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Department of State Foreign Policy Objectives: Western Hemispheric Region (A-F)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
January 2001
Report
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ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

4

$29,276

4

$29,276

IMET

12

$113,000

14

$130,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

35

$11,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

51

$153,276

18

$159,276

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Antigua and Barbuda is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. We have been encouraging the Government of Antigua and Barbuda to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training in civil affairs and crisis management, and participation in the Center for Hemispheric Studies, assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Participating in joint exercises, training in maritime search and rescue, and the training of international maritime officers increase Antigua and Barbuda's ability to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic operations, search and rescue operations, and other bilateral and multilateral operations. A U.S. government provided 82-foot patrol boat, delivered in 1998, has been used extensively for coastal patrolling and maritime counternarcotics missions.

ARGENTINA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

19

$139,061

24

$175,656

Exchanges

6

$58,195

0

0

FMS

56

$130,468

8

$21,094

IMET

191

$740,000

207

$800,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

10

$102,000

0

0

TOTAL

282

$1,169,724

239

$996,750

Argentina is a democratic nation and a close ally in the strategically important Southern Cone region. We have a close relationship with the GOA, and the Argentine military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. The U.S. has also designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally (MNNA). To promote interoperability and knowledge of U.S. operations, the Argentine military participated in a number of U.S. exercises.

IMET courses in Civil-military Operations, Command and General Staff Officer Training, and Non-commissioned Officer Training, and participation at the CHDS, assist Argentina's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces, and helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military. Other training in aircraft and helicopter maintenance, and other courses in logistics management also increase Argentina's ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory, thus improve Argentine interoperability with U.S. forces in bilateral and multilateral activities. As South America's largest contributor of troops to international peacekeeping operations, training in peacekeeping and humanitarian demining further encourages Argentina's participation in these activities.

BAHAMAS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

1

$7,319

1

$7,319

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

0

IMET

10

$112,000

10

$115,000

*TOTAL

12

$149,319

11

$122,319

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

The Bahamas is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. IMET courses in basic military officers training, civil affairs, and access to the Naval Staff College assist the Bahamas in the development of a more professional and efficient security force.

The Bahamas is instrumental in assisting the U.S. in counternarcotics operations in the region. Training activities therefore included instruction in operations planning and exercises with U.S. forces. Training in ship management and boarding team operations greatly enhances the Bahamas' ability to assist in the counternarcotics efforts. IMET training on legal issues involving military and peacekeeping operations will encourage continued Bahamian participation in other bilateral and multilateral activities. One result has been the close cooperation with the U.S. government on a combined counterdrug law enforcement effort, Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos (OPBAT) along with increased emphasis by the Bahamas on money laundering and asset forfeiture investigations and prosecutions.

BARBADOS

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

5

$36,595

5

$36,595

DoT/USCG Activities

2

$30,000

0

$0

IMET

9

$71,000

10

$80,000

Service Academy

2

$140,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

18

$277,595

15

$116,595

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Barbados is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. IMET courses in basic military officers training, civil affairs, and access to the Naval Staff College and Center for Hemispheric Studies assists Barbados in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Training in ship management and boarding team operations greatly enhances Barbados' ability to assist in the counternarcotics efforts. Barbados has continued its leadership role in the Eastern Caribbean in passing domestic legislation to enable it to implement maritime law enforcement agreements. U. S. government training and support has facilitated execution of cooperative bilateral law enforcement efforts in the region.

BELIZE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

INL

25

$0

0

$0

IMET

20

$161,000

34

$275,000

*TOTAL

45

$161,000

34

$275,000

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Belize is a democratic nation that has a good bilateral relationship with the U.S. We have encouraged the military of Belize to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral efforts. Because of its proximity to the United States and its position linking vulnerable Central American and Caribbean states, Belize is an ideal transit point for illicit drugs headed for the United States. Easy access to the United States and Mexico makes Belize an attractive staging area for other international crimes as well. It is a market for vehicles stolen in the United States, a potential site for money laundering, and a point of origin for smuggled wildlife and artifacts.

IMET and other programs provide training and equipment to maintain a small but disciplined Belize Defense Force (BDF). BDF troops served with the CARICOM Battalion during peacekeeping operations in Haiti, and participate in regional training exercises with U.S. and Caribbean forces. IMET training in mid-level officers training, equipment maintenance, as well as the rule of law and discipline in military operations, greatly improves the professionalism and competence of the BDF. A number of activities were conducted to help make the BDF a more effective partner when operating with U.S. forces in joint exercises and operations, particularly in the counterdrug area.

BOLIVIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

11

$80,509

24

$175,656

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMF

4

$0

0

$0

FMS

104

$136,250

2

$2,552

IMET

88

$548,000

104

$650,000

INL

10

$6,034

17

$57,783

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

300

$557,138

0

$0

Section 506

9

$287,580

0

$0

Section 1004

3

$321,345

0

$0

*TOTAL

531

$1,936,876

147

$885,991

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Bolivia is a democratic nation and has a strong bilateral relationship with the United States. Bolivia is heavily engaged in a major counternarcotics effort with significant support and partial funding from the U.S. The Bolivian government implemented a five-year counternarcotics plan early in 1998. U.S. Government training and participation in joint exercises have enabled Bolivia to phase out individual compensation for eradication, achieve record levels of eradication, substantially reduce the amount of coca under cultivation, and increase the number of arrests and chemical seizures. This effort is hampered by resistance from those who have profited from the production and trafficking of narcotics, particularly cocaine. Special counternarcotics forces and certain select units of the military are active participants in the drug war. At times there have been violent confrontations between coca growers and government forces.

Bolivia has been certified as cooperating with U.S. counternarcotics policy. IMET funds provide professional military education and NCO training to enhance the professionalism of Bolivia's armed forces. Programs on civil-military relations, resource management and democratic sustainment help reinforce principles of democracy and civilian control of the military. Prior-year FMF funds improved technical training for counternarcotics operations.

  BRAZIL

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

16

$117,104

18

$131,742

Exchanges

3

$58,195

0

0

FMS

288

$3,428,238

278

$5,174,751

IMET

22

$223,000

25

$250,000

TOTAL

329

$3,826,537

321

$5,556,493

Brazil has substantial influence over the entire South American continent and its military actively participates in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts. As such, and in virtue of its immense size and global interests, Brazil is a force to be reckoned with. Our security relationship with this important country suffered a considerable decline in the late 1970s due to the Brazilian military regime's displeasure with our emphasis on human rights in US foreign policy. This displeasure resulted in the cessation of the US-Brazil Military Assistance Accord that had been in effect since WWII. Our relationship began to slowly improve after the military ceded to civilian rule in 1985. Great strides were made in the late 1990s, especially since the Brazilians created a civilian-led Ministry of Defense in 1999 that greatly facilitated our bilateral defense relationship. Today, that relationship can best be characterized as mature and continually improving.

The activities listed above have multiple benefits. IMET training courses for NCOs, mid-level officers, and senior officers, and participation at the CHDS, assist Brazil's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces, and help reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military. Other training in equipment maintenance and logistics also increases Brazil's ability to maintain its inventory, and further encourages Brazil's participation in international peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Finally, participation in joint exercises improves interoperability with U.S. forces.

CANADA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

Asia-Pacific Center

2

$320

2

$1,061

Exchanges

1

$500

0

$0

CHDS

1

$7,319

1

$7,319

FMS

1212

$7,305,093

749

$1,858,687

Marshall Center

9

$47,370

16

$172,800

TOTAL

1226

$7,360,602

768

$2,039,867

Canada, a democracy and our largest trading partner, shares with the United States a 5,500-mile undefended border and an extraordinarily wide range of common interests. The Canadian Forces see their main tasks as the defense of Canada, contributing to the defense of North America with the United States, and contributing to international peace and security through the UN, NATO, and other multinational organizations. Canada's common vision of security with the United States is embodied not only in our mutual commitments in NATO and NORAD, but also in more than 500 bilateral agreements concerning defense and security, and in a considerable degree of integration of our defense industries. Canada currently supports more than a dozen international peacekeeping and humanitarian operations around the world. Canada has also served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council during 2000-2001.

A large variety of training courses under FMS improves the operational skills of Canadian troops and sailors; they also increase the abilities of Canadian crew members and technicians to operate and maintain the numerous U.S.-origin vehicles, aircraft, weapons, and electronic systems in Canada's inventory. This helps sustain the advanced level of interoperability with U.S. forces that Canada achieves in bilateral and multilateral activities. Interoperability and a common approach to security issues is also fostered through command and staff courses for Canadian officers at U.S. service schools under FMS, as well as separately-funded area studies at the Marshall Center, the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, and the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.

  CHILE

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

14

$102,466

19

$138,701

Exchanges

4

$20

1

$60,929

FMF

99

$278,671

0

$0

FMS

25

$105,335

2

$92,962

IMET

201

$499,000

222

$550,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

80

$165,000

0

$0

Service Academy

2

$10,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

425

$1,160,492

224

$842,592

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Chile is a democratic nation and a strategically important and close friend of the United States in both regional and global contexts. Our relationship with the GOC includes support for increased Chilean participation in international peacekeeping and other multilateral efforts, and a generally more prominent role on the international stage. Training activities have had multiple benefits.

