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U.S. Department of State

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Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Europe (L-Z)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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LATVIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

113

$1,429,819

36

$26,953

IMET

157

$749,000

157

$750,000

Marshall Center

31

$464,360

46

$388,673

Misc. DoD-DoS, Non-Security Assistance

0

$0

30

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

50

$91,000

0

$0

Service Academy

3

$161,050

0

$0

TOTAL

354

$2,895,229

269

$1,165,626

Current U.S. security assistance objectives in Latvia are to: restructure and modernize the Latvian Defense Ministry and headquarters of the National Armed Forces; modernize their C4 systems; support the U.S.-sponsored Regional Airspace Initiative; and, improve Latvian defense capabilities and force readiness through the procurement of and training in anti-tank systems, NBC individual and unit equipment, and tactical and combat vehicles.

NATO compatible training for Latvian defense forces will open the door to Latvia's continued participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (KFOR) and keeps the door open for Latvia's efforts to enhance regional security by improving relations with all neighboring countries. Such training helps Latvia play an active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other Euro-Atlantic institutions.

Latvia's participation in Professional and Military Education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, Command and General Staff, Security Assistance, and advanced management help us to develop a common perspective with Latvian officers on leadership and management. Specialty training in logistics, maintenance, physical security, maritime boarding and infantry training help develop the critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Latvian armed forces in both the internal self-defense and multinational crisis response arenas.

 As Latvia prioritizes its resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to overall security in Europe, IMET has a significant multiplier effect by "training the trainers" and giving more junior officers the leadership and administrative skills to take over from officers who operated under Soviet guidelines. This support will help keep Latvia focused on the practical steps toward NATO, support its participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow its armed forces to integrate further with NATO equipment and standards.

LITHUANIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

114

$174,606

0

$0

IMET

28

$750,000

30

$800,000

Marshall Center

132

$459,615

50

$494,873

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

81

$82,000

0

$0

Service Academy

7

$464,732

0

$0

TOTAL

362

$1,930,953

80

$1,294,873

Northern Europe's security depends on Baltic stability and proper Baltic-Russian relations. Lithuania looks to the United States as its primary guide as it works to enhance its security. Our security assistance objectives will improve Lithuanian defense capabilities and force readiness through procurement of and training in tactical communications equipment, NBC individual and unit equipment, additional English language training, air surveillance equipment maintenance and support, air defense, and cartography. These objectives also fulfill NATO Planning and Review Process (PARP) interoperability objectives and partnership goals of NATO integration.

As Lithuania prioritizes resources for its own legitimate defense needs and for its contribution to the overall security of Europe, training has a significant multiplier effect by training trainers and by giving more junior officers leadership and administrative skills. This will help them take over from the previous generation of officers that operated under the Soviet-era system. NATO-compatible training for Lithuanian defense forces will assist Lithuania in its efforts to enhance security in the region. With the help of such training, Lithuania will be able to play an even more active role in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) and other international and Euro-Atlantic institutions, thereby enhancing regional stability.

Lithuania's participation in Professional and Military Education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers. Courses in English language, Command and General Staff, Security Assistance and advanced management courses help Lithuania and the U.S. to develop a common perspective on leadership and management.

NATO compatible training for Lithuanian defense forces will open the door to Lithuania's continued participation in international peacekeeping missions in Bosnia (SFOR) and Kosovo (Eurocorps), as well in the joint peacekeeping battalion with Poland (LITPOBAT) slated for eventual UN deployment outside Europe.

Specialty training in Logistics, Explosive Ordinance Disposal, Maintenance, Physical Security, maritime boarding and Infantry training help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and to improve the internal self-defense capabilities of Lithuanian armed forces. This support will also help Lithuania focus on the practical steps toward further advancing its NATO candidacy, supporting its participation in the full range of PfP and "in the spirit of PfP" exercises, and allowing its armed forces to integrate further with NATO equipment and standards.

MACEDONIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

90

$134,660

30

$22,804

IMET

157

$504,000

171

$550,000

Marshall Center

57

$395,647

41

$240,787

Service Academy

1

$60,143

0

$0

TOTAL

305

$1,094,450

242

$813,591

 The U.S. has a key interest in the peace and stability of The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia) and of Southeastern Europe as a whole. Bilateral and regional interests lie in furthering the successful Macedonian model of a working multi-ethnic democracy, with constructive relations with all neighbors, and strong, stable political institutions. The United States has a compelling stake in reinforcing Macedonia against external threats to its stability and facilitating its integration into the Euro-Atlantic mainstream; military training programs are a key aspect of this effort.

