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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Europe (A-K)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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ALBANIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

109

$646,000

140

$800,000

Marshall Center

73

$417,985

46

$381,448

Service Academy

1

$70,033

0

0

TOTAL

183

$1,134,018

186

$1,181,448

Albania is a very cooperative and rapidly emerging security partner of the U.S. and NATO in Southeastern Europe. Its security relationship with the U.S. and Allied forces has continued to grown over the past year in the aftermath of the Kosovo crisis. A primary U.S. goal in Albania is to employ the current atmosphere of cooperation in a manner that helps to lead to long-lasting stability in Albania and the region as a whole.

U.S. military training efforts in Albania are a crucial means to this end. In particular, training under the IMET program is consistent with our goals of assisting in Albanian defense restructuring efforts and in fostering an Albanian ability to patrol its land and sea borders. More fundamentally, U.S. training is helping Albania to reconstitute a national military decimated by the country's 1997 internal strife. These efforts will help bring Albania more firmly into the Euro-Atlantic community, to increase Albania's ability to participate in PfP exercises and activities and, particularly given Albania's status as an aspirant for eventual Alliance membership, to augment its interoperability with NATO forces.

Albanian soldiers have been taking IMET courses in FY 2000 and FY 2001 that help to meet those broad goals. Courses in civil-military relations, military law, English language, topographic analysis, and logistics are cases in point. Albanian officers also have received advanced training at the naval staff and command colleges, the air command and staff college, the National Defense University, and the joint/combined staff officer school.

Historically, Albania uses its Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grants more for the purchasing and refurbishing of U.S.-origin equipment than to buy additional military training. The use of future FMF funds for assistance with defense reforms (including resource and personnel management) and civic emergency response training, in additional to needed equipment, is anticipated. Albania is also an active recipient of U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. Uniformed and civilian Albanian defense officials participate in conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center. Discussions at the center focus on augmenting civilian control of the military and on the other key military reforms needed in the states of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union during their various stages of democratic transition.

  AUSTRIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

34

$168,317

23

$71,737

Marshall Center

9

$0

10

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

16

$33,000

0

$0

TOTAL

59

$201,317

33

$71,737

Many of our European Non-NATO allies are committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. Our collective aim should be to build a European security architecture in which the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area are complementary and mutually reinforcing. Professional Military education helps to develop an important political dimension to our military to military relationships and improves understanding of our mutual social and economic factors that affect our relationship. In addition, professional military education develops professional skills with an understanding of our strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. As a friendly nation that supports U.S. efforts in Europe we must support Austria in all types of training both professional and specialty skill training and develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our mutually beneficial relationship. All FMS training is fully funded by Austrian national funds.

BELGIUM

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$14,422

3

$20,376

Exchanges

2

$20

2

$0

FMS

212

$2,773,038

182

$1,224,056

Marshall Center

9

$0

10

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

40

$25,000

0

$0

TOTAL

265

$2,812,480

197

$1,244,432

Belgium maintains a steady level of participation in the FMS training program. Officers and enlisted personnel of all the Belgian armed services, most importantly the Air Force, receive academic or technical training in the United States or in Belgium. The purpose is: 1) to ensure successful operation and maintenance of weapons systems and other military equipment purchased from the United States; and, 2) to gain familiarity with U.S. operational concepts, tactics, techniques, and procedures. This training contributes significantly to the interoperability of Belgian and U.S. military forces. All FMS training is fully funded by Belgian national funds. Belgium also fully funds participation by its military officers in selected Marshall Center programs.

Belgium has been an active and important participant in U.S. initiatives to shape the political and military environment in Africa. Through its participation in the African Crisis Response Initiative and the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Belgium has reaffirmed its role in the multilateral commitment to assist African political and military leadership in democratic evolution and to regional peacekeeping capabilities. As is the case with other developed nations, Belgium funds the bulk of the cost of its participation in the program.

With respect to future training opportunities, Belgium has expressed a strong interest in placing a student in the National War College program.