IMET management training courses for NCOs, mid-level officers, and senior officers assists in Chile's efforts to modernize and professionalize its armed forces. Other courses help enhance the technical proficiencies of the Chilean military, while courses on the rule of law in military operations and CHDS participation, strengthen the role of Chile's civilian Ministry of Defense in a democracy.

Other training in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management also increases Chile's ability to maintain U.S. equipment in its inventory. Chilean participation in joint training exercises enhance interoperability and support Chilean engagement in international peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. Continued IMET support will also help foster long-term military-to-military relationships in the post-Pinochet era.

COLOMBIA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

18

$131,742

23

$168,337

DoT/USCG Activities

1

$30,000

0

$0

Exchanges

3

$580

0

$0

FMF

36

$24,524

30

$0

FMS

133

$1,379,202

204

$872,926

IMET

763

$900,000

881

$1,040,000

INL

287

$340,394

303

$778,025

Section 1004

95

$2,440,821

130

$2,994,813

*TOTAL

1336

$5,247,263

1571

$5,854,101

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Colombia is Latin America's oldest formal democracy and a major ally of the United States in its fight against international narcotics trafficking. As the source of most of the cocaine and much of the heroin consumed in the United States, Colombia is the focus of much of the U.S. government's international counterdrug effort. The largest share of the training provided to the Colombian military is in direct support of the U.S. counterdrug strategy.

Section 1004 counterdrug training in Colombia represents a variety of United States Marine Corps and Special Operations Forces (SOF) efforts including aviation aircrew training, Colombian Marine riverine training, and light infantry training of Colombian police and military units. All training is provided in support of counterdrug interdiction efforts. Additionally, in FY 2000, SOF units provided training for the 1st and 2nd Counterdrug Battalion of approximately 1,600 Colombian Army personnel. In FY 2001, DoD will continue its counterdrug training program for the 3rd Counterdrug Battalion, a Support Battalion and Brigade Headquarters. The overall effort will train approximately 2,600 Colombian Army personnel. Details regarding the Counterdrug Battalion training, to include cost data, are provided in the Classified Volume of this report and are not reflected in the table above.

The IMET program adds to these counternarcotics training efforts, and funds a broad range of courses for the Colombian military at all levels that promote mutually beneficial military-to-military relations, and increase understanding and defense cooperation between the U.S. and Colombia. Participation at the CHDS, and IMET courses include a strong emphasis on human rights, including courses on democratic sustainment. IMET also provides technical training for NCOs and field-grade officers, as well as training in maintenance, logistics, and resource management. These courses assist the Colombian military by increasing its abilities to better care for and maintain U.S.-provided equipment, thus increasing Colombia's ability to pursue its counterdrug efforts.

COSTA RICA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

7

$51,233

8

$58,552

FMS

12

$18,241

0

$0

IMET

69

$280,000

49

$200,000

INL

80

$53,893

0

$0

Section 1004

19

$261,333

0

$0

Service Academy

2

$144,237

0

$0

*TOTAL

189

$808,937

57

$258,552

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

Costa Rica is a democratic nation, a major ally in Central America, and the only Central American nation to have signed and ratified a Maritime Counternarcotics Agreement with the United States. Costa Rica actively participates in efforts to reduce illegal migration, drug trafficking, and poaching of marine fisheries in the region and has become a staunch U.S. partner in the fight against international crime, greatly expanding and complementing our law enforcement efforts in the region.

Costa Rica is one of two countries in Latin America that does not have a military, relying on its Public Security Forces for defense. Participation in the CHDS and IMET training serves to further professionalize of the coast guard and law enforcement services through courses such as patrol craft commander training, rule of law and discipline in military operations, and NCO professional development training. Likewise, as the GOCR assumes an increasingly sophisticated counternarcotics role, other training provides access to modern, state-of-the-art law enforcement methods, as well as assistance in equipment maintenance, logistics, and resource management. Counternarcotics training focused on operational skills, as well as joint exercises to improve interoperability with U.S. forces.

