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U.S. Department of State

Diplomacy in Action

III. Foreign Policy Papers - Africa (A-L)


Foreign Military Training and DoD Engagement Activities of Interest: Joint Report to Congress
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
March 2002
Report
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Angola

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $9,667 9 $14,478
IMET 0 $0 2 $52,099
TOTAL 2 $9,667 11 $66,577

United States' goals in Angola focus on ending the long-running civil war and laying the foundations for a transition to peace, while at the same time encouraging democracy, social justice, economic growth and addressing the pressing humanitarian repercussions of the country's conflict. Modest military training and engagement activities are a part of this program.

DoD funding in FY 2001 enabled two Angolan Armed Forces members to participate in conferences sponsored by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. The Center was established to foster exchanges in Africa on military thinking similar to those carried on for years in Europe by the Marshall Center. The Angolans found this experience valuable and it was important in allowing them to hear disparate views and break out of an isolated mentality borne of years of war. Interaction with U.S. personnel involved in these conferences not only strengthened military-to-military ties but also allowed for Angolan exposure to U.S. notions of civil-military relations.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Angola by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Benin

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACRI 895 $1,140,000 0 $0
ACSS 5 $12,909 6 $10,808
FMS 30 $424,675 30 $975,609
IMET 63 $424,509 48 $436,546
TOTAL 993 $2,002,093 84 $1,422,963

Since the transition from a Marxist military regime in 1990, Benin has shown itself to be a model of democracy in the region. Free and fair presidential elections have led to the peaceful hand-over of government and the country has a lively and crowded political landscape. The Beninese military has returned to a lesser role in Beninese society, although President Kerekou, as a former military man, remains attentive to the military's needs. At present, Benin faces no external threat to its stability and the Armed Forces have increasingly looked to international peacekeeping as a potential future mission.

The Beninese have been enthusiastic participants in the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI) training. However, to date, Benin's Armed Forces (BAF) have played only a limited role in regional peacekeeping. We continue to encourage the Beninese to be more engaged in the region, both on a political and military/peacekeeping level. We seek to strengthen the capabilities of the BAF to provide international humanitarian relief. Programs such as IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and ACRI will aid in increasing both the BAF's readiness and participation in international peacekeeping as well as buttressing democratic government and good governance. Benin's robust IMET program has played a key role in keeping the Beninese military in the barracks.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Benin by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Botswana

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,694 9 $14,478
ALP 0 $0 1 $0
IMET 96 $623,817 75 $859,060
Non-SA, Unified
Command
82 $164,000 0 $0
TOTAL 180 $796,511 85 $873,538

Botswana has one of the longest-running democracies and most fiscally prudent economic regimes on the continent. Our efforts focus on supporting Botswana's stable democracy, expanding U.S. business opportunities and advocating Botswana's leadership in the region. On the security side, Botswana has one of the region's most professional and responsible military establishments and offers a model for civilian-military relations for the rest of southern Africa.

Botswana has provided a venue for regional military exchanges that have been well received and that have fostered a spirit of regional cooperation. Through our IMET program and other regional initiatives, we seek to expand our connections with Botswana's military leaders and support their interest in contributing to efforts to strengthen both regional civil-military ties and regional military-military relations. The IMET program trained Botswana Defense Force (BDF) personnel in the United States and through in-country mobile training teams during FY 2001. BDF personnel will continue taking courses in senior military leadership (officer and enlisted), financial management, combat and combat support arms, medical specialties and military justice. These courses not only support individual professional development, but also prepare the BDF to better execute PKO and humanitarian support operations on the continent. IMET training includes components on HIV/AIDS; Botswana has the highest infection rate in the world and the BDF must also confront the epidemic. At the same time, modest counternarcotics training assistance will help combat the use of Botswana as a transit point for drug trafficking.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Botswana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Burkina Faso

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 8 $13,715 4 $10,808
TOTAL 8 $13,715 4 $10,808

In response to the Burkinabe government's links with support for destabilizing activities in Sierra Leone and other parts of Africa, we have halted almost all forms of military engagement. Burkina Faso was permitted to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) events in FY 2001. The Department has determined that it is in the USG's best interests to include Burkina Faso in ACSS seminars in order to promote peace and stability across the African continent. ACSS provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries. The Africa Center program promotes democratic governance in the defense and security sectors by addressing the very problems that get many sanctioned countries in trouble in the first place. The ACSS program also fosters critical partnerships with African nations. It keeps open lines of communication at the appropriate military and defense levels, laying the foundation for future military-to-military relations when conditions improve in the country.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Burkina Faso by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Burundi

