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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Africa (M-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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MADAGASCAR

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

Asia-Pacific Center

3

$33,507

3

$41,685

IMET

26

$160,000

23

$140,000

TOTAL

33

$207,929

30

$198,295

After the failure of its socialist experiment (1975-91), Madagascar continues its transition to democracy and economic liberalization, showing much greater openness towards the United States and the West. Throughout the political turmoil of the early and mid-90's, the military remained disciplined, apolitical, and respectful of civilian authority, despite calls for it to intervene. The world's fourth-largest island but one of the poorest countries on Earth, Madagascar lacks the capability to protect its 5,000-km. maritime border against threats of smuggling both in and out. This inability deprives the Government of significant revenues, contributes to the endangerment of many rare species found nowhere else, and creates an--unintended--permissive environment for transnational terrorists.

The Malagasy are traditionally inward-looking, but the current Government seeks to play a more active role in regional and international affairs: for instance, it hosted an OAU conference in April 1999 that sought to bring reconciliation to the Comoros, and has expressed willingness to participate in peacekeeping operations (PKO) under UN or OAU auspices. IMET-funded training for Madagascar has enabled Malagasy officers to learn about: legal aspects of PKO; law of the sea; port security; legal and operational aspects of boarding ships at sea, etc. It has also trained English language instructors at the Basic and Advanced levels. Madagascar is a French-speaking country, and mastery of English is a prerequisite for U.S. military training courses.

IMET serves U.S. strategic goals of counter-terrorism and combating international crime, as well as reinforcing democracy. With a substantial increase in IMET, we will be able to provide a Mobile Training Team (MTT) on PKO, and perhaps assist with maintenance and repair of equipment.

MALAWI

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACRI

705

$750,000

30

$650,000

ACSS

5

$14,422

5

$16,610

IMET

128

$345,000

130

$350,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

56

$213,000

0

$0

TOTAL

894

$1,322,422

165

$1,016,610

Security assistance, particularly Expanded-IMET programs, is an important component in Post's efforts to strengthen Malawi's 6-year old democracy and promote economic development in one of the poorest and most densely populated countries on the planet. After three decades of autocratic rule, Malawi held its second free and fair national multi-party elections in June 1999 and its first ever local multi-party elections in November, 2000. The country, whose only significant external threat is transnational crime, has steadily improved relations with its neighbors since its democratic transition and has sought to play a stabilizing role in the region and the continent.

Close military-to-military cooperation is an essential pillar in the strong U.S.-Malawi bilateral relationship. Malawi has a small and under-funded, yet apolitical and highly professional military. The Army has been an exemplary participant in a very active slate of programs. One of the first countries to join the program, Malawi remains the only ACRI country (and advocate) in southern Africa. The Army joins the also resource-strapped national police force in select operations to fight crime and has distinguished itself in peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance missions. Malawi was the first country in the region to provide flood relief (helicopters and supplies) to Mozambique. Currently it has ACRI-trained observers in Kosovo and the DROC.

In addition to traditional professional military skills training, IMET and other security assistance programs are allowing the Malawi Army to bring significant resources to bear on key issues, especially the fight against HIV/AIDS, structural reform efforts (better strategic planning), improved civilian-military relations, and strengthened human rights and anti-corruption efforts. For example, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies (DIILS)-organized seminars provide a venue for members of the Army, Malawi Government, parliamentarians, judiciary, academicians, the media and NGOs to work together on issues including rule of law, human rights and peacekeeping. (Restricted interaction between these groups has been a carry-over from the pre-democracy era.) An orientation visit to Washington under the auspices of DIILS provided the impetus for Parliamentary Defense & Security Committee members to meet with the Malawi Army Commander for the first time. The Committee and Army subsequently worked together on this year's defense budget.

The Defense Resource Management Institute (DRMI) is developing Mobile Education Training for the Army and budget directors and planners from every ministry to strengthen the Malawi Government's ability to use its scarce resources more efficiently. This will help the GOM re-assert control over expenditures and meet the conditions of economic structural adjustment reforms prescribed by the IMF and World Bank. (Malawi has failed over the last twenty years to comply consistently with IFI programs.) The Malawians are using their participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) to help draft their first national strategic plan.

