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Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: East Asia and Pacific (P-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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PALAU

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

TOTAL

1

$30,000

0

$0

As a means of strengthening defense ties with Palau, the U.S. welcomed the participation of a Palauan student in the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in FY 2000. No additional students are comtemplated for FY2001.

  PAPUA NEW GUINEA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

6

$67,014

8

$111,114

IMET

96

$177,000

110

$180,000

TOTAL

102

$244,014

118

$291,114

U.S. national interests in Papua New Guinea derive from our overarching interest in regional stability and from PNG's status as home to one of the world's greatest remaining tropical rain forests and biodiversity reservoirs. PNG is the largest and most populous island nation in the South Pacific and neighbor to the troubled Indonesian province of Irian Jaya. U.S. interests include strengthening democratic institutions, assisting with development of disaster relief capabilities, supporting peaceful transition from civil strife to rule of law in Bougainville island province, supporting the nation's pursuit of a free enterprise tradition, and fostering stewardship of diverse natural resources. The benefits of a stable, lawful and prosperous PNG include reduced prospects of human rights violations, environmental degradation, and international organized crime.

On Bougainville island, the former belligerents are working to establish a government of reconciliation under unarmed regional peace monitors and a small UN observer mission. The PNG armed forces retain a small presence on Bougainville, and their cooperation will be necessary for any lasting settlement on the island.

FY 99/00 and FY 2001 IMET programs on civil military relations, interdiction, maritime issues, command and general staff officer, defense management have focussed on building a more professional and better-disciplined PNG Defense Force (PNGDF), which will be important to an appropriate military role in a lasting settlement. Courses also aimed at improving PNGDF capability to monitor and detect illegal fishing and apprehending persons and vessels engaged in such fishing. IMET provided training emphasized human rights, civilian control over the military, and military justice. Courses with international staff officer and legal emphasis seek to increase Papua New Guinea's ability to engage in cooperative international military-related efforts, including peace-keeping. English language training contributes to the latter goal and offers increased ability and opportunities for fruitful interaction with the U.S. military.

As a means of strengthening defense cooperation, Papua New Guinea participates in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Papua New Guinea.

 PHILIPPINES

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

8

$87,382

9

$125,055

Credit (Repayable)

6

$41,227

0

$0

FMS

3

$15,018

0

$0

Misc. DoD-Dos Activities

0

$0

0

$18,000

IMET

90

$1,415,000

95

$1,500,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

343

$725,178

0

$0

Service Academy

5

$334,523

0

$0

*TOTAL

455

$2,618,328

104

$1,643,055

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

The United States has important security, commercial and political interests in the Philippines, a treaty ally that straddles important air and sea lanes. As a nation-state committed to democratic political principles and confident in its exercise of regional leadership, a stable Philippines is an important force for stability in Southeast Asia. The Philippines is committed to close relations with the U.S. in support of regional peace and security in Southeast Asia. It seeks to promote regional economic and political cooperation through the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the ASEAN Regional Forum and APEC.

IMET funds have aimed at contributing to overall regional stability. Specifically, training in FY 99/00 and FY 2001 focusses on positively influencing the Philippine military's professionalism and discipline. IMET training also helped further strengthen civilian control over the military, contributing to a decline in the number of reported incidents of human rights abuses. The steady advancement of IMET graduates helps ensure the continued understanding and cooperation of the Government of the Philippines on U.S. views toward regional issues. The IMET graduates who populate the top ranks of the Armed Forces of the Philippines contributed to building the close professional military-to-military relations which exist between the U.S. military and the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Now that the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA) entered into force, the U.S. military is actively engaged in ship visits and joint training exercises with the Armed Forces of the Philippines.

These cooperative bilateral military activities constitute important steps toward normalizing our military-to-military ties and increasing inter-operability and standardization with the AFP in order to enable the AFP to defend the national borders against external aggression, to counter the Communist and Muslim separatist insurgencies, and to participate in international and regional peacekeeping operations. In support of these goals, and in keeping with our treaty ally relationship, Philippines officers have participated in a range of operational, officer training and leadership courses. These include courses related to military medicine, aviation, aircraft maintenance, amphibious training, engineering and electricity, fire control systems repair, field artillery leadership, maritime, mine warfare, mechanics, psychological operations, radio communications, ranger operations, signals, supply, service and maintenance, search and rescue, and related courses.