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,243 2 $5,404
TOTAL 2 $8,243 2 $5,404


We have suspended almost all forms of military-to-military engagement with Burundi because of its ongoing civil conflict. In FY 2001, however, DoD invited Burundi to participate in Africa Center for Strategic Studies events given developments in the Burundi peace process. The Department of State concurred with the DoD decision to include Burundi to help promote peace and stability in central Africa. The ACSS program in Burundi will continue in FY 2002.

The DoD policy is to include all African nations, except those under UN or USG sanction, in ACSS engagement activities. ACSS is a DoD-funded program that is separate from State's security assistance programs. It provides an exceptional forum for engaging senior-level military and civilian officials in African countries on issues of democratic governance.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Burundi by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cameroon

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $7,534 6 $10,808
IMET 11 $221,128 12 $213,758
Service Academies 5 $260,659 1 $46,791
TOTAL 18 $489,321 19 $271,357

U.S. goals in Cameroon support the successful transformation of Cameroonian society into a democratic, pluralistic community, with a market-based economy integrated into the world economy. Cameroon's political stability and relative economic development make it a leading sub-regional power. Construction of the Chad-Cameroon pipeline further integrates Cameroon into the regional petroleum economy. Cameroon's status as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2002 and 2003 underlines the importance of a strong military-to-military relationship, particularly on peacekeeping issues.

Cameroon's military can play an important role in supporting regional peacekeeping initiatives and promoting peaceful resolution of border disputes with neighboring countries, particularly in the case of the Bakassi peninsula and Cameroon's maritime borders with Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria. Moreover, it is crucial to have military participation and cooperation as Cameroon undertakes additional political and economic reforms.

Military training provided to Cameroon is designed to encourage good military-to-military relationships and increased understanding of the constructive role the military can play in promoting civilian programs. IMET seminars on the subject of civilian control of defense resources have been equally helpful.

Other IMET programs in FY 2001 have targeted building professionalism within the Cameroonian Armed Forces through English language and technical training for junior- to mid-level military officers. As part of this training, U.S.-Cameroonian military-to-military contacts increase and the U.S. is assured greater access to Cameroonian air and port facilities. Cameroon's political stability, strategic location and excellent airport facilities make it ideal as a staging area for humanitarian assistance programs in the region, or for evacuation operations necessitated by conflict in the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cameroon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cape Verde, Republic of

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $5,749 4 $10,808
IMET 6 $101,967 6 $114,853
TOTAL 10 $107,716 10 $125,661

In its twenty-six years of independence, Cape Verde has been free of internal and external conflict, and its military has consistently played a constructive role in civil society. The country's physical isolation and limited number of educational institutions make it heavily reliant on training from other countries to develop appropriate technical proficiencies. In view of these limitations, the country's small IMET program is focused on providing complementary training to the Cape Verdean military to enhance English language capabilities, necessary for effective international cooperation on maritime patrols and other military activities. In addition, IMET officer training and participation in the Africa Center for Strategic Studies provide a low-cost investment to help ensure the continued professionalism of Cape Verde's military under civilian, democratic leadership.

With greater English-language proficiency, the Cape Verdean military could make use of other training opportunities in the future to increase its capabilities to patrol territorial waters, which would allow them to reduce unauthorized fishing and thereby combat the twin environmental threats of overfishing and reduced biodiversity. In addition, effective coastal patrols would improve the country's ability to interdict drug transshipments.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cape Verde by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Central African Republic

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $7,992 2 $5,404
IMET 3 $86,712 6 $151,984
TOTAL 5 $94,704 8 $157,388

The Central African Republic (CAR) has suffered great upheaval in the last few years, caused largely by government mismanagement and serious arrears in military and civil service salaries. These salary arrears, as well as inequities in treatment among the various parts of the Armed Forces, provoked a series of mutinies in CAR in 1996 and 1997 and a coup attempt in 2001. International peacekeepers guaranteed security in the CAR from 1997 to February 2000, at which time local military and police forces took on their security responsibilities. The principal U.S. interests in the CAR are to support international efforts to maintain peace in the CAR, and hence the region, while encouraging the implementation of economic, political and military reforms that will prevent a recurrence of the military mutinies and civil strife of 1996, 1997 and 2001. Restructuring and demobilization of some of the CAR Armed Forces are crucial to these efforts. The ability of armed forces personnel to accept and understand the military's role under a civilian government and to promote respect for human rights and democratic principles will be key to the success of the post-peacekeeping transition.

