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Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Newly Independent States


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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ARMENIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Marshall Center

14

$242,417

22

$504,140

TOTAL

14

$242,417

22

$504,140

The U.S. hopes to promote peace, stability, and prosperity in the Caucasus. One of the best ways to serve U.S. national interests and promote these regional goals is through the establishment of a stable, prosperous, and independent Armenia. Thus we seek increased engagement with Armenia's defense establishment, within U.S. policy guidelines. Section 907 of the Freedom Support Act prohibits most USG assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. The U.S. policy of evenhandedness has extended this prohibition of security assistance to Armenia as well. There are authorized exceptions to Section 907 restrictions, however, that enable some military to military engagement with Armenia. Over the past year, these activities included several staff level and professional exchanges, including U.S. European Command (USEUCOM ) Travelling Contact Teams (TCTs) providing briefings and bilateral programs in such areas as civilian control of the military, counterproliferation of chemical and biological weapons, and disaster relief emergency operations. In addition, there was an official counterpart visit hosted by the Secretary of Defense with the Armenian Defense Minister and a Vice Chairman's (VCJCS) visit to Armenia.

The U.S. hopes to expand contacts and cooperation in accordance with U.S. legislation and policy. In addition, we urge Armenia to continue to expand its cooperation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP).

AZERBAIJAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Misc. DoD-DoS Non-Security Assistance

54

$0

0

$0

Marshall Center

15

$237,272

67

$578,298

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

15

$1,062,495

0

$0

TOTAL

84

$1,299,767

67

$578,298

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous and independent Azerbaijan. We seek to encourage Azerbaijan's increased involvement in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and participation in PfP activities as a means to promote democratic reform and to cement Azerbaijan's participation in Euro-Atlantic institutions.

U.S. policy regarding the Caucasus is designed to promote peace, stability and prosperity in the region. Thus, we seek to engage Azerbaijan's defense establishment in limited activities that support our efforts to promote peace and stability in the Caucasus and that fall within the authorized exceptions to the FREEDOM Support Act Section 907 restrictions on assistance to the Government of Azerbaijan. These include having U.S. European Command traveling contact teams provide training on subjects such as civilian control of the military, the legislative basis of defense establishments in a democracy and military support for disaster/emergency response. Azeri officials also participate in Marshall Center courses on democratic defense management, the role of the military in a democracy, civilian control over the military, and the like. Additionally, we are looking to bring a limited number of Azeri officials to Washington on exchanges that will enable them to observe in person the day to day activities of a military in a democracy at the Pentagon level.

We anticipate that these kinds of engagement activities will promote the reform of the Azeri military along Western lines and support the development of a democratic government in Baku.

BELARUS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Marshall Center

15

$310,767

37

$455,489

TOTAL

15

$310,767

37

$455,489

The U.S. has an interest in seeing Belarus evolve into a state characterized by democratic rule and respect for human rights. Conditional on significant progress in these areas, the U.S. also would like Belarus to reinvigorate its participation in NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) and the Partnership for Peace (PfP), as well as improve its bilateral and multilateral foreign policy cooperation in non-proliferation and other areas. As part of the U.S. Selective Engagement Policy, adopted after the illegal electoral referendum in Belarus in 1996, the U.S. has strictly focused its aid to Belarus on democratization and civil society development as well as humanitarian and health assistance. Accordingly, the Belarusian military does not receive training under the U.S.'s International Military Education and Training (IMET) or Foreign Military Financing (FMF) programs.

However, certain Belarusian civilians, including professors, post-graduate students, journalists, and opposition politicians, receive Department of Defense-funded training through conferences and classes on security issues at the Marshall Center in Germany. In particular, Marshall Center courses for Belarusian opposition figures center on leadership and executive training. This instruction complements our strategy of promoting the development of Belarusian civil society and supporting those who are struggling for Belarusian democracy and the emergence of a more cooperative foreign policy outlook from Belarus.