Officer professionalization and leadership development are the aims of Staff/Command College and military law courses. Such training increases Philippine military exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations and respect for human rights. International staff officer and related courses are aimed at increasing Philippines officers' ability to participate effectively with the U.S. in international peacekeeping and related operations.

DOD has also funded Philippines participating in training related to joint exercises, a military training team assessment of defense needs and requirements and coast guard training. These also increase interoperability and provide the Philippines with a realistic assessment of how to shape their defense strategy.

As another means of strengthening our defense cooperation with the Philippines, the U.S. welcomes Philippine participation in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from the Philippines.

 SAMOA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

1

$11,947

3

$41,685

IMET

68

$85,000

96

$120,000

TOTAL

69

$96,947

99

$161,685

U.S. interests in Samoa grow out of our national security interest in regional stability. The U.S. strives to maintain close ties with Samoa, which is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. Samoa is also a close neighbor of the U.S. territory of American Samoa, with which it has long-standing family and cultural ties. Other interests include encouraging broad-based economic growth, supporting improved capacity to protect the island's environment and natural resources, and educating the public on health issues.

The most important use of IMET is to support the U.S. objective of helping Samoa develop an effective maritime law enforcement and surveillance capability. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills is carried out in accordance with U.S. leadership doctrines, emphasizing civilian control. DOD/Coast Guard resources contribute to broad-based economic growth in Samoa by assisting Samoa's maritime police patrol to strengthen enforcement of their maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), and to improve safety in Samoa's fishing fleet.

IMET military training programs for Samoan health professionals aim to help the Samoan Department of Health better manage scarce resources, and improve the overall quality of health care in Samoa.

Two dozen Samoan police officers have helped to maintain order in East Timor as part of a UN peacekeeping force since March 2000. This is the first time that Samoa has made a contribution to a peacekeeping force. There is no doubt that the training provided under IMET helped contribute to Samoa's readiness to take on a peacekeeping role in such a difficult environment.

 SINGAPORE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

2

$762

2

$1,057

FMS

1244

$24,459,362

550

$25,750,445

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$10,000

0

$0

Service Academy

9

$68,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

1255

$24,538,124

552

$25,751,502

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Singapore's dynamic economy and extensive cooperation on a broad range of issues have made it an important U.S. security partner and an important force for stability and economic progress in Southeast Asia. In 2001, it will begin a two-year term as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Singapore has been unfailing in its support for continued U.S. forward deployment in the region, including the provision of low-cost access to its military facilities following closure of U.S. bases in the Philippines. For example, Singapore has offered the U.S. Navy priority access to a U.S. carrier-capable pier that will be completed in early 2001. Approximately 150 U.S. logistics personnel stationed in Singapore support bimonthly combined air exercises and up to 100 U.S. ship visits per year. Singapore turns to the U.S. for approximately 85 percent of its total imports of military equipment. Strengthening our defense ties with Singapore includes participation at U.S. Service Academies and improved interoperability through combined exercises with U.S. forces.

SOLOMON ISLANDS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

2

$21,560

3

$41,685

IMET

19

$53,000

54

$150,000

TOTAL

21

$74,560

57

$191,685

U.S. national interests in the Solomon Islands emphasize strengthening the nation's capabilities to secure its maritime borders, encouraging its democratic institutions and preserving its biodiversity, in the interest of regional security, economic prosperity and reduced threats of conflict or environmental degradation. In response to the civil unrest experienced in and around the capital, Honiara, in mid-2000, and a newly-minted peace agreement among rival militant groups signed in October 2000, engagement in the Solomons is all the more important to shore up weakened security capabilities.