FMF and IMET support professional military education; training in such areas as defense resource management, logistics and acquisition reform; and self-defense training consistent with the U.S. and NATO goal of restructuring the Macedonian military and assisting it to patrol its border and provide a first-line military deterrent. As a NATO aspirant, Macedonia has committed to restructuring its military and moving toward NATO standards. The Kosovo crisis fully engaged the government and military of Macedonia, causing delays in various military projects and necessitating the rescheduling of training programs that were planned earlier. Despite this, the Macedonian military continued to make use of U.S. military training and equipment and can be expected to fully use current and future opportunities. One important project, the establishment and training of a non-commissioned officer (NCO) corps, is recognized by the Macedonians as essential in their efforts to restructure according to NATO standards.

Courses offered under the IMET program cover a range of key areas. Macedonian soldiers participate in senior professional military education courses at U.S. war colleges and command and staff colleges, as well as an array of other officer development training. IMET is also funding training in defense resource management, acquisition, logistics and security assistance management; technical courses such as air traffic control and airborne/special operations; Non-Commissioned Officer training and English language instruction. Mobile education teams and mobile training teams have also provided instruction on civil-military relations, maritime law enforcement and health resource management issues. This IMET training is improving Macedonia's interoperability with NATO, enhancing its ability to participate in PfP exercises, and augmenting its contribution to Balkan peace and stability. FMF also has been used for English language training and for instruction in equipment maintenance.

The Marshall Center in Germany has also provided U.S.-funded training to Macedonian defense officials, both civilians in the MOD and uniformed military personnel. Through the use of seminars and conferences, the Marshall Center concentrates on instructing students from Central and Eastern Europe in subjects such as civil control of the military.

Additionally, Macedonia used the NATO KFOR presence as an opportunity to familiarize officers with NATO procedures. It has sought and engaged in joint training opportunities with tactical NATO units present in Macedonia.

 MALTA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

FMF

60

$0

30

$29,500

IMET

8

$100,000

12

$150,000

TOTAL

69

$130,000

42

$179,500

Malta is strategically located in the Mediterranean, in close proximity to Italy and Libya. U.S. national interests in Malta include enduring Malta's pro-Western orientation and checking Libyan influence. U.S. assistance to Malta in money and training enhances its ability to participate in regional security activities of importance to the United States, including matters involving counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, interdiction of embargoed goods to restricted countries and interdiction of weapons of mass destruction materials in transit through Malta's waters. Professional military education fosters better understanding and enhances military to military relationships.

NETHERLANDS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

1

$6,960

1

$9,033

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMS

5708

$37,776,402

3210

$17,694,564

Marshall Center

9

$37,170

18

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

43

$86,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

5763

$37,906,552

3229

$17,876,397

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

The Netherlands is a mature democracy that is a long-time U.S. bilateral ally and a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the European Union (EU) and the United Nations (UN). As such, the U.S. provides no International Military Education and Training (IMET) to Dutch military forces.

Given the relatively small size of its forces, the Netherlands has joined or created a number of multinational units in order to better prepare for, and sustain, out-of-area deployments. The Netherlands place a premium on extensive and realistic training to serve as a multiplier on Dutch contributions to these formations. These units include the German/Netherlands Corps, the NATO Multinational Division (Central), a Dutch/Belgian deployable air task force, an integrated maritime headquarters with Belgium, and the UK/Netherlands Amphibious Force.

Accordingly, the primary goal of U.S. Foreign Military Sale (FMS) training for Dutch military forces is to increase overall NATO interoperability and to facilitate implementation of key aspects of the NATO Defense Capability Initiative (DCI), such as effective engagement and lift. These enhanced skills will benefit NATO through more efficient and effective Dutch contributions to SFOR/KFOR in FY00 and SFOR in FY01. This training has also developed Dutch crisis response capabilities, which they have tapped for use in peacekeeping in Africa and Cambodia. They will use these enhanced skills in FY00-01 in UN-sponsored regional stability efforts in Ethiopia/Eritrea (UNMEE), where they have a lead role, and in Cyprus (UNFICYP).