Accordingly, in recent years, Marshall Center conferences and courses with Belarusian attendance were sharply focused to fit with that strategy. For instance, in FY 2000, three Belarusians are attending a Marshall Center conference on the Partnership for Peace. The conference provides a concrete illustration that NATO is not a threat to Belarus and that PfP participation is in Minsk's interest. In another example, Belarusians attended seminars on the roles of the media and parliament in foreign and security policy-making in democratizing states.

 GEORGIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$968

0

$0

FMF

70

$931,769

48

$1,047,542

IMET

84

$409,000

98

$475,000

Marshall Center

114

$1,283,053

90

$635,725

Misc DoD-DoS Non- Security Assistance

70

$6,213

30

$0

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

77

$1,310,161

0

$0

TOTAL

416

$3,941,164

266

$2,158,267

Georgia is a reform leader among the New Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union, occupying a strategic position in the South Caucasus astride the Trans-Caspian energy corridor and bordering Chechnya. It is in the U.S. national security interest to support the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Georgia, as well as continued democratic, free-market, and military reforms. U.S. support for the continuation of a stable, independent Georgia will reduce the chances of the spread of military conflict, international crime, and weapons of mass destruction in a region that lies at the crossroads of Russia, Turkey, and Iran.

U.S. military training efforts have been a very important part of this overall approach. Georgia participated in in-country training via the Foreign Military Financing (FMF) program and has received instruction in the U.S. through the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program. Both have helped Georgian soldiers to develop the skills necessary to augment Georgia's participation in the Partnership for Peace and its interoperability with NATO. U.S.-funded training also has improved Georgia's ability to control its borders and provide for its self-defense.

A significant portion of training purchased by Georgia with its FMF grant funds has gone to support Georgia's nascent UH-1H helicopter program, initiated by the U.S. to augment Georgia's patrol and transportation capability in response to a personal request by President Shevardnadze for an operational U.S. helicopter capability. Georgian air force personnel will undergo UH-1H pilot and maintenance training and a mobile training team will be dispatched to Georgia to assist the Georgian air force in establishing an in-country logistics infrastructure for UH-1H operations. Georgia also purchased additional FMF-funded training in rotary-wing maintenance.

To augment Georgia's self-defense capability by maximizing its ability to use all of its terrain, FMF-funded U.S. training efforts have included high-altitude mountain training. Georgia also has used FMF for English-language training, critical for enhancing Georgia's ability to participate in PfP activities and operate alongside NATO forces.

English language and language instructor training has been an important part of Georgia's IMET curriculum. Other Georgian IMET classes on subjects essential for the implementation of broad defense reform efforts have included legal training, civil-military relations, and defense resource management. However, given Georgia's challenging regional security situation, many Georgian soldiers' IMET classes have had more of an operational bent to them. Georgian troops have taken infantry, ranger, signal officer, and maritime courses, among others.

The U.S. also funded the attendance of 29 Georgian civilian and uniformed defense officials at conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center instructs representatives from throughout the former Soviet Union and Central Europe in the undertakings necessary for defense reform in states undergoing democratic transition.

Georgian military assistance is coordinated with other U.S. assistance programs, particularly the Georgia Export Control /Border Security and Law Enforcement program funded by the Department of State and implemented by the U.S. Customs Service to ensure complementary efforts and leverage limited assistance resources.

 KAZAKHSTAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

18

$567,000

19

$600,000

Marshall Center

30

$343,649

55

$520,600

Service Academy

1

$70,000

0

$0

TOTAL

49

$980,649

74

$1,120,600

U.S. national security interests in Kazakhstan include pursuing further dismantling of Kazakhstan's inherited weapons of mass destruction infrastructure, a peaceful role for its weapons scientists, the safe and secure storage of nuclear materials and spent fuels, and nonproliferation cooperation; promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability by developing democratic institutions and respect for human rights, and promoting Kazakhstan's long-term political stability through the development of democratic institutions and respect for human rights; and encouraging the development of the Caspian basin's hydrocarbon resources and means for their secure access to international markets.