U.S. IMET training assists the Solomons to develop an effective maritime reconnaissance force. Training in basic coastal surveillance and seaborne law enforcement skills help guarantee that the 1997 Solomons-Papua New Guinea border agreement continues to be honored. It also increases the country's ability to maintain control of its own fishery resources. To these ends, IMET course have focussed mainly on maritime issues, port safety, information systems, combating terrorism, outboard motor maintenance, fire protection and international staff officers training, including inter-Pacific cooperation as well as civil affairs.

As a means of strengthening U.S. and increase inter-Pacific cooperation, the U.S. welcomes the participation of representatives from the Solomon Islands in the Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts.

TAIWAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

660

$9,964,461

482

$10,325,533

Service Academy

2

$70,000

0

$0

TOTAL

662

$10,034,461

482

$10,325,533

Consistent with the Taiwan Relations Act of 1979, it has been long-standing U.S. policy to make available to Taiwan defense articles and defense services, such as training, to enable Taiwan to maintain a sufficient self-defense capability. This policy also seeks to reinforce regional stability. Training of Taiwan armed forces personnel can play a major role in the enhancement of Taiwan's security.

THAILAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

8

$87,382

9

$125,055

FMS

1

$32,835

6

$158,462

IMET

94

$1,730,000

87

$1,595,000

Misc. DoD-DoS Activities

0

$4,000

0

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

1043

$3,915,971

148

$852,400

Section 1004

264

$453,800

660

$137,500

Service Academy

8

$391,912

0

$0

*TOTAL

1418

$6,615,900

910

$2,868,417

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

One of five treaty allies in Asia and a major trading partner, Thailand hosts our largest joint military exercise in Asia (Cobra Gold), and provides crucial access to Thai facilities when needed. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, the U.S. views Thailand as a model of economic reform and democratic development, as well as a regional leader in promoting stability. Thirty years of effective counter-narcotics cooperation has led to the establishment in Bangkok of our second International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA).

Thailand plays a significant role in fostering regional stability in Southeast Asia. Continuing joint exercises and IMET help develop and maintain a professional Thai military committed to respecting and fostering democratic principles and capable of participating in international peacekeeping operations. Courses which contribute to these goals include training at Command, General Staff and Service Colleges, civil affairs, international defense management, international officer preparation and related training, manpower management, information management, English language and instructor training, accounting, financial and personnel officer training.

U.S. training for Thailand's military also concentrates on developing operational interoperability and officer leadership in specific disciplines. These courses include weather forecasting, weapons tactics, airborne, aviation and aircraft maintenance, basic officer training, engineering, field artillery captains career and basic courses, medical and related courses, drill instructor infantry, mine warfare, intelligence, riverine, ranger, sergeant major, munitions and Marine Corps courses.

Our humanitarian demining program was launched in Thailand in FY 1999 with the establishment of the Thai Demining Action Center (TMAC). NADR funds provided equipment, and DoD's ODHACA funds provided the initial trainers. FY 2001 funds will complete the planned three-year cycle to fully train the Thai demining trainers and equip six demining platoons with trucks, computers, and demining gear, building the capacity Thailand needs to address the landmine problem along its borders with Cambodia and Burma.

In addition, DOD has funded training to enhance Thailand's participation in our joint exercise program. Several Thai officers also attend U.S. Service Academies, which is an invaluable means to foster long-standing ties with the Thai military and to provide in-depth exposure to the U.S. system of civil-military relations, military law and related issues.

Thai participation in programs sponsored by the Asia-Pacific center reinforce our defense cooperation and foster links with other regional partners and neighbors. The Asia-Pacific Center's executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Thailand.

 TONGA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

3

$33,507

3

$41,685

IMET

1

$103,000

1

$100,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

60

$45,000

0

$0

TOTAL

64

$181,507

4

$141,685

The Kingdom of Tonga, a highly traditional society where the King and nobles dominate political life, interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. U.S. interests in Tonga include encouraging democratic institutions, and assisting in environmental protection efforts. IMET is an important vehicle for pursuing U.S. interests.