The vast bulk of U.S. training for the Dutch military is Mobile Training Teams delivered through FMS and is primarily associated, in FY 00 and FY 01, with supporting Dutch operation of its F-16 multi-role fighters, AH-64 D attack helicopters and CH-47 lift helicopters. Additionally, FMS training supports Dutch deployment of HAWK and PATRIOT surface-to-air missiles and K/DC-10 tanker aircraft.

NORWAY

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMS

630

$26,337,968

412

$18,683,432

Marshall Center

4

$37,170

16

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

82

$470,547

0

$0

TOTAL

716

$26,845,685

428

$18,856,232

Norway is an important NATO ally and a strong supporter of the trans-Atlantic link. Norway shares a land border with Russia and strongly believes that NATO membership is the best guarantee of its security interests. Norway occupies a strategic location along the North, Norwegian, and Barents Seas. Maintaining strong defense links with Norway is vital to U.S. security interests in the region. Allowing Norway to participate in Professional Military Education and such training as F-16 and P-3 flight and electronic warfare training fosters closer ties with this important friendly nation and expands their interoperability with and understanding of allied strategy, doctrine and tactics.

POLAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

EIPC

121

$134,178

4

$7,000

FMF

274

$415,809

38

$22,636

FMS

287

$1,264,959

0

$0

IMET

182

$1,670,000

191

$1,700,000

Marshall Center

18

$127,938

28

$368,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

74

$220,875

0

$0

*TOTAL

957

$3,863,759

261

$2,097,636

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Poland is the linchpin of U.S. efforts to stabilize transatlantic security through enlargement of NATO. Poland is playing a leading role in OSCE, contributes to a broad range of multinational peacekeeping efforts and has become a close partner with the U.S. Polish support for the Kosovo air campaign only weeks after joining NATO was a stiff test. Poland has also contributed to our efforts in the Balkans having committed 840 ground troops to KFOR. Indeed, Poland has effectively integrated into the Alliance and is striving to meet its commitments as a NATO member. The Poles are fully engaged in the NATO defense planning process and are committed to providing the forces and resources that NATO is asking of them. Currently, Poland is prepared to provide military forces to NATO's Reaction Forces that are commensurate with the size and capabilities of the Polish military.

Military Training with Poland focuses on several key areas: Professional Military Education, including leadership training and other courses aimed at developing critical professional skills; English language, Command and General Staff, Security Assistance and advanced management courses to improve interoperability and develop a common perspective on leadership and management; Specialty training in Logistics, Intelligence, Air Traffic Control, Amphibious Warfare and Field Artillery help develop critical skills necessary to understand and operate allied weapon systems while employing common doctrine, strategy and tactics in today's modern battlefield.

The greatest challenge Poland faces is dealing with the implementation of their NATO Force Goals -- the forces and capabilities that each member is expected to contribute to the Alliance. The implementation of these goals, as part of the NATO defense planning process, is a long-term process that requires a long-term commitment. SHAPE has assessed that it will take several years for the Polish Armed Forces to achieve full integration within the military structures of the Alliance. Nevertheless, Poland is continuing to reform, restructure and modernize its military structures to make them more mobile and interoperable with other NATO militaries. Particular emphasis is being placed on personnel reform issues, such as reducing the size of their officer corps and developing their NCO corps, and on improving the capabilities of their rapid reaction and peacekeeping forces. The training support we provide is vital to Poland's efforts to achieve these goals.

PORTUGAL

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

3

$14,422

4

$20,376

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMS

43

$60,014

0

$0

IMET

12

$656,000

14

$750,000

Marshall Center

5

$16,585

18

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

40

$47,795

0

$0

TOTAL

105

$794,836

36

$943,176

Portugal has been a steady ally in NATO and in support of US-EU defense cooperation. A cooperative security relationship with Portugal is also essential to continued U.S. access to Lajes Air Base in the Azores, which is a key component of U.S. force projection capabilities, particularly to the Balkans and the Middle East. In addition, Portugal has committed itself to increase its defense capabilities and to make certain that they are fully NATO-compatible.

Portugal particularly values IMET training. The Portuguese see it as a valuable part of the cooperation specified in the Agreement on Cooperation and Defense, the agreement which assures continued U.S. military access to Lajes. In addition, military education and training helps develop military-to-military understanding and gives Portuguese soldiers the skills necessary to operate and maintain U.S.-origin equipment. Training at the Africa Center helps support Portuguese interest in promoting peace and stability in Africa.

 ROMANIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

79

$1,700,938

78

$201,447

IMET

113

$1,093,000

129

$1,250,000

Marshall Center

118

$863,191

84

$889,229

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

38

$583,928

0

$0

Service Academy

5

$330,286

0

$0

TOTAL

353

$4,571,343

291

$2,340,676

As the largest country in size and population in SE Europe, Romania contributes significantly to peace and security in a troubled region. In 1997, Presidents Clinton and Constantinescu declared a "Strategic Partnership" between the U.S. and Romania, and U.S. training of the Romanian military is a clear demonstration of that partnership.

U.S. bilateral military assistance is helping Romania develop an efficient military under civilian control, enjoying a cooperative Partnership for Peace relationship with NATO. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) assistance includes a $2 million USMC program to help develop a modern NCO corps with NATO standards. To support the Defense Ministry's Reform Plan, we also provide advice and assistance to downsize and professionalize the Romanian military, making it more NATO-interoperable.

The GOR seeks U.S. military training for as many officers as possible, and the IMET program's wide range of training for the Romanian military has helped to improve military readiness in all sectors. In FY 2001, officers will take classes on such subjects as: amphibious warfare, field artillery, infantry, topographic analysis, military police, civil-military relations, defense resource and security assistance management, logistics, and English language. Romanian students have also attended the National Defense University, as well as naval staff, army and air war colleges.

Romanian soldiers and civilian defense officials also receive U.S.-funded training at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Center concentrates on providing courses, conferences, and seminars on civil-military relations in the developing democracies of Central Europe and the Newly Independent States. The U.S. is funding the attendance of 202 Romanian students at the Marshall Center in FY 2000 and FY 2001. Romania also had one cadet receiving instruction at the U.S. Air Force Academy, one at the Naval Academy and three at the U.S. Military Academy in FY 2000.

SLOVAKIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

12

$41,222

8

$34,568

IMET

100

$633,000

111

$700,000

Marshall Center

37

$387,287

103

$553,759

TOTAL

149

$1,061,509

222

$1,288,327

Slovakia is at Europe's geographic center, is nearly surrounded by the three new NATO member states, and has its own strong aspirations to join the Alliance. The U.S. supports Slovakia's continued economic and political reform and the continued development of its candidacy for Euro-Atlantic institutions, including NATO. IMET and other types of training and education help Slovakia to play an increasingly active role as a regional defense and security partner and to prepare the country for possible future NATO membership. Training and education will also enhance Slovakia's participation in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities by providing U.S. and NATO-compatible training.

Slovakia's participation in Professional Military Education helps to develop the professional skills of senior officers, respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Courses in English language, Security Assistance, and advanced management help Slovakia and the U.S. to develop a shared perspective on leadership and management.

Specialty training in Air Traffic Control, Systems Control, and Infantry training help to develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and improve the capabilities of the Slovak military. This support will also help keep Slovakia focused on the practical steps toward NATO, support its already-active participation in the full range of PfP exercises, and allow its armed forces to integrate more completely with NATO equipment and standards.

 SLOVENIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

575

$193,347

139

$311,218

FMS

30

$2,370

42

$106,518

IMET

183

$579,000

237

$700,000

Marshall Center

9

$208,683

12

$286,740

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

33

$49,700

0

$0

Service Academy

6

$404,523

0

$0

TOTAL

836

$1,437,623

430

$1,404,476

As a bridge between Central Europe and the Balkans, Slovenia has increasingly displayed the ability to positively influence Southeast European countries at differing stages of reform and integration. A Slovenia that is actively engaged in addressing regional security problems and a Slovenian military force that is stable, strong, well-administered, and closely tied to Euro-Atlantic institutions serves U.S. national security interests.

International training and education programs foster development of a strong bilateral military-to-military relationship and assist Slovenia in preparing its forces for the possibility of entry into NATO in a future round of enlargement. It also deepens Slovenian engagement in regional security arrangements, Partnership for Peace (PfP), the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC), and peacekeeping in the nearby area's zone of instability.

Slovenia's participation in IMET-sponsored senior professional military education, officer development courses and Non-Commissioned Officer training helps to develop the professional skills of senior and mid-level officers and NCOs and increases interoperability of the Slovene military with US and NATO forces. Further, Expanded-IMET courses on civil-military relations, international defense resource management and military justice foster respect for the rule of law and human rights, and a greater understanding of the concept of civilian control of the military. Specialty training in courses such as Air Traffic Control, ranger training, peacekeeping, small arms training, logistics, and acquisition management, help develop critical skills necessary to enhance regional security and interoperability, while at the same time improving the internal self-defense capabilities of the Slovenian armed forces. Slovenia has also undertaken a robust English language training program with its Foreign Military Financing. Mobile training teams and the employment of a longer-term English language training coordinator have resulted in great success in this area, with a significant percentage of the Slovenian military speaking English.