Security assistance programs and military exercises are providing excellent venues and resources in Post's fight to reduce the devastating effects of HIV/AIDS in Malawi. Furthmore, we require all in-country IMET, African Crisis Response Initiative and Joint Combined Education Training programs to include a session on some aspect of the disease, its prevention and/or living with it (either as patient, family member or work supervisor). We have called on the International Health Resources Management Program to help the Ministry of Health, other ministries, the Army and donors implement an ambitious comprehensive National AIDS Strategic Plan. (Malawians have been strong on planning, but weak on project implementation.)

 MALI

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACRI

200

$600,000

825

$750,000

ACSS

5

$14,422

10

$20,376

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$858

0

$0

FMS

1040

$731,706

0

$0

IMET

68

$270,000

81

$320,000

TOTAL

1314

$1,616,986

916

$1,090,376

 Over the past decade the Malian Armed Forces have evolved from an instrument of government control to a republican organization which supports human rights, economic development, and conflict resolution. U.S. security assistance programs in Mali serve to institutionalize these changes, providing training in civil-military affairs, coordinating ongoing peacekeeping training, and conducting seminars on the role of the armed forces in a democracy. U.S. sponsored training of senior and mid-level officers contribute to the professional development of current and future Malian military leaders to reinforce and perpetuate the subordinate, depoliticized role of the military. Additionally, Military Justice and Defense Management courses fortify the Government of Mali (GOM)'s efforts to fight corruption and instill good governance.

Mali has been an effective interlocutor and mediator on regional security issues, such as those in Sierra Leone and within the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) and as a buffer against the intentions of Libya and extreme Islamic fundamentalists active in the region. ACRI training provides critical skills to enable the GOM to exercise its prominent regional peacekeeping role. Malian leaders seek a greater role for Mali as a force for regional stability and peace. Also, Mali has one of the largest IMET programs in Africa on a per capita basis. Increased security assistance and training support from ACRI and other State and DOD programs will be necessary to permit Mali to be more effective as it continues to play a constructive role in these areas.

MAURITANIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

0

$0

4

$100,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

51

$1,122,504

TOTAL

4

$14,422

64

$1,242,880

In FY 2001, IMET and other mil-to-mil programs will start up after a hiatus of several years. Military engagement programs will provide a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition and constructive role in support of the Middle East peace process.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.  

MAURITIUS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$14,422

2

$16,610

Asia-Pacific Center

2

$25,086

3

$41,685

IMET

24

$79,000

24

$80,000

TOTAL

28

$118,508

29

$138,295

Located 500 miles east of Madagascar, Mauritius is an island nation with an Economic Exclusion Zone of 2 million square kilometers. The economy relies heavily on exports of sugar and textiles, but services like tourism and offshore business are growing in Mauritius, which has one of the strongest economies and highest standards of living in Africa. While Mauritius has no military as such, there are approximately 10,000 active duty personnel under the command of the Commissioner of Police divided into the National Police, a VIP Protection Unit, a Police Helicopter Squadron, a Special Mobile Force and a National Coast Guard. The Coast Guard and the Police Helicopter Squadron are currently headed by officers on loan from India.

U.S. military training assistance has focused on the Coast Guard. Through U.S. assistance, it is hoped that the Coast Guard, created in 1989, will grow into a Mauritian-led organization capable of effectively patrolling territorial waters, stemming narcotics trafficking and illegal fishing, and mounting successful search and rescue operations. Another U.S. foreign policy goal in this area is to improve protection of Mauritius' fragile coastal environment.