IMET funds for English language training, mobile education team programs focusing on managing defense resources and civil-military relations, and mid-level professional development for CAR military personnel laid the groundwork for further exposure of CAR military officers to the U.S. system for civilian control of the military. The importance of democratic values, rule of law and respect for individuals' civil and human rights are reinforced in these courses, while U.S. and CAR military personnel develop important professional and personal relationships. An added benefit of IMET training is the chance for U.S. officials to encourage the CAR military to promote regional stability by maintaining CAR neutrality with regard to conflicts in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, also a key element of CAR participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies. These results constitute substantial returns on a modest investment.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in CAR by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Chad

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,082 2 $10,808
FMF 34 $166,540 7 $81,786
IMET 13 $72,603 7 $82,062
TOTAL 49 $247,225 16 $174,656

Occupying a strategic position at an historic crossroads, Chad is particularly vulnerable to neighbors like Libya and Sudan. U.S. assistance provides a counter-balance by promoting a stable and democratic society able to constructively contribute to regional conflict resolution and fully participate in the global economy. Restructured within the last five years, the Chadian Armed Forces have a key role to play in resolving armed conflicts within Chad as well as within the region, where they have participated in several peacekeeping operations. Their support for democratic rule and civilian control and direction of the Armed Forces is crucial to Chad's, and the region's, future stability.

U.S. IMET training on rule of law and human rights addresses key objectives of promoting democracy and appropriate civilian management of the Armed Forces. It also enables U.S. trainers to build important military-to-military contacts that help combat anti-U.S. influence in Chad and serve as a basis for future international peacekeeping efforts in the region. Specifically, FY 2001 IMET funds paid for training in peacekeeping operations, as well as professional mid-level training to improve the Chadian military's non-lethal technical capacity. FMF funds were used to support the Chadians' capacity to maintain and properly operate a previously provided aircraft now supporting humanitarian demining operations, among other missions. U.S. humanitarian demining training assistance has also significantly strengthened the Chadians' abilities to resolve the serious problem of mines throughout Chad. Injuries, deaths and the inability to use large areas of land have a direct impact on the country's economic development. U.S. training, equipment and services permitted the Chadians to continue demining operations this year, opening up the possibility of significant improvement in the humanitarian situation and chances for economic development in previously mined areas.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Chad by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Comoros

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $7,889 1 $5,404
TOTAL 3 $7,889 1 $5,404

A small island nation in the Indian Ocean, the Comoros has a history of military involvement in politics. This background has given particular importance to U.S. efforts to promote democracy and stability in the Comoros and to strengthen the professionalism of the Comorian Defense Force, including respect for civilian control. A modest IMET program for the Comoros in the past had been an important element in U.S. policy toward and bilateral relations with the Comorian government. In addition, increased professionalism on the part of the Comorian Defense Forces has improved their ability to protect coastal waters against overfishing and ecological degradation - another important U.S. goal.

In April 1999, however, the Comoros experienced a military coup that overthrew the civilian government elected in March 1996. Section 508 of the FY 2001 Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act suspended bilateral assistance to Comoros. Although some regional humanitarian programs will continue, all military cooperation is presently discontinued, except for the Africa Center for Strategic Studies. This includes IMET, E-IMET, ACRI, JCET and most other military-to-military contact. These sanctions will remain in place until the President certifies that a democratically elected government has taken office.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Comoros by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Republic of Congo (Congo - Brazzaville)

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $7,652 4 $10,808
IMET 0 $52,135 123 $243,027
TOTAL 4 $59,787 127 $253,835

Emerging from a three-year civil war, the Republic of Congo has made significant progress in consolidating peace throughout its territory, disarming and demobilizing militia forces and creating a dialogue on national transition. Elections are scheduled for early 2002, and efforts are being made to restore the infrastructure destroyed during the war. The U.S. supports the peace and reconciliation process, particularly as it contributes to regional stability and strengthens efforts to return the country to a more democratic path. During this period, there were no U.S. military training activities with Congo's Armed Forces, with the exception of participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies.