BOSNIA and HERZEGOVINA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

0

$0

7

$99,467

IMET

19

$601,000

73

$800,000

Marshall Center

69

$680,835

101

$606,839

Service Academy

1

$60,143

0

$0

TOTAL

89

$1,341,978

181

$1,506,306

The 1992-95 conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina threatened both European stability and NATO's cohesion. The United States led the negotiations that led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995, which successfully ended the fighting in Bosnia. The U.S. plays the lead role in the Dayton peace implementation process - the first real test for post-Cold War European security. Implementing the Dayton Accords, and thereby securing peace and stability in Bosnia and the region, is a crucial element in the maintenance of peace and stability in Europe. A key aspect of that implementation is the training of the Bosnian Federation's military, largely conducted as part of the U.S.-led Train and Equip program. This training helps to develop and maintain a stabilizing military balance in Bosnia and Herzegovina and fosters increased understanding of and respect for human rights and civilian control of the military.

A peaceful, democratic, and stable Bosnia and Herzegovina that respects international human rights standards is a key part of maintaining peace and stability in Europe and promoting U.S. national security. U.S. government policy in Bosnia, and therefore U. S. government assistance, including its assistance in military training, is targeted to full implementation of the peace accords and the development of democratic institutions and respect for human rights. In addition, US assistance helps to leverage funding from other donors.

Under the Train and Equip program, the U.S. has supplied defense services, including training, to the Federation entity's military since 1996, to help establish military stability in Bosnia and Herzegovina and prevent renewed hostilities. It is crucial that we protect the investment we have made since the Dayton peace accords by ensuring that the equipment delivered does not deteriorate because of a lack of training or other resources. As a result, FMF funding will continue to assist the Bosnian Federation military in sustaining USG-supplied equipment, including training Federation soldiers in its use. For instance, in FY 2001, the Federation will use $550,000 for specialized aviation training courses (for example, flight surgeon and maintenance test pilot training) in the U.S. that are not available through the IMET program.

Training of Federation forces under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program will continue to contribute to regional stability, helping to foster the eventual withdrawal of US forces currently serving as part of the NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In FY 2000, Federation soldiers underwent IMET training in such areas as English language, civil-military relations, officer preparation, and defense management. In FY 2001, IMET funds will continue to be used to supplement the training provided through the Train and Equip program, with emphasis on junior officer professional development (Army basic and advanced courses), staff training for mid-level officers (service staff colleges), and E-IMET courses for mid- to upper-level officials in the defense sector.

In addition, separate unified command engagement activities have funded the training of Federation and Republika Srpska forces in humanitarian demining techniques and the establishment of military demining training centers. Bosnian officials also have received training through courses at the Marshall Center, which provides instruction in democratic processes and civil-military relations for civilian and uniformed defense personnel throughout Central Europe and the Newly Independent States.

  BULGARIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

FMF

67

$184,104

105

$264,240

IMET

90

$1,000,000

125

$1,100,000

INL

42

$0

0

$0

Marshall Center

37

$508,103

119

$573,887

Service Academy

7

$478,760

0

$0

TOTAL

244

$2,200,967

349

$1,938,127

Bulgaria is very important for our foreign policy goals for Southeast Europe and has emerged as a regional leader in promoting political, military, and economic stability and strengthening democratic institutions. Bulgaria is undertaking a major reorganization of its defense establishment and is actively pursuing NATO membership. The United States supports Bulgaria's continued efforts to strengthen democracy and the rule of law and to move toward fuller integration with the greater Euro-Atlantic community.

Professional military training is reaching a critical stage for the Bulgarian armed forces as the Government proceeds with the massive military reorganization outlined in the Defense Reform 2004 project. The IMET program has been a key aspect of the reorganization so far, and will be crucial for the ultimate success of the reform. U.S.-trained officers are in positions of responsibility, including the Deputy Minister of Defense in charge of defense planning and most of his staff. NCO training will continue to be a key feature of the U.S. training effort, reflecting the crucial importance of creating a more western-style NCO corps for the overall success of the reorganization plan.

Specific IMET training courses taken by Bulgarian officers in FY 2000 and FY 2001 focus on a several key areas. Bulgarian soldiers have taken classes in logistics officer training, security assistance management, English language instruction, psychological operations, and are attending the staff and war colleges and U.S. Coast Guard Academy, among other areas. IMET courses in FY 2001 also will continue to concentrate on professional military education, civilian/military relations, and national security affairs.