Mauritius' first student at the U.S. Naval Staff College completed his studies in December 1999 and is slated to be the first Mauritian Commandant of the National Coast Guard. A second Mauritian student is expected to graduate from the Naval Staff College in December 2000. Mid-level officers have attended the International Maritime Officers Course, which provides a strong overview of all the Coast Guard mission areas, including maritime law enforcement, fisheries protection, pollution control, and search and rescue. Junior officers and enlisted members of the Coast Guard have also attended U.S.-based training. A U.S. Coast Guard Mobile Training Team visited Mauritius in February 2000 and conducted a Port Environmental Safety course. The course involved 25 students from the military, government and private organizations and was extremely successful. In FY01, representatives from the Defense Institute for International Legal Studies and the International Health Resources Program will conduct studies to identify needs and plan future training programs for Mauritius. A recent visit to Mauritius by officials from the U.S. Pacific Command resulted in Mauritius expressing interest in participating in peace-keeping operation exercises and training. Finally, Mauritius will participate in ACSS activities in civil-military relations.

MOZAMBIQUE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

5

$14,422

5

$16,610

IMET

66

$178,000

74

$200,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

30

$168,000

4

$35,000

TOTAL

101

$360,422

83

$251,610

In the nine years since Mozambique ended its 16-year civil war, U.S. policy has been to encourage democratic consolidation and socio-economic reform. Success in achieving these goals is essential for lasting peace and prosperity for the Mozambican people and for regional stability. Mozambique has developed into one of Africa's fastest growing economies and has become a regional leader in conflict resolution efforts such as those involving the Democratic Republic of Congo (DROC). Holding the chair of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Mozambique potentially could play a role in a SADC peacekeeping mission in DROC and has been involved in Lusophone initiatives elsewhere on the continent, such as Guinea Bissau. The inability of the country to cope with floods in May 2000 has underlined the country's need to continue developing its crisis response capacity. We hope to enhance Mozambique's response capacity with bilateral and possibly sub-regional engagement programs.

The consolidation of democracy in the post-war period requires that the military play a constructive role by becoming an apolitical and professional defense force which respects human rights. The IMET program and other training activities facilitate this transition by providing civil-military relations courses to inculcate a respect for civilian control of the defense force. IMET also trains students in basic technical skills, such as ordnance maintenance to ensure the proper handling of the army's equipment, and coast guard management to help Mozambique protect the resources along its lengthy ocean border.

NAMIBIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

IMET

10

$175,000

37

$195,000

TOTAL

14

$189,422

41

$211,610

The primary U.S. national interest in Namibia is humanitarian. The U.S. played a key role in negotiating the agreement that secured Namibia's independence a decade ago. Since then the U.S. has been engaged in helping Namibia build a democratic political system and a free-market economy. By helping Namibia overcome the legacy of apartheid, the U.S. enhances regional stability, promotes economic development, expands trade and investment opportunities and advances U.S. global interests. The goodwill generated by our engagement with Namibia since independence has also facilitated cooperation during Namibia's 1999-2000 rotation on the United Nations Security Council.

IMET funding supports the training of Namibia Defense Force (NDF) personnel in democratic values and respect for civilian institutions. Namibia's program focuses on training for all strata of the NDF from senior level Ministry of Defense officials all the way down to non-commissioned officers (NCO's). Courses in defense resources management, military medical operations, and civil-military relations strengthen the NDF's capacity to conduct peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Professional military education is provided to officers and NCO's to inculcate the right values into future leaders of the NDF. Also, although English is the official language, language training was made available to enhance English comprehension by NDF participants. Finally, in the future IMET funds will be used to deepen the NDF's understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS upon the military.

NIGER

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

8

$20,376

IMET

0

$0

4

$100,000

TOTAL

4

$14,422

12

$120,376

In FY 2001, IMET and other mil-to-mil programs will start up in Niger after a hiatus of several years. Military engagement programs will provide a vehicle to enhance the Armed Forces' positive role within civil society and to assist the country in its continued democratic transition.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

NIGERIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

11

$14,422

15

$20,376

FMS

3

$184,557

0

$0

IMET

115

$525,000

130

$650,000

TOTAL

129

$723,979

145

$670,376

As Africa's most populous nation, a key source of our oil imports, and a country emerging from 15 years of military rule, Nigeria is vital to the stability and prosperity of West Africa and the Continent. Nigerian armed forces have played key roles in ending the civil war in Liberia and in creating conditions for a peace settlement in Sierra Leone.