Continued training support will help keep Slovenia focused on the practical steps for advancing its NATO candidacy, supporting its participation in the full range of PfP and "in the spirit of PfP" exercises, and allowing its armed forces to integrate more fully with NATO equipment and standards.

SPAIN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Exchanges

5

$20

1

$34,846

FMS

1266

$6,789,255

1379

$5,187,341

Marshall Center

6

$37,170

18

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

12

$88,795

0

$0

TOTAL

1289

$6,915,240

1398

$5,394,987

Spain is an important NATO ally and contributes significantly to shared goals and objectives throughout Europe and the world, including through their participation in peacekeeping operations in the Balkans (SFOR and KFOR) and elsewhere. Spain commands a significant geostrategic location. The U.S.'s use of the Spanish bases at Rota and Moron is essential to our power projection capability to the Middle East, the Balkans and Africa. Spain has consistently allowed our use of the bases for contingency operations, including some (e.g. Desert Fox) that the Spanish public overwhelmingly opposed. The U.S. currently has an average of 28,000 flights into or over these bases per year. The bases were used heavily during the Persian Gulf War and Operation Allied Force. The Spanish also continue to provide access to their best training areas at little or no cost to the U.S.

Military cooperation, from joint exercises to the sharing of lessons learned and support of unilateral U.S. activities is important to maintaining the strong bilateral relationship. With Spain joining the military arm of NATO only in 1998, such training and education are very useful in fostering Spain's increasing interoperability within NATO.

 SWEDEN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$7,462

2

$7,577

FMS

57

$1,593,543

16

$455,925

Marshall Center

18

$38,940

26

$143,370

TOTAL

77

1,639,945

44

$606,872

Although Sweden is not a member of NATO, it is an active participant in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and a solid partner with the United States in many areas of national security concern. For example, Sweden is an energetic player in the Balkans, was one of the first with troops on the ground in Kosovo, and chaired the Stability Pact Security Table. Sweden is a staunch supporter of NATO's Open Door and actively assists the three Baltic countries to achieve military interoperability with the West. Sweden recently announced it was donating equipment to outfit 10,000 troops in the Baltics, as well as a half a million dollars for training and other expenses. Sweden has also expressed interest in engaging in joint military exercises with Russia, which is an effort we support. With respect to the European Security Defense Identity (ESDI), Sweden supports a strong EU crisis management capability where NATO is not engaged and which does not duplicate NATO structures. It is a great proponent of interoperability and in defense trade matters, supports the trans-Atlantic link. The importance of these factors will be multiplied many times when Sweden takes over the European Union Presidency on January 1, 2001. For this reason it is more important than ever to promote close cooperation on security issues between Sweden and the US. All FMS training is fully funded by Swedish national funds.

 SWITZERLAND

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

1

$6,960

1

$9,033

FMS

46

$498,959

39

$1,754,862

Marshall Center

28

$19,470

26

$172,800

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

5

$46,000

0

$0

TOTAL

80

$571,389

66

$1,936,695

The U.S. and Switzerland work closely to advance human rights, democracy, nonproliferation, and other issues of global concern. A traditionally neutral democratic nation, Switzerland has focused on its ability to participate in democracy-building and peacekeeping exercises since joining NATO's PfP in 1996. Its PfP goals focus largely on enhancing interoperability of forces and capabilities that may be declared available for PfP activities, but within self-imposed limits on participation related to the Swiss concept of neutrality. The Swiss PfP program for 2001 has 35 partnership goals and offers PfP partners over 100 courses and exercise opportunities in Switzerland, many at three Swiss government-supported centers: The Geneva Center for Humanitarian Demining; The Geneva Center for Security Policy; and the Geneva Center for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. In November 2000, Switzerland hosted its first dedicated PfP exercise -- a computer-aided command and control exercise entitled "Cooperative Determination," which trained participants in implementing a cease-fire and providing humanitarian assistance under a United Nations Security Council mandate. All FMS training, such as flight, logistics, and communications training is fully funded by Swiss national funds

 TURKEY

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

2

$43,700

0

$0

Credit (Repayable)