During FY 2001, Congo-Brazzaville's fledgling English language IMET programming was designed to provide the basis for future mid-level professional training and instruction in civilian control of the restructured Congolese Armed Forces. Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a rigorous academic and practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. Both IMET and ACSS activities provide the U.S. military with the opportunity to develop effective military-to-military relationships with their Congolese counterparts, instilling greater understanding for the need for the military to play a productive role in the country's recovery from civil war.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in the Republic of Congo by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo - Kinshasa)

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 5 $3,670
TOTAL 0 $0 5 $3,670

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Congo - Kinshasa by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Cote d'Ivoire

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $13,166 7 $10,808
TOTAL 7 $13,166 7 $10,808

With the third largest economy in sub-Saharan Africa, Cote d'Ivoire plays an influential role in West Africa. The country had deservedly obtained a reputation for political stability and economic growth that made it a model for its neighbors. The Ivorian Armed Forces had begun to participate in the African Crisis Response Initiative, and Cote d'Ivoire has been a key center for regional peacekeeping training.

However, on December 24, 1999, a military coup ousted the duly elected government of President Henri Konan Bedie. Former General Robert Guei assumed the Presidency. Subsequent Presidential elections organized by General Guei excluded candidates of the two major parties but Guei still lost to a smaller party candidate who rallied popular support to prevent Guei from stealing the election. Under Section 508 of the Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act for FY 2000, bilateral assistance to Cote d'Ivoire has been suspended. Although some regional humanitarian programs and Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation continued, all military cooperation was suspended. These sanctions will remain in place until the U.S. government either waives them under provisions of the Act or a democratically elected government has taken office.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Cote d'Ivoire by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Djibouti

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,519 3 $10,808
IMET 7 $164,868 38 $303,168
TOTAL 9 $173,387 41 $313,976

Djibouti is strategically located between Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, and borders the critical strait of Bab el Mandeb. In the past, the government of Djibouti has assisted the deployment of U.S. forces in the region by allowing military units to stage from the country. This fact was demonstrated when U.S. military aircraft utilized the Djibouti International Airport from January 25 to February 23, 1999, to support a potential non-combatant evacuation of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Most recently, Djibouti served as an interim medical support base for victims of the USS COLE attack. U.S. service members were treated at the French hospital in Djibouti before continuing on to Germany. Additionally, the capital city possesses port and fuel storage facilities capable of receiving various U.S. naval vessels. These facilities, both air and sea, have proven their value to U.S. military force projection and operations in and around the region.

IMET training assistance makes up the single largest military engagement program for Djibouti. The program has been successful. Djiboutian junior- and mid-grade officers who have attended U.S. officer development courses such as Command and General Staff College (CGSC) or officer advance courses have risen to key positions in the Djiboutian military. By allowing officers to attend courses that promote civilian/military relations and human rights training, we further Djibouti's democratic process while maintaining good military-to-military relations.

In order to maintain continued access to this vital location on the Horn of Africa, it is imperative we maintain or increase IMET spending. The benefit received from access to Djibouti far exceeds the small price we pay through IMET spending. As the Horn of Africa continues to be in turmoil, a stable, more democratic Djibouti will remain a vital recipient of U.S. military training assistance programs.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Djibouti by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Equatorial Guinea

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 0 $0 2 $5,404
TOTAL 0 $0 2 $5,404

Due to concerns about the Equatorial Guinea Government's poor human rights record, serious governance problems, the lack of significant progress on democratic reform, and because the country's leadership remains in the hands of a small clique whose legitimacy remains questionable, we continue to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement in Equatorial Guinea, except for participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Equatorial Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Eritrea

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $11,492 4 $10,808
IMET 6 $100,136 54 $585,671
TOTAL 8 $111,628 58 $596,479

Eritrea became a sovereign nation in 1993, following an internationally monitored referendum on independence from Ethiopia. The referendum was organized after the 1991 military victory by the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) over the previous Ethiopian Government (the Derg). The thirty-year independence struggle waged by the EPLF was primarily a guerrilla war. After winning independence, the Eritrean Government demobilized most freedom fighters. However, the border war with Ethiopia that broke out in mid-1998 re-mobilized the Eritrean Defense Force to a strength of approximately 250,000.