Military rule decimated Nigeria's armed forces as successive military governments ignored proper training and equipment for soldiers, and allowed infrastructure and equipment to decay. A nation of Nigeria's size and importance, however, needs a credible and professional military force that respects civilian control and fulfills its constitutional role of protecting the nation. It is therefore vital for the U.S. government to engage with Nigeria's military as part of an overall effort to consolidate democracy, rebuild institutions, and encourage investment and economic growth in Nigeria.

Until the inauguration of an elected, civilian government on May 29, 1999, the U.S. government had embargoed the export of military goods and services to Nigeria. The lifting of these sanctions permitted the resumption of IMET and other military training for Nigeria. Current plans call for a spectrum of IMET training for 15 Nigerian students this fiscal year, but none oriented on lethal-type training.

Nigeria is one of four transition countries the Secretary of State has designated as priority nations for the U.S. government. Nigeria's democracy is fragile and the GON must address many challenges to ensure that elected, civilian control becomes consolidated and entrenched. The need to restructure, train, and professionalize the military is a key challenge that the U.S. government can help Nigeria meet by providing training opportunities in the U.S. for officers and others. An ambitious training program for this fiscal year will focus on defense resources management, military health care, civil-military relations, military justice, and professional training for mid to senior-level officers. After years of a severed relationship, this training seeks to slowly change the mindset of a military force toward a democratic, rights-based civilian government. In time, this programmatic approach, mixing professional training with courses on military justice and civil-military relations, will help to inculcate the values which can make the largest African military a positive force for change in the region and on the continent. Our train and equip efforts in Operation Focus Relief (OFR), which began in late August 2000, will play a major role in professionalizing the Nigerian Army and enhancing its regional peacekeeping role.

RWANDA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$6,960

2

$9,033

IMET

8

$164,000

12

$250,000

TOTAL

10

$170,960

14

$259,033

U.S. programs in Rwanda aim at preventing the recurrence of genocide (which claimed some 800,000 lives in 1994) by helping to create the political, economic and social conditions that will lead to a prosperous civil society that embraces democratic governance and respect for human rights. To achieve these goals, the U.S. implements a variety of political, humanitarian, economic and military assistance programs that support U.S. interests in aiding Rwanda's transition to sustainable development while securing regional peace and stability in Africa's Great Lakes Region.

The IMET program offers training in the U.S. to Rwandan military students, providing the U.S. with daily contact and long-term influence with the Rwandan military. This influence will enable the U.S. to push for peaceful resolution of conflicts in DROC, greater recognition of the importance of respect for human rights, and the constructive role the military can play in the development of a prosperous and democratic civil society in Rwanda.

IMET funds are used for technical training (communications, electronics, maintenance, etc.), mid-level professional training and higher-rank participation in the Command and General Staff programs. While participating in these programs, Rwandan military personnel have daily contact with U.S. military personnel and are directly exposed to the practical aspects of civilian control and direction of the military, professional development within the armed forces, and appropriate defense resource management.

IMET cooperation with Rwanda was suspended in June 2000 after clashes between Rwandan and Ugandan forces in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo. As of December 2000, IMET remained suspended.

SAO TOME and PRINCIPE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$7,462

2

$7,577

IMET

2

$45,000

4

$85,000

TOTAL

4

$52,462

6

$92,577

Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is an island of calm and political stability in the troubled region of central Africa. It is, by comparison with the rest of the region, a model of democracy. These attributes played an important role in the U.S. building a $55 million Voice of America relay station there. Nevertheless, STP is only in the first decade of transition to a multi-party democracy and, as one of the world's poorest countries, its desperate economic plight threatens its long-term stability and newly-planted democratic institutions.

IMET in STP is focused on improving the English language capability of STP military personnel, thereby enhancing STP's military efficiency and effectiveness. IMET will also facilitate the building of effective relations between the STP and the U.S. militaries and the exposure of trainee-participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures, and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control. In addition, participation in ACSS will support our democratic aims in STP by inculcating the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders, particularly important in a country that in the past has seen mutinies.