47

$5,924

0

$0

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMF

41

$2,252,923

14

$881,070

FMS

414

$4,602,288

81

$1,164,300

IMET

204

$1,554,000

210

$1,600,000

Marshall Center

8

$69,566

18

$172,800

Misc. DoD-DoS Non-Security Assistance

22

$425,670

0

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

84

$83,700

0

$0

Service Academy

9

$616,006

0

$0

TOTAL

833

$9,653,797

323

$3,818,170

Since the U.S. ended FMF aid to Turkey in FY98, IMET is the only remaining military assistance we provide to this geo-strategic NATO Ally. Turkey has the second-largest army in NATO and the largest F-16 fleet outside of the U.S. During ALLIED FORCE, Turkey provided NATO with air bases and participated in the air campaign over Kosovo. Through access to Incirlik Air Base, it provides the U.S. with critical power projection capability for an unstable region featured in 13 of 16 NATO Article V scenarios, and the majority of the most likely non-Article V scenarios. After 50 years of defending Europe's southern flank during the Cold War, Turkey's proximity to Iran, Iraq, Syria and the Caucasus/Central Asia has increased its strategic value to NATO and the U.S.

Turkey is central to U.S. efforts to develop Caspian Basin oil and gas resources to reduce regional energy dependence on Russia and Iran. Through its offers to provide troops and aircraft/ships for the EU Headline Goal and to host a High Readiness Force HQ for NATO's Southern Region, Turkey supports U.S. objectives to develop a European security defense architecture and to supplement NATO force restructuring. Turkey's geographic position and shared values make it a central player in U.S. efforts to contain the spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), prevent nuclear proliferation, develop a regional theater missile defense (TMD) program, fight terrorism, halt the flow of illegal drugs, and provide a secular, democratic model to other predominately Islamic states in the region.

Currently, a majority of senior level Turkish officers have received training in the U.S. that has paid off in terms of Turkish support for U.S. policy goals on defense modernization (DCI/interoperability), regional stability (Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, Aegean) and democratization (human rights/EU accession). Turkey itself provides military training to a variety of countries in the Caucasus (especially Georgia) and Central Asia that supplement PfP training and help extend NATO's influence in the former states of the Soviet Union. Technical and language training supplement FMS cases for new weapons purchases, which in FY00 alone translated into over $5 billion in purchases of U.S. weapons/equipment. Humanitarian/disaster relief training supports regional stability and domestic civilian-military relations to bolster Turkey's capacity to respond to natural disasters like the 1999 earthquakes. Peacekpeeping training supports Turkey's participation in SFOR and KFOR deployments and regional Turkish confidence building initiatives like SEEBRIG and BLACKSEAFOR. By funding TLA costs on its own, Turkey maximizes IMET funding and thus has tripled the number of students it sends to the U.S.

 UNITED KINGDOM

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

ACSS

2

$14,422

3

$20,376

Exchanges

1

$167

0

$0

FMS

577

$5,242,589

545

$1,012,137

Marshall Center

18

$10,904

28

$172,800

Misc. DoD-DoS Non-Security Assistance

9

$23,752

0

$0

Service Academy

0

$0

18

$1,800

TOTAL

607

$5,291,834

594

$1,207,113

The UK remains one of our closest and most important allies, working in concert with the United States across a broad range of political and military issues both within NATO and bilaterally. A nuclear state with significant power projection capabilities, the United Kingdom brings not just a regional, but also a global orientation to our security relationship, with over 25,000 forces stationed abroad. Professional military education is a critical element in the U.S.-UK defense relationship -- it helps develop an important political dimension of military to military relationships and improves understanding of social and economic factors affecting the Alliance. The British are key NATO allies, and it is in the U.S. interest to support all types of professional military education opportunities for the UK. Such training strengthens cooperation between U.S. and UK Forces. Three current examples of such cooperation are: UK forces fly side-by-side U.S. counterparts in enforcing the No-Fly Zones in Iraq, our forces are deployed together in the Balkans and we are cooperating on stabilizing Sierra Leone. Professional military education for UK personnel furthers our cooperative efforts in these and other areas of mutual concern.

 YUGOSLAVIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Marshall Center

46

$198,494

0

$0

TOTAL

46

$198,494

0

$0

Throughout the NATO bombing campaign of 1999, the United States government continued to provide assistance to the Republic of Montenegro, in an effort to support the democratic Djukanovic government. In this context, representatives of the Montenegrin military services received training at the Marshall Center. 



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