Democratic institutions in Eritrea, to include a professional Armed Force, are not well established. The effort to do so was slowed by their border conflict with Ethiopia from 1998 to 2000. We are discouraged by the slow pace of democratization and recent government actions to repress freedom of expression. Nevertheless, U.S. assistance will be critical to building a professional Eritrean military sensitive to the separation between civilian and military authority.

The U.S. and Eritrea enjoy a good bilateral relationship. This relationship is critical to maintaining access to the Red Sea, via the longest sea coast on the Horn, and to protecting U.S. power projection capability into the Arabian Peninsula. Eritrea is also a key player in maintaining regional stability in the Horn of Africa, particularly in our efforts to consolidate the Ethiopia-Eritrea peace process and to stem the presence and influence of terrorism in the Horn. A modern, well-trained Eritrean armed Force will be an asset to our national security interests in the region.

U.S. IMET and other training activities are key to supporting Eritrea's efforts to professionalize its force, downsize military personnel and ensure they remain under civilian control. Training included civilian military support, drug prevention and military justice. We expect to substantially expand this training in all phases of military professional courses.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Eritrea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Ethiopia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 4 $14,281 2 $5,404
IMET 0 $0 9 $716,762
TOTAL 4 $14,281 11 $722,166

Ethiopia is key to U.S. security interests in the Horn of Africa, a turbulent region threatened by Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism supported by Sudan and terrorism thriving in the anarchy of Somalia. Ethiopia has one of the largest and most professional armed forces in Africa. Ethiopia's internal stability and its role as a salient regional and international leader remain critical for the stability of the Horn as a whole. The long-term goal of transforming the Ethiopian military into a professional, apolitical modern force remains important. Following cessation of the border conflict and signing of the December 2000 peace agreement in Algiers by Ethiopia and Eritrea, we expect Ethiopia to resume its full partnership in the Africa Crisis Response Initiative and the East Africa Regional Security Initiative.

A UN Security Council arms embargo on Ethiopia and Eritrea expired on May 18, 2001. It is important that we reengage with Ethiopia to ensure stability in the "Horn."

IMET assistance will assist in increasing the professionalism of the Ethiopian military and in strengthening the U.S.-Ethiopian military relationship. Participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies will provide academic and practical programs in civil-military relations. These programs will be important in our future relationship with an Ethiopia where defense considerations are likely to be of great importance.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ethiopia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Gabon

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 7 $14,606 4 $10,808
IMET 4 $138,503 5 $115,000
Non-SA, Unified
Command
20 $89,000 0 $0
TOTAL 31 $242,109 9 $125,808

Gabon is a politically stable and influential regional leader. President Bongo has led mediation efforts in several neighboring conflicts and is currently leading one of two regional efforts to mediate tensions between Chad and the Central African Republic. On several occasions Gabon has served as a safe haven in times of conflict in the region and has authorized the U.S. to use its facilities as a staging area for evacuations of Americans and other Westerners. Revenues from oil production, the basis of the national economy, are declining. If social indicators remain skewed, stability and democratic progress could be undermined.

IMET in FY 2001 focused on improving the English language, the capability of Gabonese military personnel and providing training on appropriate civil-military relations. By fostering effective relations between the Gabonese and the U.S. military, and by exposing the Gabonese participants to U.S. professional military organizations, procedures and the manner in which the U.S. military functions under civilian control, Gabon's military efficiency and effectiveness will be enhanced. This in turn will support the goal of regional stability, particularly in peacekeeping operations in which the Gabonese participate. Participation in the African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) also supports democratic aims in Gabon by reinforcing the relationship between the military and its civilian leaders. In addition, creating military-to-military contacts will increase the likelihood that Gabon will remain willing to serve as a staging area for evacuation operations in the region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Gabon by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Gambia

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 6 $13,529 4 $10,808
TOTAL 6 $13,529 4 $10,808

During most of FY 2001, because the country remained in the hands of a leadership which came to power through a coup and whose legitimacy was questionable, we continued to suspend almost all forms of official military-to-military engagement, except for participation at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS).