Kazakhstan plays a key role in Central Asia because of its size and geographic location between Russia, China, the other countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia, Iran and Afghanistan. Deepening Kazakhstan's participation in the Partnership for Peace and enhancing the capabilities of Kazakhstan's peacekeeping battalion (KAZBAT), as well as the country's participation in USCENTCOM Regional Exercises, are key goals. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) and IMET will enhance regional cooperation by deepening Kazakhstan's cooperation in PfP, supporting KAZBAT andUSCENTCOM Regional Exercises, and enhancing Kazakhstan's military interoperability with NATO forces in the context of PfP exercises. They will also facilitate armed forces reform and help Kazakhstani officials better understand the role of the military in developing democracies and the development of appropriate civil-military relations and human rights practices.

Military training with Kazakhstan has focused in particular on leadership and professional military education and civil-military relations, two subjects that contribute to development of a professional Kazakhstani military that adheres to basic standards of human rights and appropriate civil-military relations. Courses related to international staff officer training contribute both to PFP goals as well as to the development of the Central Asia Battalions (which also contributes to PFP interoperability efforts). Operational leadership courses for junior infantry, engineer and signal officers further the U.S. goal of developing interoperable forces capable of coalition undertakings. Medical and logistics management courses contribute directly to Kazakhstan's ability to meet specified PFP and coalition interoperability goals, as do English language training courses.

KYRGYZSTAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

IMET

9

$358,000

10

$400,000

Marshall Center

67

$520,785

100

$637,705

Service Academy

1

$70,000

0

$0

TOTAL

77

$948,785

110

$1,037,705

U.S. national interests are furthered by the continued development of a stable, prosperous, and independent Kyrgyzstan. Our bilateral relations, including those related to military training, aim at helping Kyrgyzstan contribute to security and regional cooperation in Central Asia, a region that borders on Russia, China, Iran, and Afghanistan. We also encourage Kyrgyzstan to continue to take steps to reform its military along democratic models, including the areas of civil-military relations and defense management. To further these goals, the U.S. also has sought to encourage and facilitate more active cooperation by Kyrgyzstan in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities.

U.S. training, therefore, has focused on helping provide the basics to enable members of the Kyrgyz military to participate effectively in IMET and PFP programs and to expose Kyrgyz officers to U.S. and other democratic military processes. These include such courses as English language training, courses on civil-military relations, joint planning, military operations other than war, and Marshall Center seminars. These courses allow members of the Kyrgyz military to interact with U.S., NATO, and PfP counterparts, including others from Central Asia.

In order to provide basic officer training that would allow greater interoperability within PFP, efforts also have focused on the summer and winter mountain leaders courses, infantry officer basic training, and training officers as leaders of airborne and related units. Military medical and dental training courses also contribute to interoperability with the U.S. and NATO.

 MOLDOVA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

IMET

62

$487,000

76

$600,000

Marshall Center

25

$287,416

82

$420,698

TOTAL

89

$774,436

158

$1,020,698

Moldova has developed a very cooperative security relationship with the U.S., both bilaterally in such areas as non-proliferation and multilaterally through such avenues as NATO's Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). Moldova's military is active in Partnership for Peace (PfP) activities, despite being short on resources as the country's economy continues to struggle in the aftermath of the Russian financial crisis. Finally, the Moldovan government has made a good-faith effort to peacefully settle its dispute with the Transnistrian separatists in eastern Moldova.

The fundamental U.S. goal in Moldova is to support the continued development of Chisinau's reformist political and economic leanings and its pragmatic, westward looking foreign and security policy. U.S.-funded military training efforts are an important part of the strategy employed to meet that goal. In particular, U.S. military training through the IMET program helps Moldovan soldiers to acquire the skills necessary to operate alongside NATO forces and to participate more actively in PfP activities.

Moldova concentrated much of its IMET training in FY 2000 and FY 2001 on developing the operational skills of officers in a wide range of specialization. For instance, Moldovan signal officers, engineering officers, field artillery captains, mapping officers, and infantry captains have received specialized training under the IMET program. Moldovan IMET attendees also have taken more universally applicable classes in such areas as English language and language instruction, civil-military relations, and defense management.