Training under Foreign Military Financing (FMF), usually provided in country through FMF-funded Mobile Training Teams (MTTs), also continues to be important for fostering the Bulgarian military's interoperability with NATO, as it aspires to alliance membership and increasingly contributes to regional stability. English language instruction is a particular focus of MTTs in Bulgaria. MTTs also train Bulgaria in the use of its Air Sovereignty Operations Center, which helps to provide integrated radar coverage of Bulgarian airspace, including distinguishing between civilian and military aircraft.

Bulgarian soldiers and civilian defense officials also have received U.S.-funded instruction at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center focuses on providing training through courses, conferences, and seminars in democratic processes and civil-military relations for uniformed and civilian defense personnel for countries throughout Central and Eastern Europe.

 CROATIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$33,700

0

$0

IMET

136

$514,000

131

$525,000

Marshall Center

31

$391,246

97

$552,585

Service Academy

10

$501,693

0

$0

TOTAL

178

$1,440,639

228

1,077,585

Helping Croatia to complete its transition into a democratic, non-nationalist, and Western-oriented state firmly embedded in the Euro-Atlantic community is important to ensuring the long-term establishment of a stable Croatia and will contribute significantly to the security of the entire Balkan region. It is in the U.S. interest to support the democratic changes that the citizens of Croatia overwhelmingly voted for in the elections of January and February 2000. We can assist this nation in shedding its destructive, nationalist past, as it moves to more fully embrace democracy, human and civil rights, and Euro-Atlantic integration. Our goal is to ensure Croatia continues on its path of becoming a fully reliable partner in Europe, and our military training efforts are part of the means to reach that goal.

The democratic changes occurring in Croatia could promote similar changes throughout the region, and Croatia should develop into an anchor of stability for the Balkans. Along those lines, IMET funds have fostered appreciation among Croatian military officials for the proper role of the armed forces in a democracy. IMET proved to be a critical aspect of our engagement with Croatia over the past several years. Mil-mil activities were one of our strongest avenues of cooperation with the previous Croatian government, and IMET-trained officers also helped Croatia begin to implement basic defense reforms during the period. It is in the U.S. government's interest for such cooperation to continue to develop under the new Croatian government. In FY 2000 and FY 2001, Croatia concentrated its IMET training in several key areas. English language, civil-military relations, defense management, and military police courses were areas of focus, as were army, navy, and air force command and staff courses.

Croatian MOD personnel, both civilian and military, also have received U.S. funding for training at the Marshall Center. The Marshall Center offers courses, conferences, and seminars in both democratic processes and civilian control of the military for uniformed servicemen and civilian defense personnel from countries in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. Ten Croatian students also attended U.S. service academies in FY 2000. The Croatian navy also has benefited from a Department of Defense-funded Mobile Training Team focused on assessing Croatia's maritime capabilities and the challenges faced in managing its maritime affairs. Furthermore, if the newly elected government in Zagreb advances toward membership in the Partnership for Peace, the U.S. government also would reexamine the question of providing Croatia training under additional security assistance programs.

CZECH REPUBLIC 

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Aviation Leaderhip Program

1

$858

0

$0

FMF

0

$0

42

$45,240

FMS

217

$432,685

0

$0

IMET

128

$1,441,000

151

$1,700,000

Marshall Center

22

$244,766

26

$368,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

24

$14,100

0

$0

TOTAL

392

$2,133,409

219

$2,113,240

Our primary interest in the Czech Republic is to foster a bilateral relationship aimed at strengthening the security of the Czech Republic, promoting the fundamental economic reforms needed to ensure Czech prosperity and provide an environment in which American business interests can thrive, fostering a healthy and vibrant society.

Helping the Czech Republic identify and target defense shortcomings will maximize its contributions to NATO's role in European security and help lay the groundwork for future successful enlargements. Training programs are essential to helping the Czechs quickly become full, contributing members of NATO, and will hasten the day when the Czechs can stand on their own within the NATO alliance without need for U.S. assistance. Despite a politically difficult commitment of domestic resources to defense, many important NATO-integration needs would remain unmet in 2001 absent outside assistance.