SENEGAL

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACRI

645

$2,450,000

870

$1,450,000

ACSS

10

$14,422

14

$20,376

IMET

69

$764,000

69

$765,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

35

$29,000

0

$0

Service Academy

1

$74,237

0

$0

TOTAL

760

$3,331,659

953

$2,235,376

Senegal is our most important Francophone partner in sub-Saharan Africa, a supporter of key U.S. foreign policy initiatives, and a consistent voice for moderation and compromise in multilateral and Islamic organizations. Senegal plays a key role in ensuring a vital U.S. interest: regional stability. Senegal is a participant in the ACRI and will participate in Operation Focus Relief (OFR) this year. It hosted the first meeting of the ACSS in November 1999, and the first Brigade-level ACRI training in October 2000. Senegal is committed to economic reform and has initiated an ambitious privatization program. The Senegalese military has distinguished itself in peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, Liberia, Rwanda, the Sinai and Lebanon. Senegal was the first sub-Saharan country to offer troops to OPERATION DESERT SHIELD. The continuing development of a cadre of professional officers through the IMET program is in the interest of the U.S. and will reinforce Senegal as a full partner with its neighbors in peacekeeping operations in the sub-region. Reinforcing the traditions of a professional civilian-controlled military that emphasizes respect for democratic principles, human rights and the rule of law will set an example for other nations in the sub-region. By working with Senegal to further democracy and economic liberalization, the U.S. helps strengthen the democratic foundation of a country whose growth and success are extremely important.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Senegal is the smoldering rebellion in the Casamance region, the area between The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is Senegal's richest agricultural area and had a thriving tourist industry until problems started in 1982. Ethnic and economic factors fuel the rebellion as local groups allege discrimination and unfair exploitation by Dakar. The previous President, Diouf visited the region in January 1999 and opened a dialogue with the dominant separatist group, the MFDC. A cease-fire accord was signed in December 1999, and several meetings were held in Banjul between MFDC representatives and GOS Ministers. President Wade, who pledged to resolve the Casamance conflict after his inauguration in April 2000, has yet to delineate a plan of action. Meanwhile, sporadic reports of violence continue between the MFDC and Senegalese military in the Casamance Region.

 SEYCHELLES

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

1

$72,000

1

$60,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

25

$179,000

0

$0

TOTAL

26

$251,000

1

$60,000

Located in the western Indian Ocean with an Economic Exclusion Zone of 1.2 million square kilometers, Seychelles struggles with sluggish economic growth and is attempting, with some success, to diversify its economy and move it away from its heavy reliance on tourism. Revenues from fishing rights and fish processing have grown sharply in recent years and have surpassed tourism as the most important economic activity. President France Albert Rene, as Minister of Defense, has complete control over the one hundred-member Seychelles People's Defense Force (SPDF), consisting of an Army and a Coast Guard. Prior to 1993, the SPDF had included an Army, Navy, Air Force and Militia, but a shift towards fisheries protection led to the creation of a Coast Guard in place of the Navy and Air Force. The Coast Guard has evolved into an effective, highly professional force, and U.S. military training funds have been focused exclusively on the Seychelles Coast Guard.

Given Seychelles' reliance on tourism and fishing and its large EEZ, one of the primary U.S. foreign policy goals for military training in the Seychelles focuses on assisting the Coast Guard in developing the skills necessary to enforce maritime law and to protect the fragile marine environment and fisheries. Other goals include reinforcing the concept of a nonpolitical and apolitical military organization that respects human rights and promotes self-sufficiency and self-management, particularly with respect to in-house training. The IMET program for the Seychelles, which is administered by the Kenya-U.S. Liaison Office in Nairobi, addressed these goals in several ways in FY 2000. The modest IMET investment in Seychelles buys a lot of goodwill, which helps in the wake of the closing of the U.S. Embassy and the U.S. Air Force Tracking Station there.