DOMINICA

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

CHDS

2

$14,638

2

$14,638

IMET

7

$58,000

8

$65,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

35

$19,000

0

$0

TOTAL

44

$91,638

10

$79,638

Dominica is a democratic nation that has good bilateral relations with the U.S. We have been encouraging the Government of Dominica to participate more actively in counternarcotics efforts and other multilateral security activities. IMET training courses in areas such as defense management and NCO development assists in the development of a more professional and efficient security force. Training in civil-military relations and legal considerations in military and peacekeeping operations will enhance Dominica's adherence to human rights. Joint exercises and additional training of maritime officers, in peacekeeping operations, and in maritime search and rescue, enable Dominica to work with U.S. entities in counternarcotic activities search and rescue operations, international peacekeeping efforts, and other bilateral and multilateral operations.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

5

$36,595

2

$14,638

DoT/USCG Activities

2

$30,000

0

$0

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMF

27

$10,592

0

$0

FMS

32

$10,311

0

$0

IMET

36

$487,000

33

$450,000

Service Academy

1

$70,000

0

$0

*TOTAL

105

$644,518

35

$464,638

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

The Dominican Republic is a democratic nation and a close ally of the United States. We have encouraged the Dominican Republic military to participate more actively in counternarcotics operations and other multilateral efforts.

IMET training in areas such as civil-military operations and democratic sustainment will contribute to the Dominican Republic's support for the principles of human rights, democracy, and civilian control of the military. Professional training and education at all levels (including NCO training and command and staff colleges) improves the professionalism of the Dominican Republic armed forces. Other training included technical and counternarcotics training to increase the Dominican Republic's ability to operate with U.S. forces; joint exercises promoted team building and established baseline knowledge of U.S. operations.

ECUADOR

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

12

$87,828

15

$109,785

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMS

2

$142,978

30

$91,430

IMET

94

$518,000

100

$550,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

40

$450,000

80

$900,000

*TOTAL

150

$1,198,826

225

$1,651,215

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

The U.S. has strong and friendly bilateral relations with Ecuador. Ecuador's democracy has been struggling in recent years under various pressures, including a severe financial crisis, rivalries between domestic regions, high-profile corruption, and lack of support for the president. Ecuador's military has a great deal of independence and political influence, and they have some funding sources of their own which reduce their dependence on the budget process. Though Ecuador fought a brief, but hotly contested, border war with Peru in February 1995, this conflict was settled by a bilateral agreement in October 1998, with the help of the United States and other guarantors of the Rio Protocol. The Ecuadorian military played a controversial role in the January 2000 political crisis, but has reaffirmed its commitment to civilian control.

Training in civil-military relations and the rule of law and discipline in military operations and participation at the CHDS help reinforce the principles of civilian control of the military and reinforces the principles of human rights. Ecuador is designated as a major drug-transiting country, and many of the activities listed above in counternarcotic operations, officer training, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provide training needed to professionalize and modernize Ecuador's military. Significant training efforts in counterdrug operations were conducted with prior year FMF funds. Joint exercises with U.S. forces contributed to continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. In November 1999, Ecuador and the United States concluded a ten-year agreement for the access and use of Manta Air Force Base, Ecuador, as a Forward Operating Location for U.S. aircraft monitoring drug trafficking flights through the region. IMET training also assists in the demining efforts along Peru's border with Ecuador.

EL SALVADOR

 

FY 2000 Actual

FY 2001 Planned

Type of Activity

Number of Students Trained

Dollar Value

Number of Projected Students

Dollar Value

CHDS

14

$102,466

20

$146,380

Exchanges

2

$20

0

$0

FMF

5

$104,185

0

$0

FMS

64

$178,083

60

$35,170

IMET

143

$523,000

143

$525,000

Non-Security Assistance, Unified Command Engagement Activities

80

$178,000

0

$0

Service Academy

1

$74,237

0

$0

*TOTAL

309

$1,159,991

223

$706,550

*Does not include data reported in Volume III

El Salvador is a democratic country which has had a historically close relationship with the United States. Bilateral military assistance has been dramatically reduced since the end of the civil war in 1992, and overall relations have flourished with the civilian government. The principal U.S. interests in El Salvador are supporting democracy, fighting international crime and illegal drugs, encouraging economic development, deterring illegal immigration to the U.S., and promoting U.S. exports.

Training is geared towards professional training programs that will sustain the dramatic improvement in civil-military relations and consequent improvement in the democratic climate and regional stability seen in recent years. Officer training at all levels, including command and staff colleges, and courses in civil-military relations and democratic sustainment helps reinforce the notion of civilian control of the military and reinforces the principles of human rights. Training provided, through IMET and with prior year FMF funds, in counternarcotic operations, resource management, logistics, and equipment maintenance provided assistance needed to professionalize and modernize the Salvadoran military and encourages its continued cooperation with U.S. counternarcotics efforts. Joint training exercises with the U.S. forces contributed to team building and exposure to U.S. counterdrug operations.



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