ethiopia and Eritrea, w we expect Ethiopia to resume its full partnership in the Africa Crisis Response Initiative and the East Africa Regional Security Initiative.

Absent a UNSC decision to terminate the embargo earlier, UNSC Resolution 1298 expires May 18, 2001, and thus restrict some of our military engagement activities. It is important that we reengage with both Eritrea and Ethiopia to ensure stability in the "Horn."

IMET assistance will assist in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. Participation at the ACSS will provide academic and practical programs in civil-military relations. These programs will be important in our future relationship with an Ethiopia where defense considerations are likely to be of great importance.

GABON

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

IMET

3

$47,000

6

$100,000

TOTAL

7

$61,422

10

$116,610

Gabon is an island of calm and political stability in the troubled region of central Africa. Though only in the first decade of transition to a multi-party democracy itself, Gabon has been a key supporter of regional stability. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts and Gabon has participated in peacekeeping activities in the region, most recently in MINURCA in the Central African Republic. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of turbulence in the region and has allowed itself be used as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners to safety from violence in the region. If revenues from oil production, upon which the national economy is based, continue to decline and social indicators remain skewed, stability and democratic progress could be threatened.

IMET in Gabon is focused on improving the English language capability of Gabonese military personnel and providing training on appropriate civil/military relations. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures, and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness will be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Participation in ACSS also supports democratic aims in Gabon by inculcating the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to cooperate and serve as a prospective staging area for evacuation operations in the region.

GAMBIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

TOTAL

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

Because the country's leadership remains in the hands of a leadership who came to power in a coup and whose legitimacy remains questionable, we have continued to suspend almost all forms of official mil-to-mil engagement.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

GHANA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

58

$450,000

55

$425,000

TOTAL

62

$464,422

64

$445,376

Centrally located on the West African coast, Ghana exerts a positive influence in the region through its progress in building democratic institutions and economic development. The Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF) are noted for professionalism and have a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, particularly in Liberia and Sierra Leone. With its history of political and social stability and English as its official language, Ghana provides an ideal platform for a staging base for humanitarian operations (e.g. Feb-Apr 2000 flood relief for Mozambique) and regional training activities such as the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI).

Continued military training and cooperation under IMET, ACSS, and ACRI reinforce the GAF's ability to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond, and to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society. In response to Ghana's pledge of one additional battalion to the UN peacekeeping force in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), Ghana is scheduled to benefit from the Operation Focus Relief train and equip program in FY 2001. In concert with programs funded under other appropriations, IMET will guide the Ghanaian military to play a key role in the country's development through civic action and humanitarian assistance projects. IMET programs will further enhance Ghana's capabilities as an effective participant in peacekeeping operations.

Ghana has offered a battalion for Operation Focus Relief (OFR), a train and equip effort to assist West Africa militaries involved in the UN Mission to Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).

 GUINEA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

73

$179,000

78

$190,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

50

$71,000

0

$0

TOTAL

127

$264,422

87

$210,376

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts, including the protection of refugees. The armed forces play a critical role in Guinean society. Assisting the GOG to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests in two ways.

Military assistance aimed at improving the Guinean military's professionalism, obedience to civilian leadership and ability to conduct humanitarian operations will help to strengthen the institution to maintain its proper role in a democratic society. Military assistance and cooperation aimed at improving the Guinean military's planning, organizational and basic skills will increase its ability to participate in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping activities that, if successful, would permit current refugee populations to be repatriated and preclude further refugee emergencies.

Guinea is playing an important role in providing troops for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Sierra Leone. It is imperative to the peace and stability of the sub-region that Guinea remain stable. The military plays a key role in Guinea's stability. Furthermore, E-IMET training and participation at the ACSS will enable attendees to develop an appreciation of the role of a civilian controlled military in a democracy, to heighten their awareness and observance of human rights and the rule of law, and to continue their support for peacekeeping operations in the sub-region.

 GUINEA-BISSAU

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

1

$22,000

2

$50,000

TOTAL

5

$36,422

11

$70,376

Re-emerging as a democratic society following eleven months of internal conflict, Guinea-Bissau faces the challenge of reconstruction, including the need for significant demining efforts, with very limited government resources. Prior to the conflict, the military traditionally contributed positively to the country's development under the leadership of a civilian government. However, accusations of arms shipments from Guinea-Bissau to rebels in the Casamance region in neighboring Senegal fueled the recent conflict in Guinea-Bissau and produced lingering tensions along the border. Budgetary constraints, a sharp increase in the size of the military during the recent armed conflict, and soldier salary arrears pose significant challenges to the country's newly-elected government. With the death of former junta leader Ansumane Mane the civilian government intends to return the military to its traditional non-political role.