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Gambia by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Ghana

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 13 $18,164 4 $10,808
FMF 66 $27,268 0 $0
IMET 66 $537,396 97 $537,274
Non-SA, Unified
Command
129 $157,000 0 $0
TOTAL 274 $739,828 101 $548,082

Centrally located on the West African coast, Ghana exerts a positive influence in the region through its progress in building democratic institutions and economic development. The Ghanaian Armed Forces (GAF) are noted for professionalism and have a long and commendable record in peacekeeping operations, particularly in Liberia and Sierra Leone. With its history of political and social stability and English as its official language, Ghana provides an ideal platform for a staging base for humanitarian operations (e.g. Feb-Apr 2000 flood relief for Mozambique) and regional training activities such as the African Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI).

Continued military training and cooperation under IMET, the Africa Center for Strategic Studies and ACRI reinforce the GAF's ability to contribute to peacekeeping efforts in the region and beyond, and to play a constructive role in the development of Ghana as a democratic society. Ghana continues to fulfill its pledge to UNAMSIL, sending in September 2001 an Operation Focus Relief-trained battalion to replace another Ghanaian battalion then finishing its six-month rotation in Sierra Leone. Additionally, the GAF deployed several reinforced companies to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in November 2001.

In concert with programs funded under other appropriations, IMET will guide the Ghanaian military to play a key role in the country's development through civic action and humanitarian assistance projects. IMET programs will further enhance Ghana's capabilities as an effective participant in peacekeeping operations. The USG will be investing substantially in the upgrade of the regionally-focused Kofi Annan Peacekeeping Center with $600,000 in Expanded Peacekeeping Initiative Capability funding in FY 2002, considerably enhancing regional ability to train together for peacekeeping contingencies and complimenting the ACRI focus on training trainers.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Ghana by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Guinea

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 5 $14,010 4 $10,808
FMF 30 $104,784 30 $1,904,325
IMET 80 $139,789 53 $415,452
Non-SA, Unified
Command
170 $100,000 0 $0
TOTAL 285 $358,583 87 $2,330,585

U.S. diplomatic efforts in Guinea are primarily directed towards reinforcing Guinea's ability to play a more effective role in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping efforts, including the protection of refugees. The Armed Forces play a critical role in Guinean society. Assisting the Government of Guinea to continue to reform its military institutions by engaging in closer military-to-military cooperation and by increasing appropriate military assistance serves U.S. interests in two ways.

Military assistance aimed at improving the Guinean military's professionalism, obedience to civilian leadership and ability to conduct humanitarian operations helps to strengthen the institution to maintain its proper role in a democratic society. Military assistance and cooperation aimed at improving the Guinean military's planning, organizational and basic skills will increase its ability to participate in regional conflict-resolution and peacekeeping activities that, if successful, would permit current refugee populations to be repatriated and preclude further refugee emergencies. Through JCET and IMET training in FY 2001, a more professional Guinean Army was able to respond more ably to internal instability and humanitarian crises provoked by Liberian President Charles Taylor and the irregular armed insurgents of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF).

Guinea is playing an important role in providing troops for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL). It is imperative to the peace and stability of the sub-region that Guinea remain stable. The military plays a key role in Guinea's stability. Furthermore, E-IMET training and participation at the African Center for Strategic Studies enables attendees to develop an appreciation for the role of a civilian controlled military in a democracy. It also heightens their awareness and observance of human rights and the rule of law, and encourages them to continue their support for peacekeeping operations in the sub-region.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Guinea by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Guinea-Bissau

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 3 $13,974 4 $10,808
IMET 3 $30,789 6 $105,201
TOTAL 6 $44,763 10 $116,009

Re-emerging as a democratic society following eleven months of internal conflict, Guinea-Bissau faces the challenge of reconstruction, including the need for significant demining efforts, with very limited government resources. Prior to the conflict, the military traditionally contributed positively to the country's development under the leadership of a civilian government. However, accusations of arms shipments from Guinea-Bissau to rebels in the Casamance region in neighboring Senegal fueled recent conflict in Guinea-Bissau and produced lingering tensions along the border. Budgetary constraints, a sharp increase in the size of the military during the recent armed conflict and soldier salary arrearages pose significant challenges to the country's newly-elected government. With the death of former junta leader Ansumane Mane, the civilian government has indicated it intends to return the military to its traditional non-political role.