SIERRA LEONE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$6,960

6

$12,799

IMET

0

$0

4

$150,000

TOTAL

2

$6,960

10

$162,799

The continuing conflict in Sierra Leone is among the greatest challenges facing the U.S. in Africa. Reports characterize the atrocities and human rights abuses by Sierra Leone rebels as being on a scale currently seen nowhere else in the world. The crisis has attracted the attention of Congress and the media. A small group of rebels supported from outside Sierra Leone and sustained by illicit diamond sales is challenging important U.S. national interests, including our support for democracy and human rights throughout the region. The conflict undermines prospects for economic development and regional integration and poses a direct threat to stability of nations in the sub-region. Rebel forces have already engaged in raids into neighboring Guinea. The U.S. supports strengthening the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) and we fully support British efforts to equip and train the Sierra Leone Army. In addition, the U.S. has committed to equipping and training up to 7 battalions of West African troops for service with UNAMSIL in Sierra Leone. In that regard, training of Nigerian troops has commenced.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission;
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

SOUTH AFRICA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

7

$14,422

7

$16,610

EIPC

1

$208

0

$0

IMET

447

$904,000

408

$825,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

15

$42,306

80

$150,000

TOTAL

470

$960,936

495

$991,610

After South Africa's first democratic elections in May 1994, the new government undertook a sweeping transformation of its military, the South African Defense Force (SADF), which had provided internal security under the apartheid regime, in addition to undertaking cross border operations in the southern African region. The transformation has included incorporating 11 former homeland militaries and anti-apartheid militant groups into what is now known as the South African National Defense Force (SANDF). The new SANDF leadership struggles with issues of racial representation within the military; differences in levels of training, education, and promotion criteria among the various groups; and limited resources as the new government focuses on providing services to the historically disadvantaged majority.

U.S. interests are served by assisting South Africa with transforming its military into a professional, apolitical, human rights-respecting force capable and willing to undertake a regional leadership role commensurate with the country's size, population and level of development. A successful transformation will serve as a model for other African countries and with whom the United States can cooperate on conflict resolution and peacekeeping.

To advance the SANDF's transformation and pursue a strong security assistance partnership, the IMET program focuses on civil-military relations training and seminars to assist the SANDF as it reorients its mission in the post-apartheid environment. IMET also provides training (such as command and staff college) for officers who may not have received formal leadership training; logistics training to facilitate administrative efficiency; and military law to provide a mechanism for respecting human rights and discipline. IMET has also allowed our militaries to exchange expertise in the area of equal opportunity. IMET has assisted the SANDF with minimal technical training as well, such as flight safety training, to enable to the SANDF to maintain the relatively high-tech military it inherited.

SWAZILAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

5

$14,422

5

$16,610

IMET

17

$105,000

14

$85,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

0

$75,000

TOTAL

22

$119,422

19

$176,610

Efforts to promote the professionalization of the Swazi military directly support our primary goal of advancing democracy and human rights, and also bolster our goals of supporting regional stability and humanitarian assistance. A professional, apolitical military will support the development of democracy and human rights and will be able to play a productive role in regional conflict resolution.

IMET funds support military assistance programs that promote the professionalization of the Swazi defense forces through education in the role of the military in a democracy and in respect for human rights. IMET programs that support peacekeeping training also advance broader U.S. peacekeeping goals for the southern African region. Now that Swaziland chairs the Southern African Development Community's Inter-State Defense and Security Committee, we may be able to advance these regional goals further through ACSS and our military-to-military contacts with Swaziland.

We also have provided humanitarian demining assistance, which advances both our national interest in democracy (through professionalization of the military) and in humanitarian response. Demining funds are used to implement a program to clear the minefield on the Swaziland-Mozambique border and, at the same time, provide training in demining skills that could be used in future regional peacekeeping operations.  

TANZANIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

6

$14,422

6

$16,610

IMET

8

$167,000

8

$175,000

TOTAL

14

$181,422

14

$191,610

Tanzania is located in a critically important location in Africa, with its port in Dar es Salaam serving as the entry point for shipments of goods to other parts of Africa. Porous borders and easy access into Tanzania from neighboring countries and overseas make Tanzania a prime target of terrorist threats, as demonstrated by the tragic bombing of the Embassy in August 1998. It is also the main reception point for refugees fleeing the instability in neighboring countries, most notably Burundi and the DRC.