DENMARK 

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

212

$4,471,830

152

$3,730,000

Marshall Center

6

$16,685

18

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

57

$86,103

0

$0

TOTAL

275

$4,574,618

170

$3,902,800

Denmark is an important NATO ally and a strong supporter of the trans-Atlantic link. Danish forces played a significant role in Allied action in Kosovo, and constitute an important part of peacekeeping efforts in the Balkans generally, thus supporting Allied objectives there. Danish peacekeepers contribute to stability in regional conflicts elsewhere on the globe as well. The Danish territory of Greenland remains crucial to North Atlantic security. The radar at the Thule air base is expected to be part of a deployment of a National Missile Defense. Like the United States, Denmark supports a strong European crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged, and provided that it does not duplicate NATO structures. Denmark may, with the other Nordic countries, participate in the joint purchase of some 75 helicopters, and a U.S. company may yet won the bidding on this contract. Allowing Denmark to participate in Professional Military Education fosters closer ties with this NATO ally and expands their understanding of allied strategy, doctrine, and tactics.

 ESTONIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

103

$254,350

30

$404,629

IMET

42

$789,000

40

$750,000

Marshall Center

33

$354,451

36

$357,428

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

69

$831,722

25

$698,493

Service Academy

6

$398,903

0

$0

TOTAL

253

$2,628,426

131

$2,210,550

The prime U.S. objectives in Estonia are to strengthen civil society, bolster democratic and market institutions, assist in the integration of non-citizens into Estonian society, and encourage civilian-controlled, NATO-compatible defense forces. Estonia is currently working on its national military strategic plan. After completion of this cornerstone document, it is likely that there will be a shift of defense-related priorities. U.S. security assistance objectives currently improve Estonian defense capabilities and force readiness through training and procurement. The goal is to achieve a modicum of deterrence and defensive capability. The training portion focuses on Western leadership models and staff procedures with a goal of more efficient staffs that can cooperate with each other. The main procurement goals are strategic/operational and tactical level communications equipment, airspace monitoring and control, air defense and anti-armor defense systems, and other equipment and training to enable a flexible defensive doctrine.

NATO compatible training for Estonian defense forces will open the door to Estonia's continued participation in missions beyond their current involvement in the Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia and the United Nations Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).

Participation in Professional Military Education helps to develop professional skills for Estonian soldiers. Courses in English language, Command and General Staff, Security Assistance, and advanced management courses help Estonia and the U.S. develop a common perspective on leadership and management. Specialty training in Logistics, Intelligence, Field Artillery, Maintenance, Explosive Ordinance Disposal, Amphibious Warfare, Infantry training, and maritime boarding help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiatives and will help Estonia carry out crisis response operations, including those involving NATO forces.

As Estonia prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect by "training trainers" and giving more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from a previous generation of officers that operated under Soviet-era guidelines. This support will help keep Estonia focused on the practical steps necessary to continue to improve its NATO candidacy, support Estonia's participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow Estonian forces to integrate with NATO equipment and standards.

FINLAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

54

$400,893

21

$907,033

Marshall Center

8

$0

10

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

12

$19,000

0

$0

TOTAL

74

$419,893

31

$907,033

Although Finland is not a NATO member, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. It has been actively engaged in the Balkans, and has been a mainstay of other international peacekeeping efforts, e.g. UNIFIL in south Lebanon, where it has had a battalion for 20 years. Finland actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the west. Geographically, Finland shares a border with Russia, giving it a strategic importance beyond its size. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Finland supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability; while in defense trade matters, it supports the trans-Atlantic link. Most U.S. assistance is designed to promote interoperability, an essential element to increasingly close cooperation on defense matters, not only with Finland, but with Europe in general. Finland may, with the other Nordic countries, soon participate in the joint purchase of some 75 helicopters, though a U.S. company has not yet been awarded this contract. For these reasons we should continue to support the relatively small Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program which is fully funded by national funds.