A modest reintroduction of the IMET program has encouraged the efforts of the military leadership and the country's civilian, democratic government to trim the size of the military and to return the military to its traditionally constructive role through civic action and humanitarian projects. IMET also provides training in military justice and defense resources management. In addition, IMET training and ACSS participation will reinforce military cooperation efforts between Guinea-Bissau and neighboring countries so as to reduce border tensions and enhance regional stability.

 KENYA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACRI

0

0

580

$4,250,000

ACSS

5

$14,422

5

$16,610

Exchanges

2

$20

0

0

FMS

1

$12,710

4

$135,949

IMET

107

$422,000

108

$425,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

0

$100,000

TOTAL

115

$449,152

697

$4,927,559

Military training assistance to Kenya is a vital component in a broader U.S. military engagement program with the Kenyan armed forces. Provision of U.S. military assistance, including training, is grounded in several objectives important to our foreign policy goals in Kenya and in the region.

First, U.S. engagement with the Kenyan military is based on maintaining access to sea and air facilities that may facilitate friendly military operations as far south as South Africa and as far west as the Great Lakes and Congo. In the volatile African context, such access has been critical to U.S. response to recent humanitarian and political emergencies in Congo and Somalia, and to the ongoing emergency in Sudan.

Second, U.S. assistance to the Kenyan military is intended to reinforce Kenya's willingness and ability to continue its contributions to international peacekeeping operations. U.S. military training assistance, including the ACRI exercises initiated in Kenya in October 2000, is predominantly geared toward bolstering Kenya's capacity to carry out peacekeeping operations. In addition, most other U.S. military assistance, such as excess defense articles, has application in the peacekeeping arena.

Third, Kenya's armed forces remain one of the important examples of an apolitical military in Africa. The military's distance from politics is a key to maintaining Kenya's stability, particularly given the turbulence and civil unrest experienced across Kenya's borders, for example in Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan. U.S. military training assistance reinforces the Kenyan military's understanding of its professional, apolitical role, while bolstering its capabilities to protect its sometimes troubled borders.

Overall, the military training provided to Kenya encourages the continuation of good military-to-military relationships, as well as participation in regional peacekeeping operations. Additionally, U.S. training assistance has helped give the Kenyan military the confidence to participate in current U.N. peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone and East Timor, and to volunteer for the new operation now being assembled on the Ethiopia-Eritrea border. Other IMET funds target developing future leadership and building professionalism through professional military education and technical training for junior- to mid-level Kenyan military officers.

LESOTHO

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

5

$14,422

5

$16,610

IMET

68

$86,000

67

$85,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

5

$40,000

TOTAL

73

$100,422

77

$141,610

Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to partisan influence by political parties. Involvement of the army in political destabilization and coups d'etat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the LDF did not understand or accept the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has therefore undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills. The IMET program for Lesotho and ACSS participation advance these goals by focusing on the following objectives:

  • Encouraging professionalism and nonpartisanship;
  • Promoting positive civil/military relations.
  • Assisting in the definition and implementation of a productive mission for the LDF in new areas such as disaster relief, infrastructure development, and peacekeeping.

 LIBERIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$6,960

7

$12,799

TOTAL

2

$6,960

7

$12,799

In response to the Liberian government's support of destabilizing activities in Sierra Leone and other parts of Africa, we have halted all forms of military engagement, however, the DOD is allowing Liberia to participate in ACSS events in FY2001. The DOD's policy is to include all African nations, except those under UN or USG sanction, in ACSS engagement activities. The Department has determined that it is in the DOD's best interest to include Liberia in ACSS seminars in order to promote peace and stability across the African continent. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors by addressing the very problems that get many DOS-sanctioned countries in trouble in the first place. The ACSS program also fosters critical partnerships with African nations. It keeps open lines of communication at the right military and defense levels, laying the foundation for future military-to-military relations when conditions improve in the country. The Africa Center is a DOD-funded program that is separate from DOS security assistance programs.



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