Tanzania also serves a crucial political role, serving as the seat for the Arusha peace talks aimed at ending the ethnic bloodshed in Burundi and for the International Criminal Court for Rwanda. Tanzania also serves as an important partner to Uganda and Kenya in the development of the East Africa Community (EAC), which is aimed at integrating the markets and economic policies of these three countries. The EAC is also envisioned to facilitate security cooperation among the three nations, and there is now a military liaison office. This can form the basis for expanding regional economic integration and stimulating economic development on the continent. The Tanzanian government's human rights record is, relative to other African states, good. It is moving forward to establish democratic institutions and held national multi-party parliamentary and presidential elections in October. The national government has made efforts to resolve conflict within semi-autonomous Zanzibar and promote ethnic cooperation, a contentious issue in other African countries.

Tanzania is a relatively stable country, favorably disposed to U.S.-led initiatives and training programs. It seeks close cooperation with the U.S. as underscored by the visit to the U.S. by President Mkapa in September 1999 and the visit by President Clinton to Arusha in August 2000. Both presidents have stressed closer economic relations and trade promotion, and strongly supported the open skies agreement, making Tanzania the first African country to sign the agreement with the U.S. Also, as Tanzania continues to play host to large numbers of refugees from neighboring countries, its security services play an important, if underdeveloped role in enhancing regional security.

The IMET program is crucial to Tanzania-U.S. relations because it helps professionalize its armed forces and enables Tanzania's force to look closely at cooperation at the regional level in organizations like ACSS. Further, through training activities provided by the U.S., Tanzania will be better equipped and trained to patrol its own borders and limit infiltration by potential terrorists and criminal activities. The program thus far has proven beneficial to Tanzania and has also helped to enhance U.S.-Tanzanian relations.

TOGO

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

5

$14,422

9

$20,376

IMET

0

$0

2

$50,000

TOTAL

5

$14,422

11

$70,376

Because the country's leadership remains in the hands of a leadership who came to power in a coup and whose legitimacy remains questionable, we have continued to suspend almost all forms of official mil-to-mil engagement.

The ACSS supports democratic governance in Africa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy, and defense economics. To this end, the ACSS presents a substantive academic experience designed to:

  • Promote, at the Center, informed and productive inquiry on the military's role in a democracy among senior government officials, non-government civilian leaders, and military officers;
  • Foster, within participant countries, understanding of the military's role that is shaped and shared by the people, their governments, and their military establishments;
  • Maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants on matters relevant to the Center's mission
  • Support additional research, seminars, conferences, and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe, and the United States.

UGANDA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

6

$14,422

6

$16,610

IMET

18

$247,000

28

$385,000

TOTAL

24

$261,422

34

$401,610

Critically situated at the intersection of the troubled regions of East Africa and the Great Lakes, Uganda is a country still in recovery from many years of despotic misrule, often at the hands of rulers with a military background such as Idi Amin. The Uganda People's Defense Force (UPDF), as the armed forces are called, has a better record of military effectiveness and conduct under the current government of President Yoweri Museveni. It continues, however, to face rebel threats on the west and the north. The ongoing professional improvement of the UPDF is important to Uganda's national security and stability, as well as to the fulfillment of Uganda's promise as a force for peace in Africa.

A complicating factor in providing military training to Uganda is the involvement of the UPDF in certain activities with which the U.S. disagrees, especially its presence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Until May of 2000, the importance of working with the UPDF to improve its professional qualities, including its awareness and observance of human rights, had been considered sufficiently substantial to warrant continuing at least some training programs, such as IMET and participation in the ACSS. In May of 2000 UPDF and Rwandan forces became embroiled in a protracted battle for the DRC city of Kisangani; IMET was suspended indefinitely. Other activities had been suspended, including follow-up training under the ACRI, for which initial training was provided in mid-1997. We continue to review this policy.