A modest reintroduction of the IMET program has encouraged the efforts of the military leadership and the country's civilian, democratic government to trim the size of the military and to return the military to its traditionally constructive role through civic action and humanitarian projects. IMET also provides training in military justice and defense resources management. In addition, IMET training and African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) participation will reinforce military cooperation efforts between Guinea-Bissau and neighboring countries so as to reduce border tensions and enhance regional stability.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Guinea-Bissau by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Kenya

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACRI 1300 $2,470,000 206 $730,000
ACSS 2 $8,841 5 $10,808
IMET 60 $563,659 136 $551,366
Non-SA, Unified
Command
30 $50,000 0 $0
Section 506 27 $0 0 $0
TOTAL 1419 $3,092,500 347 $1,292,174

Military training assistance to Kenya is a crucial component in a broader U.S. military engagement program with the Kenyan Armed Forces. Provision of U.S. military assistance, including training, is grounded in several objectives important to our foreign policy goals in Kenya and in the region.

First, U.S. engagement with the Kenyan military is based on maintaining access to sea and air facilities that may facilitate friendly military operations. This has assumed particular importance in the context of Operation Enduring Freedom, where access to Kenyan facilities will be essential in undertaking allied operations in the Greater Horn of Africa region. In the volatile African context, such access has been critical to U.S. response to recent humanitarian and political emergencies in Congo and Somalia, and to the ongoing emergency in Sudan.

Second, U.S. assistance to the Kenyan military is intended to reinforce Kenya's willingness and ability to continue its contributions to international peacekeeping operations. U.S. military training assistance, including the ACRI exercises initiated in Kenya in October 2000, is predominantly geared toward bolstering Kenya's capacity to carry out peacekeeping operations. In addition, most other U.S. military assistance, such as excess defense articles, has application in the peacekeeping arena. Kenya's peacekeeping capabilities are a derivative function of its abilities to maintain peace and security of its own border with anarchic Somalia, from where a growing terrorist threat has emerged. Increased U.S. assistance for Kenyan border and coastal security will counter this threat, and help protect U.S. facilities in Kenya, a hub for civilian and business activities throughout eastern Africa. Joint exercises, such as Operation Edged Mallet, build confidence and capability for Kenyan peacekeeping both abroad and on its own borders.

Third, Kenya's Armed Forces remain one of the important examples of an apolitical military in Africa. The military's distance from politics is a key to maintaining Kenya's stability, particularly given the turbulence and civil unrest experienced across Kenya's borders, for example in Somalia, Ethiopia and Sudan. U.S. military training assistance reinforces the Kenyan military's understanding of its professional, apolitical role, while bolstering its capabilities to protect its sometimes-troubled borders.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Kenya by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.

Overall, the military training provided to Kenya encourages the continuation of good military-to-military relationships, as well as participation in regional peacekeeping operations. Additionally, U.S. training assistance has helped give the Kenyan military the confidence to participate in current UN peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone and East Timor, and to volunteer for the new operation now being assembled on the Ethiopia-Eritrea border. Other IMET funds target developing future leadership and building professionalism through professional military education and technical training for junior- to mid-level Kenyan military officers.

Lesotho

  FY 2001 Actual FY 2002 Planned
Type of Activity Number of
Students
Trained
Dollar
Value
Number of
Projected
Students
Dollar
Value
ACSS 2 $8,844 10 $14,478
IMET 67 $87,394 155 $102,920
TOTAL 69 $96,238 165 $117,398

Historically, Lesotho's army has been a highly politicized force, vulnerable to partisan influence by political parties. Involvement of the army in political destabilization and coups d'etat has been a problem since independence in 1966. The political/security crisis of 1998, for example, included an army mutiny and junior officer complicity in an unconstitutional attempt to overthrow the elected government. The crisis demonstrated that a significant segment of the Lesotho Defense Forces (LDF) neither understood nor accepted the subordinate role of the military in a democracy.

Lesotho's current government has therefore undertaken a comprehensive program to reform and professionalize the LDF and other security services. The U.S. has an interest in supporting this program because it advances our foreign policy goals of promoting democracy and human rights as well as humanitarian response skills.

The African Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) supports democratic governance in Lesotho by offering senior African civilian and military leaders a practical program in civil-military relations, national security strategy and defense economics. ACSS participation also helps build and maintain long-term, continuing interaction with and amongst participants, and supports additional research, seminars, conferences and other exchange activities on relevant topics in Africa, Europe and the United States.



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