 FRANCE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$14,422

3

$20,376

Exchanges

5

$20

1

$20,299

FMS

526

$8,789,450

275

$6,373,645

Marshall Center

17

$55,299

18

$172,800

Service Academy

30

$101,000

0

$14,000

TOTAL

580

$8,960,191

297

$6,601,120

The NATO alliance is committed to a broad approach to security that recognizes the importance of political, economic, social and environmental factors in addition to the indispensable defense dimension. The collective aim of the Alliance is to build a European security architecture where the Alliance's contribution to the security and stability of the Euro-Atlantic area is complementary and mutually reinforcing. Professional Military Education helps develop an important political dimension of military to military relationships and improves understanding of social and economic factors affecting the Alliance. In addition, Professional Military Education develops professional skills with an understanding of common strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. As a key member of the NATO Alliance we support France in all types of training both professional and specialty skill training and develop educational opportunities to broaden and deepen our trans-Atlantic relationship. Enhanced military-to-military ties resulted in a fresh look at a bilateral military training agreement with the GOF that may be finalized in 2001, expanding military cooperation and readiness for American forces.

  GERMANY

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

1

$6,960

2

$12,799

Exchanges

8

$720

0

$0

FMS

1343

$21,199,505

894

$15,467,102

Marshall Center

40

$0

24

$0

Misc. DoD-DoS, Non-Security Assistance Activities

 

14

 

$30,000

 

0

 

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

330

$96,000

0

$0

Service Academy

4

$20,000

0

$0

TOTAL

1740

$21,353,185

920

$15,479,901

Germany's military capabilities and its commitment to NATO are essential for the ability of the Alliance to adapt and successfully address the challenges of the 21st Century. Germany, in Spring 2000, began planning to adapt its military forces to enable them to more fully respond to NATO's Defense Capabilities Initiative and fulfill the EU's headline goal. Professional Military education helps to develop an important political dimension of military-to-military relationships and improve understanding of social and economic factors affecting the Alliance. In addition, professional military education develops common understanding of common strategy, doctrine and tactics in the employment of allied resources across the entire spectrum of conflict. As a key member of NATO, it is in our interest to support all types of training and professional military education opportunities for Germany. Such activities further broaden and deepen the Trans-Atlantic relationship. This training will also serve to enhance Germany's ability to assume a greater leadership role within the Alliance, commensurate with its increased size and importance within Europe. Germany's FMS training is fully funded by national funds.

GREECE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Credit (Repayable)

125

$1,496,588

109

$1,026,497

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMS

1142

$4,355,753

1159

$5,547,497

IMET

1

$25,000

1

$25,000

Marshall Center

5

$0

10

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

277

$134,164

0

$0

Section 1004

90

$200,000

60

$226,000

TOTAL

1642

$6,211,525

1339

$6,824,994

Greece is a key NATO ally strategically located near Balkan, Mediterranean and Middle East trouble spots and essential to Allied ability to respond to South European contingencies. As a member of NATO and the EU, Greece is a key participant in international efforts to promote stability, development and democracy in the Balkans. Greece is central to U.S. efforts to encourage the peaceful resolution of disputes in the Aegean region and a settlement in Cyprus. The U.S. also seeks to assist Greece in fulfilling its responsibilities to the NATO alliance, to strengthen cooperation on counter-terrorism, and to promote U.S. business interests in Greece and in Southeast Europe.

Greece has facilitated the movement of NATO troops and humanitarian aid to Kosovo, and plans to contribute over $300 million to Balkan reconstruction over five years. By training Greek officers in the U.S. and establishing cooperative ties with U.S. personnel, International Military Education and Training (IMET) contributes to the professional development and strategic awareness of the Greek military and thus to U.S. interests.