IMET fosters close cooperation between the U.S. and Uganda which is in our national interest as we seek to create stability in the region, advance closer military-to-military relations, professionalize the UPDF, and promote human rights by making UPDF personnel aware of our concern for human rights. These are critical core U.S. strategic interests in Africa -- creating stability, advancing human rights, promoting democracy, and supporting closer relations with the U.S. IMET has proven successful and is one of the most important programs in the U.S. tool bag for advancing U.S. goals and objectives in Uganda. Several UPDF officers trained under IMET programs have proven to be positive actors in the Ugandan military scene.

 ZAMBIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

6

$14,422

6

$16,610

IMET

42

$137,000

54

$175,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

120

$219,000

0

$0

TOTAL

168

$370,422

60

$191,610

Zambia has been a commendable example of peace and stability in southern Africa. Not only has Zambia avoided involvement in the civil conflicts in two of its neighbors, Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), it has played a leading role in efforts to broker and implement a cease-fire agreement for DROC.

Zambia must deal with a host of domestic political and economic challenges. The economy stagnated under decades of extensive state control, but the government is committed to privatization of all state-owned enterprises, having already divested more than three-quarters of them. Zambia returned to a multi-party democracy in 1991 after nearly two decades of one-party rule, although the political situation remains volatile. Zambia will hold its third multiparty national elections in late 2001, an important event in efforts to consolidate a pluralistic democracy. The U.S. and other donor countries are working with the public and private sectors in Zambia to address these issues. A more prosperous, democratic Zambia can act as a catalyst in a region of increasing economic and political importance to the U.S.

The Zambian Defence Force (ZDF) suffers from a lack of resources which severely hampers its training and professional development. U.S. military training assistance has greatly benefited the Zambian military and would continue to do so. IMET instruction in, for example, tactical armor, infantry, logistics, and advanced leadership training and military education has helped improve the professional capability of the ZDF. Continued IMET training in these and other military professional development courses would build on this progress. The JAG officer courses support the overall U.S. interest in consolidating democracy and rule of law in Zambia - especially important issues as Zambia prepares for national elections. Continuing participation by Zambian military personnel in ACSS help develop the senior leadership necessary to sustain and improve the ZDF. Similarly, U.S. military training programs further bilateral relations and provide continued access and influence with the military and its political leadership in Zambia, a pivotal country in a region key to stability and prosperity on the continent.

ZIMBABWE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

4

$14,422

4

$16,610

IMET

18

$286,000

20

$325,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

51

$922,058

0

$0

TOTAL

73

$1,222,480

24

$341,610

USG military cooperation through IMET has served to reinforce the Zimbabwe Defense Forces' commitment to professionalism and civilian control. These programs of professional training for senior ZDF officers and non-commissioned officers will foster the military's respect for the human rights and basic freedoms of all its citizens.

Zimbabwe plays a pivotal role in regional stability. Zimbabwe established a reputation as an activist leader of the Front Line States' struggle against apartheid in the 1980's. Zimbabwe provided troops and training to the governments of Samora Machel and Joachim Chissano in Mozambique In the 1990's, Zimbabwe assumed the chairmanship of the Southern African Development Community's Organ for Defense, Politics and Security. Zimbabwean troops have served with distinction in various peacekeeping operations. They are also involved in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

IMET training strengthens the ZDF's ability to carry out peacekeeping functions, to include those envisioned in the Lusaka Peace Agreement for DRC, in a more professional manner. The ZDF's willingness and proven ability to deploy outside of its borders can help project the enhanced professionalism provided by IMET training to a wider audience.

IMET training and other contacts between the U.S. military and the ZDF reinforce the ZDF's commitment to civilian control in Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwean military's respect for civilian control has been key to stability in Zimbabwe, where an economic crisis has eroded citizens' income and provoked unprecedented political dissent.

Demining activity has been a resounding success in Zimbabwe, providing a concrete example of the military's capacity to improve civilians' lives. The ZDF has obtained valuable experience in de-mining efforts that have opened up parts of the country to increased commerce, travel and tourism.



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