Chisinau has chosen to use its FY 2000 and, so far, its FY 2001 FMF grants to purchase and refurbish supplies and equipment, as opposed to buying additional U.S. military training. However, Moldovan civilian and uniformed defense officials are attending the Marshall Center in Germany in FY 2000 and FY 2001 for U.S.-funded training. The Marshall Center instructs defense officials from throughout Central Europe and the former Soviet Union in various aspects of the implementation of defense reforms in states undergoing democratic transition.

 RUSSIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

Asia-Pacific Center

8

$92,100

9

$125,055

IMET

248

$717,000

277

$800,000

INL

30

$30,000

0

$0

Marshall Center

77

$1,126,290

86

$1,032,946

TOTAL

364

$1,995,390

372

$1,958,001

The U.S. has an overriding national security interest in furthering Russia's development of a democratic civil society ruled by law with respect for human rights--particularly in the context of military affairs and civil-military relations. The benefits to the United States of a non-threatening and reforming Russia are direct and tangible in terms of maintaining a reduced level of defense spending. We also have strong interests in preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, protecting Americans from the threat of international crime originating in Russia and cleaning up the environmental degradation from the Soviet period.

Russia has a significant role in Europe, Asia and the Middle East, as well as in the UN Security Council. In 1999, events in Kosovo tested Russia-NATO relations. Russia suspended all contacts with NATO, including consultations in the Permanent Joint Council and participation in the EAPC, PFP, and related activities. There were several IMET course starts from January to March, but in response to Kosovo, Russia withdrew its seven IMET students. In July 1999, Russia resumed consultations in the PJC on KFOR and Kosovo issues but has not resumed participation in the EAPC or PfP. The war in Chechnya also has strained Russia's relations with the U.S. and NATO, but active diplomacy has been able to manage differences on the issue.

Despite those differences, continuing Warsaw Initiative funding for Partnership for Peace exercises and International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs, even at a reduced level, provides opportunities for Russian officers to interact with U.S. and NATO counterparts. Russian officers can develop greater understanding of NATO doctrine and concepts of coalition contingency operations and the role of the military in a democracy, which aims to reduce Russian fears that the admission of new members to NATO threatens Russian security. It also furthers the goal of interoperability with NATO, with implications for Russian participation in SFOR operations in Bosnia and in KFOR operations in Kosovo. Furthermore, given concerns over Chechnya, it is our aim that the skills and doctrine learned through IMET and other training programs will help then to become more responsible.

Military training with Russia, though limited, focuses on several key areas, particularly Professional Military Education (PME), consisting of leadership training and courses aimed at developing expertise in the tasks of international military staff officers. PME-type training (War Colleges, Defense Management, Marshall Center, Asia-Pacific Center) supports our efforts to ensure that the Russian military contributes to the development of civil society by reinforcing concepts of appropriate civil-military relations, defense management in democratic societies, and professionalism in the conduct of military affairs.

Courses aimed at international military activities, including legal considerations in peace operations, international staff officer preparation, international maritime officer issues, and English-language training, contribute to our efforts to encourage the Russian military to participate in NATO/PfP activities, to expand and improve Russian participation in NATO-led efforts in the Balkans and expose Russian officers to NATO and U.S. civil-military relations standards and practices. Similarly, Russian officer participation in the command aspects of operational subjects, such as airborne and air assault operations, contribute to our efforts to increase interoperability of Russian and Allied forces in coalition contingency operations. This type of exposure also aims to demonstrate to Russia that an enlarged NATO is no threat to it. Russian participation in several military medical-related courses is aimed at increasing international interoperability, including in the contexts of PfP as well as coalition contingency operations.

Maritime and environmental security training furthers USG efforts to assure that Russia effectively and responsibly handles environmental clean-up related to former Soviet military activities. It also contributes to Russian participation in Baltic Sea cooperation efforts, which in turn furthers the U.S. goal of improved relations between Russia and its Baltic and Nordic neighbors.

DoD funded training related to staffing the joint Year 2000 Strategic Stability Center to monitor ballistic missile warning data. This center proved to be an effective demonstration of the value of cooperation between Russia and the U.S. and provides a foundation for the establishment of a joint early warning center in the future.

TAJIKISTAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Marshall Center

38

$423,045

51

$414,400

TOTAL

38

$423,045

51

$414,400

U.S. goals in Tajikistan are to promote the development of a stable civil society, a market economy, and democratic rule with full respect for human rights. The U.S. also would like to see Dushanbe strengthen its recently re-integrated military to be able to guard its own borders, and play a more active, constructive role in Euro-Atlantic security affairs such such as joining NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP).

In FY 2000, one Tajik military officer attended the CENTCOM Regional Medical Symposium, thirteen Tajik officials of all ranks attended courses at the George C. Marshall Center for Security Studies, seventeen attended Marshall Center conferences, and eight attended PfP conferences. Conference topics included: cooperative security, crisis management and promoting stability in Central Asia. The Marshall Center also conducted two seminars in Tajikistan, one on political parties in opposition and the other on establishing small businesses. The PfP seminar is clearly an important vehicle for encouraging Tajikistan to consider joining the organization.

In FY 2001 we hope to initiate security dialogue with the Tajik government in order to determine areas of mutual interest and concern. Military programs should include such activities as DOD/FBI/Customs Counter proliferation programs, initiatives to increase border security, CTR funding to finance military to military contacts and IMET funding aimed at English language training. Such military engagement programs would be instrumental in establishing a U.S.-Tajik partnership and assist Tajikistan in developing the ability to defend its own border, combating terrorism, and countering narcotics trafficking. This, in turn, would facilitate internal political stability and overall regional stability.

 TURKMENISTAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

FMF

10

$6,760

30

$0

IMET

6

$313,000

6

$325,000

Marshall Center

7

$90,568

49

$409,638

Section 1004

50

$145,000

100

$218,000

TOTAL

73

$555,328

185

$952,638

U.S. national security is enhanced by a stable, independent Turkmenistan that contributes to regional stability and prosperity. The U.S. also has an interest in the unencumbered delivery of Turkmenistan's significant energy resources to key markets in Turkey and in ensuring that those resources do not pass through Iran. There is still a great deal that needs to be done in Turkmenistan on both democratic and economic reform. At the same time, U.S. interest in regional stability benefits from Turkmenistan's ability to cooperate with its neighbors militarily and to participate further in Partnership for Peace (PfP) and related activities. We seek Turkmen assistance in counter-drug efforts and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise.

Warsaw Initiative Funding for participation in PfP activities furthers on the ground experience, including regional cooperation, interoperability with NATO forces, and reform of the Turkmen military along Western, democratic lines. These activities also increase Turkmenistan's engagement with Euro-Atlantic security institutions.

Military training has aimed at developing officers exposed to NATO's international military staff -- an important component of participation in PfP and any future Turkmen participation in coalition contingency operations. English language training has also been an important focus for Turkmenistan, as this training provides capabilities for Turkmen officers to participate in PfP and related activities, as well as to increase basic interoperability with NATO.

IMET-funded professional military education and other courses, particularly in the area of civil-military relations, have aimed at supporting Turkmen military reform by exposing officers to our democratic standards and values. The course on the legal aspects of military and peace operations provides basic doctrinal interoperability with the U.S. and NATO/PfP. Several basic operational courses, such as signals officer and engineering infantry mortar leader, increase Turkmenistan's military professionalization and enhance the ability of Turkmen forces to participate in PfP activities and/or any future coalition contingencies.