Tonga joined other regional nations in 1999 (New Zealand, Australia, Vanuatu, Fiji) in providing unarmed peace monitors once a truce was achieved in Papua New Guinea's Bougainville Island province. IMET provides professional education and training for Tonga's Defense Force with emphasis on respect for human rights, civilian control over the military and military justice. Courses on international defense management, officer indoctrination, NCO, command and general staff officer training, international officer preparation, and naval staff collage courses contribute to this goal. IMET also helps to support Tonga's ability to contribute to regional peacekeeping endeavors, and contributes to Tonga's development of an effective maritime law and surveillance capability through training in international maritime search an rescue, information systems, and bridge officer training. DOD-funded combat rubber raider craft training also contributes to this effort.

Tongan officers have also participated in the executive course of the Asia-Pacific Center. That course seeks to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts. In his August 2000 visit to Washington, the Tongan Defense Minister expressed his appreciation for the contribution these programs have made to Tonga's defense capabilities, and his desire that they continue.

 TUVALU

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

1

$11,947

2

$27,815

TOTAL

1

$11,947

2

$27,815

Tuvalu is a consistent supporter of U.S. positions internationally. For example, Tuvalu was one of only four countries to join the U.S. and Israel in voting against the October 20, 2000 UN General Assembly resolution condemning Israel.

As is true for many other Pacific countries, Tuvalu interacts with the U.S. mainly in such Pacific organizations as the Pacific Community, the Forum Fisheries Agency, and the South Pacific Regional Environment Program. Environmental protection efforts are especially critical in Tuvalu, which is vulnerable to rising sea levels due to very low elevations throughout the country.

IMET will help contribute to Tuvalu's development of an effective maritime law and surveillance capability through training in international maritime search and rescue as well as information systems. With thousands of square miles of ocean to patrol, Tuvalu has to make the most effective use possible of very limited security resources.

VANUATU

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

3

$33,507

3

$41,685

IMET

2

$63,000

3

$100,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$4,000

0

$0

TOTAL

5

$100,507

6

$141,685

U.S. national interests in Vanuatu center on strengthening the nation's democratic institutions. Other interests include building Vanuatu's capacity to secure its maritime borders, and encouraging programs that protect the island's environment and fragile natural resources.

The small Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF) must patrol a vast area of ocean. U.S. Coast Guard training in maritime law-enforcement supplements Australian and New Zealand programs and upgrades VMF capabilities. IMET training on topics such as civil affairs, combating terrorism, international maritime officer/leadership, and psychological operations also help improve force discipline and enhances its effectiveness in regional peacekeeping and disaster relief efforts.

Officers from Vanuatu have also participated in executive courses at the Asia-Pacific Center, which focuses on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations. The executive courses increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which in turn leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. Asia-Pacific center participation also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts.

VIETNAM

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

4

$40,736

6

$83,299

IMET

0

$0

1

$50,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

0

10

$414,000

TOTAL

4

$40,736

17

$547,299

U.S. national security will be served by a stable, fully integrated Vietnam with increasing economic prosperity and trade relations with the U.S.

The U.S. seeks to enhance Vietnam's ability to be a constructive regional player by encouraging Hanoi's active participation in ASEAN and ARF and other strategic dialogue and cooperation. The U.S. can also improve trust through incremental expansion of military-to- military contacts. The Vietnamese military has been increasingly interested in attending conferences and confidence building meetings hosted by CINCPAC.

The Asia-Pacific center will continue to invite representatives from Vietnam to reinforce our defense cooperation and foster links with other regional partners and neighbors. The executive courses, designed to focus on the non-warfighting aspects of security and international relations, also increase awareness and understanding of U.S. policies, which leads to increased trust, transparency and confidence. The courses also allow U.S. officers to build lasting relationships with their counterparts from Vietnam.

The Coast Guard conducted a Maritime Assessment in Vietnam in mid-August 1999 using FY97 INL training funds. The assessment concluded with a recommendation for a Boarding Officer Course and an Instructor Course in Vietnam. However, INL has no plans to fund courses for Vietnam until a counternarcotics agreement has been concluded. DoD is considering an assessment of potential counterdrug training activities that could be undertaken with Vietnam.



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