HUNGARY

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$924

0

$0

FMF

42

$34,676

9

$126,600

IMET

143

$1,398,000

174

$1,700,000

Marshall Center

24

$196,271

31

$368,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

74

$75,075

0

$0

TOTAL

284

$1,704,946

214

$2,194,600

Our primary national security interest in Hungary is the promotion of a stable, democratic, market-oriented NATO ally, which enhances the security of a troubled region and actively participates in Alliance operations. Two weeks after joining NATO, Hungary provided airbases for NATO operations in Kosovo, and later provided shelter for more than 20,000 refugees from Yugoslavia. Hungary has maintained an engineer battalion in Bosnia for several years and has deployed a combat battalion to KFOR since the start of the operation in the summer of 1999. The Kosovo operation demonstrated the importance of our cooperative programs to promote interoperability and enhance Hungary's capabilities. For Hungary, it highlighted the importance of meeting NATO Force Goals and interoperability requirements as soon as possible and gave impetus to a major U.S. assisted effort to reform the armed forces. The Government of Hungary has kept its commitment of increasing its defense budget from 1.41 percent of GDP in 1999 to 1.51 percent in 2000. It is also following through on its plan to free more resources for modernization and interoperability by reducing military personnel from 60,000 to 45,000 over the next year.

Through FMF, IMET and other training programs, the United States is able to participate directly in Hungary's modernization efforts, building habits of cooperation at the same time improving Hungary's capabilities. Professional Military Education, in particular aviation courses, resource management and logistics, helps to develop critical professional skills and competence in allied strategy, doctrine and tactics.

 ICELAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Marshall Center

1

$0

2

$0

Misc. DoD-Dos Activities

12

$25,000

0

$0

TOTAL

13

$25,000

2

$0

Providing U.S. military education and training to Icelandic civilians is vital to the overall U.S. goals of promoting greater Icelandic understanding of U.S. military priorities and capabilities worldwide, and consequently building upon greater Icelandic willingness to assume an increasing share of the Alliance's common defense responsibilities. The Government of Iceland does not have its own defense force, and by virtue of the 1951 Bilateral Defense Agreement, Iceland provides a rent-free military base in exchange for the United States providing Iceland's defense. Iceland maintains a small coast guard force of four ships, one aircraft and three helicopters and makes annual financial contributions to NATO civil and military budgets.

It also operates NATO's radar facilities on the island. However, in May 1999 Iceland took an unprecedented step towards increased burdensharing by signing a cooperative agreement between the Icelandic Coast Guard (ICG) and the U.S.-led Icelandic Defense Force (IDF). Under this arrangement, the United States stands to benefit from potential Icelandic support of a number of current IDF missions. These include search and rescue, both on-deck and air-refueling capabilities (which could free U.S. military resources permanently based in Iceland for strategic use elsewhere); mine counter measure operations; anti-submarine warfare; surface maritime surveillance; and training for the foregoing operations. Iceland also proposes spending up to $6 million on U.S. equipment to permit or enhance these functions. As the United States prepares to negotiate with Iceland the renewal in April 2001 of the "Agreed Minute" governing the status of U.S. forces in Iceland, we need to use military education and training to enhance these opportunities. All FMS training is fully funded by national funds.

 IRELAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Exchanges

3

$36,353

0

$0

FMS

1

$43,421

0

$0

Marshall Center

0

$0

2

$0

TOTAL

4

$79,774

2

$0

Since 1958 Ireland has consistently provided professional military personnel for UN peacekeeping and humanitarian operations supported by the United States. Ireland has also recently become a member of NATO's Partnership for Peace and will contribute to the EU's headline goal in accord with the European Security and Defense Policy. The training provided to Ireland is intended to strengthen the capabilities of the Irish Defense Forces in carrying out these duties and responsibilities. All FMS training is fully funded by national funds.

 ITALY

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

1354

$33,538,603

1128

$29,542,585

Marshall Center

11

$18,585

18

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

0

$0

0

$0

TOTAL

1365

$33,557,188

1146

$29,715,385

Italy plays host to seven major U.S. military installations and has participated in numerous combined operations with NATO. The conflict in the Balkans has emphasized Italy's strategic role as a U.S. ally and a committed NATO member. Professional military education programs have strengthened military-to-military relations by building coordinated approaches to devising common strategies for using Allied resources. These ties have fostered inter-operability and have encouraged Italy to continue to purchase U.S. equipment. As part of a recent drive to modernize its military forces, Italy is increasing its purchases through the Foreign Military Sales and Direct Commercial Sales programs, which to date exceed $2 billion. Our cooperative training and education programs with Italy fortify the Trans-Atlantic partnership and promote effective coordination with a valued ally and important member of the NATO Alliance.



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