 UKRAINE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$968

0

$0

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

EIPC

67

$10,500

0

$0

FMF

33

$222,703

98

$106,148

IMET

311

$1,338,000

349

$1,500,000

Marshall Center

36

$637,275

44

$890,864

Service Academy

2

$130,176

0

$0

TOTAL

451

$2,369,622

491

$2,497,012

Ukraine is an important partner in Euro-Atlantic security affairs whose relationships with the U.S. and NATO continue to develop. The bilateral commission co-chaired by Vice President Gore and Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma is emblematic of the deepening of U.S.-Ukrainian relations; it has developed practical strategies for dealing with issues in the security realm as well as in the economic and political arenas. Ukraine and NATO have strengthened their relationship through the continued development of the NATO-Ukraine Commission established in 1997 on the basis of the NATO-Ukraine Charter. Ukraine also plays a valuable peacekeeping role in the U.S. sector of the KFOR mission in Kosovo, was a valued participant in SFOR in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is active in NATO's Partnership for Peace (PfP), and has occupied a seat on the UN Security Council since January 1, 2000. Since the re-election of President Kuchma in 1999, and the appointment of Prime Minister Yushchenko, Ukraine is pursuing the most significant economic reforms since independence in 1991, and has reaffirmed its Western outlook.

Accordingly, the U.S. continues to work for the development of an independent, democratic, and non-nuclear Ukraine with a market-oriented economy. Along those lines, the U.S. seeks for Ukraine's military to remain under firm civilian control, undergo reform and restructuring, and to be increasingly integrated into the security institutions of the larger Euro-Atlantic community. U.S.-funded military training efforts are a crucial part of this effort. Training received through the IMET, FMF, and other U.S. military assistance programs contribute to that goal by continuing to augment Ukraine's ability to participate alongside NATO forces in crisis response operations and in PfP exercises and other activities.

Ukraine makes extensive use of the IMET program to improve Ukrainian military readiness in a broad range of functional areas. Areas of concentration include military legal training, English language instruction, supply officer training, classes in civil-military relations and defense resources management, military engineering and military police instruction, and military air traffic control training. Ukrainians also have received specialized officer training in courses for signal officers, and field artillery captains. In addition, top Ukrainian officers also have been trained at the air and naval command and staff colleges, air and army war colleges, and the U.S. Marines' amphibious warfare school.

The Expanded IMET (E-IMET) program has trained Ukrainian military and civilian officials, including civilian personnel from non-defense ministries and the legislative branch who work on military-related issues. E-IMET training focuses on managing and administering military establishments and budgets, promoting civilian control of the military, and creating and maintaining effective military justice systems and military codes of conduct.

As mentioned above, Ukraine also has purchased U.S. military training using its FMF grant funds, to advance its NATO interoperability and PfP participation. English language again has been a focus, as have health and medical training and vehicle maintenance. FMF also has helped to fund Ukraine's participation in KFOR, which has led to critical, practical training through real-world peacekeeping experience for Ukrainian troops. Furthermore, U.S. funding has paid for Ukrainians to attend conferences and seminars at the Marshall Center in Germany. The Marshall Center concentrates on training Central and Eastern European militaries on various aspects of civil-military relations and democratic control of the military.

UZBEKISTAN

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Aviation Leadership Program

1

$924

0

$0

IMET

33

$547,000

33

$550,000

INL

0

$0

60

$0

Marshall Center

33

$504,476

57

$622,038

Section 1004

0

$0

50

$155,000

TOTAL

67

$1,052,400

200

$1,327,038

The U.S. looks for Uzbekistan to play a stabilizing and increasingly cooperative role among its neighbors and to assist in bringing about a solution, under UN leadership, to the conflict in Afghanistan. Uzbekistan remains an authoritarian state. U.S. interests are to see it evolve democratically, with respect for human rights and democratic values. We seek Uzbek assistance in preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems, materials, technologies, and expertise.

Uzbekistan sees itself in a leading role in the Central Asian region bordering Russia and Iran. The U.S. seeks to orient Uzbekistan's sizeable military further toward cooperation with its own neighbors, NATO, and the U.S. This cooperation will be enhanced by Uzbekistan's active participation in PfP and the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalions (CENTRASBAT). Training has focused on international staff officer and defense management capabilities, English language, and such operational subjects as basic infantry officer, air traffic control, airborne, and personnel officer courses, which foster interoperability in both operations and tactics.

Other programs, and participation in Marshall Center activities, focus on civil-military relations, improving military justice systems, and defense resource management contribute to the U.S. effort to foster greater respect in Uzbekistan for all aspects of the principle of effective civilian control



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